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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two prostate cancer (PC) classification methods based on transcriptome profiles, a de novo method referred to as the "Prostate Cancer Classification System" (PCS) and a variation of the established PAM50 breast cancer algorithm, were recently proposed. Both studies concluded that most human PC can be assigned to one of three tumor subtypes, two categorized as luminal and one as basal, suggesting the two methods reflect consistency in underlying biology. Despite the similarity, differences and commonalities between the two classification methods have not yet been reported. METHODS: Here, we describe a comparison of the PCS and PAM50 classification systems. PCS and PAM50 signatures consisting of 37 (PCS37) and 50 genes, respectively, were used to categorize 9,947 PC patients into PCS and PAM50 classes. Enrichment of hallmark gene sets and luminal and basal marker gene expression were assessed in the same datasets. Finally, survival analysis was performed to compare PCS and PAM50 subtypes in terms of clinical outcomes. RESULTS: PCS and PAM50 subtypes show clear differential expression of PCS37 and PAM50 genes. While only three genes are shared in common between the two systems, there is some consensus between three subtype pairs (PCS1 versus Luminal B, PCS2 versus Luminal A, and PCS3 versus Basal) with respect to gene expression, cellular processes, and clinical outcomes. PCS categories displayed better separation of cellular processes and luminal and basal marker gene expression compared to PAM50. Although both PCS1 and Luminal B tumors exhibited the worst clinical outcomes, outcomes between aggressive and less aggressive subtypes were better defined in the PCS system, based on larger hazard ratios observed. CONCLUSION: The PCS and PAM50 classification systems are similar in terms of molecular profiles and clinical outcomes. However, the PCS system exhibits greater separation in multiple clinical outcomes and provides better separation of prostate luminal and basal characteristics.

2.
Cancer Res ; 81(5): 1216-1229, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402390

RESUMO

Although obesity is one of the strongest risk factors for esophageal adenocarcinoma, the molecular mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We recently identified four esophageal adenocarcinoma-specific master regulator transcription factors (MRTF) ELF3, KLF5, GATA6, and EHF. In this study, gene-set enrichment analysis of both esophageal adenocarcinoma patient samples and cell line models unbiasedly underscores fatty acid synthesis as the central pathway downstream of three MRTFs (ELF3, KLF5, GATA6). Further characterizations unexpectedly identified a transcriptional feedback loop between MRTF and fatty acid synthesis, which mutually activated each other through the nuclear receptor, PPARG. MRTFs cooperatively promoted PPARG transcription by directly regulating its promoter and a distal esophageal adenocarcinoma-specific enhancer, leading to PPARG overexpression in esophageal adenocarcinoma. PPARG was also elevated in Barrett's esophagus, a recognized precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma, implying that PPARG might play a role in the intestinal metaplasia of esophageal squamous epithelium. Upregulation of PPARG increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids, phospholipids, and sphingolipids as revealed by mass spectrometry-based lipidomics. Moreover, ChIP-seq, 4C-seq, and a high-fat diet murine model together characterized a novel, noncanonical, and cancer-specific function of PPARG in esophageal adenocarcinoma. PPARG directly regulated the ELF3 super-enhancer, subsequently activating the transcription of other MRTFs through an interconnected regulatory circuitry. Together, elucidation of this novel transcriptional feedback loop of MRTF/PPARG/fatty acid synthesis advances our understanding of the mechanistic foundation for epigenomic dysregulation and metabolic alterations in esophageal adenocarcinoma. More importantly, this work identifies a potential avenue for prevention and early intervention of esophageal adenocarcinoma by blocking this feedback loop. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings elucidate a transcriptional feedback loop linking epigenomic dysregulation and metabolic alterations in esophageal adenocarcinoma, indicating that blocking this feedback loop could be a potential therapeutic strategy in high-risk individuals.

