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1.
Biochemistry ; 52(45): 7951-63, 2013 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24171435

RESUMO

The primary (100 fs to 10 ns) and secondary (10 ns to 100 µs) photodynamics in the type II light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain from the blue light YtvA photoreceptor extracted from Bacillus subtilis were explored with transient absorption spectroscopy. The photodynamics of full-length YtvA were characterized after femtosecond 400 nm excitation of both the dark-adapted D447 state and the light-adapted S390 state. The S390 state relaxes on a 43 min time scale at room temperature back into D447, which is weakly accelerated by the introduction of imidazole. This is ascribed to an obstructed cavity in YtvA that hinders access to the embedded FMN chromophore and is more open in type I LOV domains. The primary photochemistry of dark-adapted YtvA is qualitatively similar to that of the type I LOV domains, including AsLOV2 from Avena sativa, but exhibits an appreciably higher (60% greater) terminal triplet yield, estimated near the maximal ΦISC value of ≈78%; the other 22% decays via non-triplet-generating fluorescence. The subsequent secondary dynamics are inhomogeneous, with three triplet populations co-evolving: the faster-decaying (I)T* population (38% occupancy) with a 200 ns decay time is nonproductive in generating the S390 adduct state, a slower (II)T* population (57% occupancy) exhibits a high yield (Φadduct ≈ 100%) in generating S390 and a third (5%) (III)T*population persists (>100 µs) with unresolved photoactivity. The ultrafast photoswitching dynamics of the S390 state appreciably differ from those previously resolved for the type I AcLOV2 domain from Adiantum capillus-veneris [Kennis, J. T., et al. (2004) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 4512], with a low-yield dissociation (Φdis ≈ 2.5%) reaction, which is due to an ultrafast recombination reaction, following photodissociation, and is absent in AcLOV2, which results in the increased photoswitching activity of the latter domain.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Fotoquímica/métodos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 4(16): 2605-2609, 2013 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24143267

RESUMO

The ultrafast mechanisms underlying the initial photoisomerization (Pr → Lumi-R) in the forward reaction of the cyanobacterial photoreceptor Cph1 were explored with multipulse pump-dump-probe transient spectroscopy. A recently postulated multi-population model was used to fit the transient pump-dump-probe and dump-induced depletion signals. We observed dump-induced depletion of the Lumi-R photoproduct, demonstrating that photoisomerization occurs via evolution on both the excited- and ground-state electronic surfaces. Excited-state equilibrium was not observed, as shown via the absence of a dump-induced excited-state "Le Châtelier redistribution" of excited-state populations. The importance of incorporating the inhomogeneous dynamics of Cph1 in interpreting measured transient data is discussed.

3.
J Phys Chem B ; 116(35): 10571-81, 2012 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22721495

RESUMO

Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are diverse biliprotein photosensors distantly related to the red/far-red photoreceptors of the phytochrome family. There are several subfamilies of CBCRs, displaying varied spectral responses spanning the entire visible region. Tlr0924 belongs to the DXCF subfamily that utilizes the Cys residue in a conserved Asp-Xaa-Cys-Phe (DXCF) motif to form a second covalent linkage to the chromophore, resulting in a blue-absorbing dark state. Photoconversion leads to elimination of this linkage, resulting in a green-absorbing photoproduct. Tlr0924 initially incorporates phycocyanobilin (PCB) as a chromophore, exhibiting a blue/orange photocycle, but slowly isomerizes PCB to phycoviolobilin (PVB) to yield a blue/green photocycle. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy was used to study both forward and reverse reaction photodynamics of the recombinant GAF domain of Tlr0924. Primary photoproducts were identified, as were subsequent intermediates at 1 ms. PCB and PVB population photodynamics were decomposed using global target analysis. PCB and PVB populations exhibit similar and parallel photocycles in Tlr0924, but the PVB population exhibits faster excited-state decay in both reaction directions. On the basis of longer time analysis, we show that the photochemical coordinate (15,16-isomerization) and second-linkage coordinate (elimination or bond formation at C10) are separate processes in both directions.


Assuntos
Fotorreceptores Microbianos/química , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Isomerismo , Cinética , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/genética , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/metabolismo , Ficobilinas/química , Ficocianina/química , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
4.
Biochemistry ; 51(2): 608-18, 2012 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22148715