3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037017

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of immune-oncologic mechanisms of racial disparities in prostate cancer remains understudied. Limited research exists to evaluate the molecular underpinnings of immune differences in African American men (AAM) and European American men (EAM) prostate tumor microenvironment (TME). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 1,173 radiation-naïve radical prostatectomy samples with whole transcriptome data from the Decipher GRID registry were used. Transcriptomic expressions of 1,260 immune-specific genes were selected to assess immune-oncologic differences between AAM and EAM prostate tumors. Race-specific differential expression of genes was assessed using a rank test, and intergene correlational matrix and gene set enrichment was used for pathway analysis. RESULTS: AAM prostate tumors have significant enrichment of major immune-oncologic pathways, including proinflammatory cytokines, IFNα, IFNγ, TNFα signaling, ILs, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. AAM TME has higher total immune content score (ICSHIGH) compared with 0 (37.8% vs. 21.9%, P = 0.003). AAM tumors also have lower DNA damage repair and are genomically radiosensitive as compared with EAM. IFITM3 (IFN-inducible transmembrane protein 3) was one of the major proinflammatory genes overexpressed in AAM that predicted increased risk of biochemical recurrence selectively for AAM in both discovery [HRAAM = 2.30; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-4.34; P = 0.01] and validation (HRAAM = 2.42; 95% CI, 1.52-3.86; P = 0.0001) but not in EAM. CONCLUSIONS: Prostate tumors of AAM manifest a unique immune repertoire and have significant enrichment of proinflammatory immune pathways that are associated with poorer outcomes. Observed immune-oncologic differences can aid in a genomically adaptive approach to treating prostate cancer in AAM.

4.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 9(1): 1764192, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944167

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed particles that play an important role in cancer progression and have emerged as a promising source of circulating biomarkers. Protein S-acylation, frequently called palmitoylation, has been proposed as a post-translational mechanism that modulates the dynamics of EV biogenesis and protein cargo sorting. However, technical challenges have limited large-scale profiling of the whole palmitoyl-proteins of EVs. We successfully employed a novel approach that combines low-background acyl-biotinyl exchange (LB-ABE) with label-free proteomics to analyse the palmitoyl-proteome of large EVs (L-EVs) and small EVs (S-EVs) from prostate cancer cells. Here we report the first palmitoyl-protein signature of EVs, and demonstrate that L- and S-EVs harbour proteins associated with distinct biological processes and subcellular origin. We identified STEAP1, STEAP2, and ABCC4 as prostate cancer-specific palmitoyl-proteins abundant in both EV populations. Importantly, localization of the above proteins in EVs was reduced upon inhibition of palmitoylation in the producing cells. Our results suggest that this post-translational modification may play a role in the sorting of the EV-bound secretome and possibly enable selective detection of disease biomarkers.

5.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986127

RESUMO

Ablation of protein acyltransferase DHHC3 selectively enhanced the anti-cancer cell activities of several chemotherapeutic agents, but not kinase inhibitors. To understand why this occurs, we used comparative mass spectrometry-based palmitoyl-proteomic analysis of breast and prostate cancer cell lines, ± DHHC3 ablation, to obtain the first comprehensive lists of candidate protein substrates palmitoylated by DHHC3. Putative substrates included 22-28 antioxidant/redox-regulatory proteins, thus predicting that DHHC3 should have antioxidant functions. Consistent with this, DHHC3 ablation elevated oxidative stress. Furthermore, DHHC3 ablation, together with chemotherapeutic drug treatment, (a) elevated oxidative stress, with a greater than additive effect, and (b) enhanced the anti-growth effects of the chemotherapeutic agents. These results suggest that DHHC3 ablation enhances chemotherapeutic drug potency by disabling the antioxidant protections that contribute to drug resistance. Affirming this concept, DHHC3 ablation synergized with another anti-cancer drug, PARP inhibitor PJ-34, to decrease cell proliferation and increase oxidative stress. Hence, DHHC3 targeting can be a useful strategy for selectively enhancing potency of oxidative stress-inducing anti-cancer drugs. Also, comprehensive identification of DHHC3 substrates provides insight into other DHHC3 functions, relevant to in vivo tumor growth modulation.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 398, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic prostate cancer (PC) is highly lethal. The ability to identify primary tumors capable of dissemination is an unmet need in the quest to understand lethal biology and improve patient outcomes. Previous studies have linked chromosomal instability (CIN), which generates aneuploidy following chromosomal missegregation during mitosis, to PC progression. Evidence of CIN includes broad copy number alterations (CNAs) spanning > 300 base pairs of DNA, which may also be measured via RNA expression signatures associated with CNA frequency. Signatures of CIN in metastatic PC, however, have not been interrogated or well defined. We examined a published 70-gene CIN signature (CIN70) in untreated and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cohorts from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and previously published reports. We also performed transcriptome and CNA analysis in a unique cohort of untreated primary tumors collected from diagnostic prostate needle biopsies (PNBX) of localized (M0) and metastatic (M1) cases to determine if CIN was linked to clinical stage and outcome. METHODS: PNBX were collected from 99 patients treated in the VA Greater Los Angeles (GLA-VA) Healthcare System between 2000 and 2016. Total RNA was extracted from high-grade cancer areas in PNBX cores, followed by RNA sequencing and/or copy number analysis using OncoScan. Multivariate logistic regression analyses permitted calculation of odds ratios for CIN status (high versus low) in an expanded GLA-VA PNBX cohort (n = 121). RESULTS: The CIN70 signature was significantly enriched in primary tumors and CRPC metastases from M1 PC cases. An intersection of gene signatures comprised of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) generated through comparison of M1 versus M0 PNBX and primary CRPC tumors versus metastases revealed a 157-gene "metastasis" signature that was further distilled to 7-genes (PC-CIN) regulating centrosomes, chromosomal segregation, and mitotic spindle assembly. High PC-CIN scores correlated with CRPC, PC-death and all-cause mortality in the expanded GLA-VA PNBX cohort. Interestingly, approximately 1/3 of M1 PNBX cases exhibited low CIN, illuminating differential pathways of lethal PC progression. CONCLUSIONS: Measuring CIN in PNBX by transcriptome profiling is feasible, and the PC-CIN signature may identify patients with a high risk of lethal progression at the time of diagnosis.

7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 694, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373127

RESUMO

A significant body of work implicates the adaptive immune response in atherosclerosis, the main underlying cause of coronary artery disease (CAD), yet specific antigens involved remain to be fully identified. The pathobiology of CAD is influenced by sex with many factors that may be involved in the underlying mechanisms. Given the reported sexual dimorphic nature of immune-inflammatory responses, we investigated the influence of sex on potential CAD self-antigens from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients using immune-precipitation of soluble HLA Class-I/peptide complexes and mass spectrometry. Relevance of identified self-antigens to atherosclerosis, the major underlying cause of CAD, was tested in the apoE-/- atherosclerotic mouse model. Soluble HLA Class-I complexes from ACS patients and self-reported controls were immune-precipitated and subjected to elution, denaturation and size-exclusion to obtain HLA-bound peptides. Peptides were then subjected to mass spectrometry and patient-unique self-peptides were grouped as common to both female and male, or unique to either sex. Three peptides common to both female and male patients (COL6A1, CDSN, and SAA2), and 2 peptides each unique to female (COL1A1 and COL5A2) or male (SAA1 and KRT 9) patients were selected and mouse homologs of the peptides were screened for self-reactive immune responses in apoE-/- mice. The screening step revealed potential sex-influenced immune responses which was associated with differential immune profiles. Based on the frequency in patient plasma, COL6A1, COL5A2, and KRT 9 peptides were then tested in immunization studies. Neither COL5A2 nor KRT 9 peptide immunization resulted in significant effects on atherosclerosis compared to controls. On the other hand, female mice immunized with COL6A1 peptide had significantly reduced atherosclerosis whereas male mice had significantly increased atherosclerosis, associated with differential immune profiles. Our study identified potential self-antigens involved in atherosclerosis using the immune peptidome of CAD patients. Altering self-reactive immune responses to COL6A1 in apoE-/- mice resulted in differential effects on atherosclerosis burden with sex as a determinant of outcome.