RESUMO

Phytochromes are well-known red/far-red photosensory proteins that utilize the photoisomerization of a linear tetrapyrrole (bilin) chromophore to detect the ratio of red to far-red light. Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are related photosensory proteins with a bilin-binding GAF domain, but much more diverse spectral sensitivity, with five recognized subfamilies of CBCRs described to date. The mechanisms that underlie this spectral diversity have not yet been fully elucidated. One of the main CBCR subfamilies photoconverts between a red-absorbing ground state, like the familiar P(r) state of phytochromes, and a green-absorbing photoproduct (P(g)). Here, we examine the ultrafast forward photodynamics of the red/green CBCR NpR6012g4 from the NpR6012 locus of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme. Using transient absorption spectroscopy with broadband detection and multicomponent global analysis, we observed multiphasic excited-state dynamics that induces the forward reaction (red-absorbing to green-absorbing), which we interpret as arising from ground-state heterogeneity. Excited-state decays with lifetimes of 55 and 345 ps generate the primary photoproduct (Lumi-R), and the fastest decay (5 ps) did not produce Lumi-R. Although the photoinduced kinetics of Npr6012g4 is comparable with that of the Cph1 phytochrome isolated from Synechocystis cyanobacteria, NpR6012g4 exhibits a ≥2-3-fold higher photochemical quantum yield. Understanding the structural basis of this enhanced quantum yield may prove to be useful in increasing the photochemical efficiency of other bilin-based photosensors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Nostoc/metabolismo , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/química , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/metabolismo , Cor , Cinética , Fitocromo/química , Fitocromo/metabolismo
5.
Biochemistry ; 51(2): 619-30, 2012 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22148731

RESUMO

Phytochromes are red/far-red photosensory proteins that utilize photoisomerization of a linear tetrapyrrole (bilin) chromophore to photoconvert reversibly between red- and far-red-absorbing forms (P(r) and P(fr), respectively). Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are related photosensory proteins with more diverse spectral sensitivity. The mechanisms that underlie this spectral diversity have not yet been fully elucidated. One of the main CBCR subfamilies photoconverts between a red-absorbing 15Z ground state, like the familiar P(r) state of phytochromes, and a green-absorbing photoproduct ((15E)P(g)). We have previously used the red/green CBCR NpR6012g4 from the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme to examine ultrafast photodynamics of the forward photoreaction. Here, we examine the reverse reaction. Using excitation-interleaved transient absorption spectroscopy with broadband detection and multicomponent global analysis, we observed multiphasic excited-state dynamics. Interleaved excitation allowed us to identify wavelength-dependent shifts in the ground-state bleach that equilibrated on a 200 ps time scale, indicating ground-state heterogeneity. Compared to the previously studied forward reaction, the reverse reaction has much faster excited-state decay time constants and significantly higher photoproduct yield. This work thus demonstrates striking differences between the forward and reverse reactions of NpR6012g4 and provides clear evidence of ground-state heterogeneity in the phytochrome superfamily.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Nostoc/metabolismo , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/química , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/metabolismo , Cor , Cinética , Fitocromo/química , Fitocromo/metabolismo
6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(1): 130-3, 2012 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22107125

RESUMO

The primary ultrafast Z-to-E isomerization photodynamics of the phytochrome-related cyanobacteriochrome NpR6012g4 from Nostoc punctiforme was studied by transient absorption pump-dump-probe spectroscopy. A 2 ps dump pulse resonant with the stimulated emission band depleted 21% of the excited-state population, while the initial photoproduct Lumi-R was depleted by only 11%. We observed a red-shifted ground-state intermediate (GSI) that we assign to a metastable state that failed to isomerize fully. Multicomponent global analysis implicates the generation of additional Lumi-R from the GSI via crossing over the ground-state thermal barrier for full isomerization, explaining the discrepancy between excited-state and Lumi-R depletion by the dump pulse. This second-chance ground-state dynamics provides a plausible explanation for the unusually high quantum yield of 40% for the primary isomerization step in the forward reaction of NpR6012g4.


Assuntos
Nostoc , Processos Fotoquímicos , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Isomerismo , Cinética
7.
J Phys Chem B ; 115(15): 4474-83, 2011 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21438556

RESUMO

The aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) enzyme utilizes the chromophoric pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) cofactor to facilitate the transamination of amino acids. Recently, we demonstrated that, upon exposure to blue light, PLP forms a reactive triplet state that rapidly (in microseconds) generates the high-energy quinonoid intermediate when bound to PLP-dependent enzymes [J. Am. Chem. Soc.2010, 132 (47), 16953-16961]. This increases the net catalytic activity (k(cat)) of AAT, since formation of the quinonoid is partially rate limiting via the thermally activated enzymatic pathway. The magnitude of observed photoenhancement initially scales linearly with pump fluence; however when a critical threshold is exceeded, the photoactivity saturates and is even suppressed at greater excitation fluences. The photodynamic mechanisms associated with this suppression behavior are characterized with the use of ultrafast multipulse pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe transient absorption techniques in combination with complementary two-color, steady-state excitation assays. Via multistate kinetic modeling of the transient ultrafast data and the steady-state assay data, the nonmonotonic incident power dependence of the photoactivty in AAT is decomposed into contributions from high-intensity dumping of the excited singlet state and repumping of the excited triplet state with induces the repopulation of the ground state via rapid intersystem crossing in the higher-lying triplet electronic manifold.


Assuntos
Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Cinética , Fotoquímica , Fótons , Fosfato de Piridoxal/metabolismo
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