8.
Mol Cancer Res ; 18(5): 671-684, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019810

RESUMO

We recently reported that restoring the CYP27A1-27hydroxycholesterol axis had antitumor properties. Thus, we sought to determine the mechanism by which 27HC exerts its anti-prostate cancer effects. As cholesterol is a major component of membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts, which localize receptors and facilitate cellular signaling, we hypothesized 27HC would impair lipid rafts, using the IL6-JAK-STAT3 axis as a model given its prominent role in prostate cancer. As revealed by single molecule imaging of DU145 prostate cancer cells, 27HC treatment significantly reduced detected cholesterol density on the plasma membranes. Further, 27HC treatment of constitutively active STAT3 DU145 prostate cancer cells reduced STAT3 activation and slowed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. 27HC also blocked IL6-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation in nonconstitutively active STAT3 cells. Mechanistically, 27HC reduced STAT3 homodimerization, nuclear translocation, and decreased STAT3 DNA occupancy at target gene promoters. Combined treatment with 27HC and STAT3 targeting molecules had additive and synergistic effects on proliferation and migration, respectively. Hallmark IL6-JAK-STAT gene signatures positively correlated with CYP27A1 gene expression in a large set of human metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancers and in an aggressive prostate cancer subtype. This suggests STAT3 activation may be a resistance mechanism for aggressive prostate cancers that retain CYP27A1 expression. In summary, our study establishes a key mechanism by which 27HC inhibits prostate cancer by disrupting lipid rafts and blocking STAT3 activation. IMPLICATIONS: Collectively, these data show that modulation of intracellular cholesterol by 27HC can inhibit IL6-JAK-STAT signaling and may synergize with STAT3-targeted compounds.

9.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 9(1): 1689784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839905

RESUMO

Tumour cells release diverse populations of extracellular vesicles (EVs) ranging in size, molecular cargo, and function. We sought to characterize mRNA and protein content of EV subpopulations released by human glioblastoma (GBM) cells expressing a mutant form of epidermal growth factor receptor (U87EGFRvIII) in vitro and in vivo with respect to size, morphology and the presence of tumour cargo. The two EV subpopulations purified from GBM U87EGFRvIII cancer cells, non-cancer human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC; control) and serum of U87EGFRvIII glioma-bearing mice using differential centrifugation (EVs that sediment at 10,000 × g or 100,000 × g are termed large EVs and small EVs, respectively) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confocal microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), flow cytometry, immunofluorescence (IF), quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and micro-nuclear magnetic resonance (µNMR). We report that both U87EGFRvIII and HUVEC release a similar number of small EVs, but U87EGFRvIII glioma cells alone release a higher number of large EVs compared to non-cancer HUVEC. The EGFRvIII mRNA from the two EV subpopulations from U87EGFRvIII glioma cells was comparable, while the EGFR protein (wild type + vIII) levels are significantly higher in large EVs. Similarly, EGFRvIII mRNA in large and small EVs isolated from the serum of U87EGFRvIII glioma-bearing mice is comparable, while the EGFR protein (wild type + vIII) levels are significantly higher in large EVs. Here we report for the first time a direct comparison of large and small EVs released by glioma U87EGFRvIII cells and from serum of U87EGFRvIII glioma-bearing mice. Both large and small EVs contain tumour-specific EGFRvIII mRNA and proteins and combining these platforms may be beneficial in detecting rare mutant events in circulating biofluids.

10.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 23(3): 419-428, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Decipher 22-gene genomic classifier (GC) may help in post-radical prostatectomy (RP) decision making given its superior prognostic performance over clinicopathologic variables alone. However, most studies evaluating the GC have had a modest representation of African-American men (AAM). We evaluated the GC within a large Veteran Affairs cohort and compared its performance to CAPRA-S for predicting outcomes in AAM and non-AAM after RP. METHODS: GC scores were generated for 548 prostate cancer (PC) patients, who underwent RP at the Durham Veteran Affairs Medical Center between 1989 and 2016. This was a clinically high-risk cohort and was selected to have either pT3a, positive margins, seminal vesicle invasion, or received post-RP radiotherapy. Multivariable Cox models and survival C-indices were used to compare the performance of GC and CAPRA-S for predicting the risk of metastasis and PC-specific mortality (PCSM). RESULTS: Median follow-up was 9 years, during which 37 developed metastasis and 20 died from PC. Overall, 55% (n = 301) of patients were AAM. In multivariable analyses, GC (high vs. intermediate and intermediate vs. low) was a significant predictor of metastasis in all men (all p < 0.001). Consistent with prior studies, relative to CAPRA-S, GC had a higher C-index for 5-year metastasis (0.78 vs. 0.72) and 10-year PCSM (0.85 vs. 0.81). There was a suggestion GC was a stronger predictor in AAM than non-AAM. Specifically, the 5-year metastasis risk C-index was 0.86 in AAM vs. 0.69 in non-AAM and the 10-year PCSM risk C-index was 0.91 in AAM vs. 0.78 in non-AAM. However, the test for interaction of race and the performance of the GC in the Cox model was not significant for either metastasis or PCSM (both p ≥ 0.3). CONCLUSIONS: GC was a very strong predictor of poor outcome and performed well in both AAM and non-AAM. Our data support the use of GC for risk stratification in AAM post-RP. While our data suggest that GC may actually work better in AAM, given the limited number of events, further validation is needed.

11.
Theranostics ; 9(10): 2812-2826, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244925

RESUMO

Rationale: Our objective was to develop a circulating tumor cell (CTC)-RNA assay for characterizing clinically relevant RNA signatures for the assessment of androgen receptor signaling inhibitor (ARSI) sensitivity in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. Methods: We developed the NanoVelcro CTC-RNA assay by combining the Thermoresponsive (TR)-NanoVelcro CTC purification system with the NanoString nCounter platform for cellular purification and RNA analysis. Based on the well-validated, tissue-based Prostate Cancer Classification System (PCS), we focus on the most aggressive and ARSI-resistant PCS subtype, i.e., PCS1, for CTC analysis. We applied a rigorous bioinformatic process to develop the CTC-PCS1 panel that consists of prostate cancer (PCa) CTC-specific RNA signature with minimal expression in background white blood cells (WBCs). We validated the NanoVelcro CTC-RNA assay and the CTC-PCS1 panel with well-characterized PCa cell lines to demonstrate the sensitivity and dynamic range of the assay, as well as the specificity of the PCS1 Z score (the likelihood estimate of the PCS1 subtype) for identifying PCS1 subtype and ARSI resistance. We then selected 31 blood samples from 23 PCa patients receiving ARSIs to test in our assay. The PCS1 Z scores of each sample were computed and compared with ARSI treatment sensitivity. Results: The validation studies using PCa cell line samples showed that the NanoVelcro CTC-RNA assay can detect the RNA transcripts in the CTC-PCS1 panel with high sensitivity and linearity in the dynamic range of 5-100 cells. We also showed that the genes in CTC-PCS1 panel are highly expressed in PCa cell lines and lowly expressed in background WBCs. Using the artificial CTC samples simulating the blood sample conditions, we further demonstrated that the CTC-PCS1 panel is highly specific in identifying PCS1-like samples, and the high PCS1 Z score is associated with ARSI resistance samples. In patient bloods, ARSI-resistant samples (ARSI-R, n=14) had significantly higher PCS1 Z scores as compared with ARSI-sensitive samples (ARSI-S, n=17) (Rank-sum test, P=0.003). In the analysis of 8 patients who were initially sensitive to ARSI (ARSI-S) and later developed resistance (ARSI-R), we found that the PCS1 Z score increased from the time of ARSI-S to the time of ARSI-R (Pairwise T-test, P=0.016). Conclusions: Using our new methodology, we developed a first-in-class CTC-RNA assay and demonstrated the feasibility of transforming clinically-relevant tissue-based RNA profiling such as PCS into CTC tests. This approach allows for detecting RNA expression relevant to clinical drug resistance in a non-invasive fashion, which can facilitate patient-specific treatment selection and early detection of drug resistance, a goal in precision oncology.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , RNA/análise , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma , Biologia Computacional , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , RNA/genética
12.
Anal Chem ; 91(15): 9858-9866, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251020

RESUMO

Protein S-acylation (also called palmitoylation) is a common post-translational modification whose deregulation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Acyl-biotinyl exchange (ABE), a widely used method for the enrichment of S-acylated proteins, has the potential of capturing the entire S-acylproteome in any type of biological sample. Here, we showed that current ABE methods suffer from a high background arising from the coisolation of non-S-acylated proteins. The background can be substantially reduced by an additional blockage of residual free cysteine residues with 2,2'-dithiodipyridine prior to the biotin-HPDP reaction. Coupling the low-background ABE (LB-ABE) method with label-free proteomics, 2 895 high-confidence candidate S-acylated proteins (including 1 591 known S-acylated proteins) were identified from human prostate cancer LNCaP cells, representing so-far the largest S-acylproteome data set identified in a single study. Immunoblotting analysis confirmed the S-acylation of five known and five novel prostate cancer-related S-acylated proteins in LNCaP cells and suggested that their S-acylation levels were about 0.6-1.8%. In summary, the LB-ABE method largely eliminates the coisolation of non-S-acylated proteins and enables deep S-acylproteomic analysis. It is expected to facilitate a much more comprehensive and accurate quantification of S-acylproteomes than previous ABE methods.


Assuntos
Proteoma/isolamento & purificação , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Acilação , Biotinilação , Tampões (Química) , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisteína/química , Humanos , Proteoma/química , Purinas/química
13.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0210306, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022216

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent data suggest the urinary tract hosts a microbial community of varying composition, even in the absence of infection. Culture-independent methodologies, such as next-generation sequencing of conserved ribosomal DNA sequences, provide an expansive look at these communities, identifying both common commensals and fastidious organisms. A fundamental challenge has been the isolation of DNA representative of the entire resident microbial community, including fungi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated multiple modifications of commonly-used DNA extraction procedures using standardized male and female urine samples, comparing resulting overall, fungal and bacterial DNA yields by quantitative PCR. After identifying protocol modifications that increased DNA yields (lyticase/lysozyme digestion, bead beating, boil/freeze cycles, proteinase K treatment, and carrier DNA use), all modifications were combined for systematic confirmation of optimal protocol conditions. This optimized protocol was tested against commercially available methodologies to compare overall and microbial DNA yields, community representation and diversity by next-generation sequencing (NGS). RESULTS: Overall and fungal-specific DNA yields from standardized urine samples demonstrated that microbial abundances differed significantly among the eight methods used. Methodologies that included multiple disruption steps, including enzymatic, mechanical, and thermal disruption and proteinase digestion, particularly in combination with small volume processing and pooling steps, provided more comprehensive representation of the range of bacterial and fungal species. Concentration of larger volume urine specimens at low speed centrifugation proved highly effective, increasing resulting DNA levels and providing greater microbial representation and diversity. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations in the methodology of urine storage, preparation, and DNA processing improve microbial community profiling using culture-independent sequencing methods. Our optimized protocol for DNA extraction from urine samples provided improved fungal community representation. Use of this technique resulted in equivalent representation of the bacterial populations as well, making this a useful technique for the concurrent evaluation of bacterial and fungal populations by NGS.


Assuntos
DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/genética , Micobioma , Coleta de Urina/métodos , Urina/microbiologia , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Fúngico/urina , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Clin Proteomics ; 16: 15, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011308

RESUMO

Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed non-skin cancer and a leading cause of mortality among males in developed countries. However, our understanding of the global changes of protein complexes within PCa tissue specimens remains very limited, although it has been well recognized that protein complexes carry out essentially all major processes in living organisms and that their deregulation drives the pathogenesis and progression of various diseases. Methods: By coupling tandem mass tagging-synchronous precursor selection-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry with differential expression and co-regulation analyses, the present study compared the differences between protein complexes in normal prostate, low-grade PCa, and high-grade PCa tissue specimens. Results: Globally, a large downregulated putative protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was detected in both low-grade and high-grade PCa, yet a large upregulated putative PPI network was only detected in high-grade but not low-grade PCa, compared with normal controls. To identify specific protein complexes that are deregulated in PCa, quantified proteins were mapped to protein complexes in CORUM (v3.0), a high-quality collection of 4274 experimentally verified mammalian protein complexes. Differential expression and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analyses suggested that 13 integrin complexes involved in cell adhesion were significantly downregulated in both low- and high-grade PCa compared with normal prostate, and that four Prothymosin alpha (ProTα) complexes were significantly upregulated in high-grade PCa compared with normal prostate. Moreover, differential co-regulation and GO enrichment analyses indicated that the assembly levels of six protein complexes involved in RNA splicing were significantly increased in low-grade PCa, and those of four subcomplexes of mitochondrial complex I were significantly increased in high-grade PCa, compared with normal prostate. Conclusions: In summary, to the best of our knowledge, the study represents the first large-scale and quantitative, albeit indirect, comparison of individual protein complexes in human PCa tissue specimens. It may serve as a useful resource for better understanding the deregulation of protein complexes in primary PCa.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0213025, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is an important risk factor in atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of coronary artery disease (CAD). Unresolved inflammation may result in maladaptive immune responses and lead to immune reactivity to self-antigens. We hypothesized that inflammation in CAD patients would manifest in immune reactivity to self-antigens detectable in soluble HLA-I/peptide complexes in the plasma. METHODS: Soluble HLA-I/peptide complexes were immuno-precipitated from plasma of male acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients or age-matched controls and eluted peptides were subjected to mass spectrometry to generate the immunopeptidome. Self-peptides were ranked according to frequency and signal intensity, then mouse homologs of selected peptides were used to test immunologic recall in spleens of male apoE-/- mice fed either normal chow or high fat diet. The peptide detected with highest frequency in patient plasma samples and provoked T cell responses in mouse studies was selected for use as a self-antigen to stimulate CAD patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). RESULTS: The immunopeptidome profile identified self-peptides unique to the CAD patients. The mouse homologs tested showed immune responses in apoE-/- mice. Keratin 8 was selected for further study in patient PBMCs which elicited T Effector cell responses in CAD patients compared to controls, associated with reduced PD-1 mRNA expression. CONCLUSION: An immunopeptidomic strategy to search for self-antigens potentially involved in CAD identified Keratin 8. Self-reactive immune response to Keratin 8 may be an important factor in the inflammatory response in CAD.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/química , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/imunologia , Queratina-8/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/análise , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
16.
Lab Chip ; 19(2): 343-357, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566156

RESUMO

Cell deformability is a label-free biomarker of cell state in physiological and disease contexts ranging from stem cell differentiation to cancer progression. Harnessing deformability as a phenotype for screening applications requires a method that can simultaneously measure the deformability of hundreds of cell samples and can interface with existing high throughput facilities. Here we present a scalable cell filtration device, which relies on the pressure-driven deformation of cells through a series of pillars that are separated by micron-scale gaps on the timescale of seconds: less deformable cells occlude the gaps more readily than more deformable cells, resulting in decreased filtrate volume which is measured using a plate reader. The key innovation in this method is that we design customized arrays of individual filtration devices in a standard 96-well format using soft lithography, which enables multiwell input samples and filtrate outputs to be processed with higher throughput using automated pipette arrays and plate readers. To validate high throughput filtration to detect changes in cell deformability, we show the differential filtration of human ovarian cancer cells that have acquired cisplatin-resistance, which is corroborated with cell stiffness measurements using quantitative deformability cytometry. We also demonstrate differences in the filtration of human cancer cell lines, including ovarian cancer cells that overexpress transcription factors (Snail, Slug), which are implicated in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; breast cancer cells (malignant versus benign); and prostate cancer cells (highly versus weekly metastatic). We additionally show how the filtration of ovarian cancer cells is affected by treatment with drugs known to perturb the cytoskeleton and the nucleus. Our results across multiple cancer cell types with both genetic and pharmacologic manipulations demonstrate the potential of this scalable filtration device to screen cells based on their deformability.


Assuntos
Separação Celular/instrumentação , Forma Celular/fisiologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Análise de Célula Única/instrumentação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Separação Celular/métodos , Humanos
17.
Nat Med ; 24(12): 1887-1898, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478421

RESUMO

Treatment of prostate cancer (PC) by androgen suppression promotes the emergence of aggressive variants that are androgen receptor (AR) independent. Here we identify the transcription factor ONECUT2 (OC2) as a master regulator of AR networks in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). OC2 acts as a survival factor in mCRPC models, suppresses the AR transcriptional program by direct regulation of AR target genes and the AR licensing factor FOXA1, and activates genes associated with neural differentiation and progression to lethal disease. OC2 appears active in a substantial subset of human prostate adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. Inhibition of OC2 by a newly identified small molecule suppresses metastasis in mice. These findings suggest that OC2 displaces AR-dependent growth and survival mechanisms in many cases where AR remains expressed, but where its activity is bypassed. OC2 is also a potential drug target in the metastatic phase of aggressive PC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Androgênios/genética , Androgênios/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 10(10)2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with locally advanced or recurrent prostate cancer typically undergo androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), but the benefits are often short-lived and the responses variable. ADT failure results in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which inevitably leads to metastasis. We hypothesized that differences in tumor transcriptional programs may reflect differential responses to ADT and subsequent metastasis. RESULTS: We performed whole transcriptome analysis of 20 patient-matched Pre-ADT biopsies and 20 Post-ADT prostatectomy specimens, and identified two subgroups of patients (high impact and low impact groups) that exhibited distinct transcriptional changes in response to ADT. We found that all patients lost the AR-dependent subtype (PCS2) transcriptional signatures. The high impact group maintained the more aggressive subtype (PCS1) signal, while the low impact group more resembled an AR-suppressed (PCS3) subtype. Computational analyses identified transcription factor coordinated groups (TFCGs) enriched in the high impact group network. Leveraging a large public dataset of over 800 metastatic and primary samples, we identified 33 TFCGs in common between the high impact group and metastatic lesions, including SOX4/FOXA2/GATA4, and a TFCG containing JUN, JUNB, JUND, FOS, FOSB, and FOSL1. The majority of metastatic TFCGs were subsets of larger TFCGs in the high impact group network, suggesting a refinement of critical TFCGs in prostate cancer progression. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified TFCGs associated with pronounced initial transcriptional response to ADT, aggressive signatures, and metastasis. Our findings suggest multiple new hypotheses that could lead to novel combination therapies to prevent the development of CRPC following ADT.

20.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 7(1): 1505403, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108686

RESUMO

Cancer-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed structures of highly variable size. EVs contain a myriad of substances (proteins, lipid, RNA, DNA) that provide a reservoir of circulating molecules, thus offering a good source of biomarkers. We demonstrate here that large EVs (L-EV) (large oncosomes) isolated from prostate cancer (PCa) cells and patient plasma are an EV population that is enriched in chromosomal DNA, including large fragments up to 2 million base pair long. While L-EVs and small EVs (S-EV) (exosomes) isolated from the same cells contained similar amounts of protein, the DNA was more abundant in L-EV, despite S-EVs being more numerous. Consistent with in vitro observations, the abundance of DNA in L-EV obtained from PCa patient plasma was variable but frequently high. Conversely, negligible amounts of DNA were present in the S-EVs from the same patients. Controlled experimental conditions, with spike-ins of L-EVs and S-EVs from cancer cells in human plasma from healthy subjects, showed that circulating DNA is almost exclusively enclosed in L-EVs. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the DNA in L-EVs reflects genetic aberrations of the cell of origin, including copy number variations of genes frequently altered in metastatic PCa (i.e. MYC, AKT1, PTK2, KLF10 and PTEN). These results demonstrate that L-EV-derived DNA reflects the genomic make-up of the tumour of origin. They also support the conclusion that L-EVs are the fraction of plasma EVs with DNA content that should be interrogated for tumour-derived genomic alterations.

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