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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(10): 1111-1124, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays were mainly developed for large central laboratory platforms. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the clinical performance of a point-of-care (POC)-hs-cTnI assay in patients with suspected myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: This study enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of MI. Two cardiologists centrally adjudicated the final diagnosis using all clinical data including cardiac imaging. The primary objective was to directly compare diagnostic accuracy of POC-hs-cTnI-TriageTrue versus best-validated central laboratory assays. Secondary objectives included the derivation and validation of a POC-hs-cTnI-TriageTrue-specific 0/1-h algorithm. RESULTS: MI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 178 of 1,261 patients (14%). The area under the curve (AUC) for POC-hs-cTnI-TriageTrue at presentation was 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93 to 0.96) and was at least comparable to hs-cTnT-Elecsys (AUC: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.93 to 0.96; p = 0.213) and hs-cTnI-Architect (AUC: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.90 to 0.93; p < 0.001). A single cutoff concentration <3 ng/l at presentation identified 45% of patients at low risk with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% (95% CI: 99.4% to 100%). A single cutoff concentration >60 ng/l identified patients at high risk with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 76.8% (95% CI: 68.9% to 83.6%). The 0/1-h algorithm ruled out 55% of patients (NPV: 100%; 95% CI: 98.8% to 100%), and ruled in 18% of patients (PPV: 76.8%; 95% CI: 67.2% to 84.7%). Ruled-out patients had cumulative event rates of 0% at 30 days and 1.6% at 2 years. This study confirmed these findings in a secondary analysis including hs-cTnI-Architect for central adjudication. CONCLUSIONS: The POC-hs-cTnI-TriageTrue assay provides high diagnostic accuracy in patients with suspected MI with a clinical performance that is at least comparable to that of best-validated central laboratory assays. (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation Study [APACE]; NCT00470587).

2.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of obesity on the incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction/injury (PMI) and mortality following non-cardiac surgery is not well understood. METHODS: We performed a prospective diagnostic study enrolling consecutive patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, who were considered at increased cardiovascular risk. All patients were screened for PMI, defined as an absolute increase from preoperative to postoperative sensitive/high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentrations. The body mass index (BMI) was classified according to the WHO classification (underweight< 18 kg/m2, normal weight 18-24.9 kg/m2, overweight 25-29.9 kg/m2, obesity class I 30-34.9 kg/m2, obesity class II 35-39.9 kg/m2, obesity class III > 40 kg/m2). The incidence of PMI and all-cause mortality at 365 days, both stratified according to BMI. RESULTS: We enrolled 4277 patients who had undergone 5413 surgeries. The median BMI was 26 kg/m2 (interquartile range 23-30 kg/m2). Incidence of PMI showed a non-linear relationship with BMI and ranged from 12% (95% CI 9-14%) in obesity class I to 19% (95% CI 17-42%) in the underweight group. This was confirmed in multivariable analysis with obesity class I. showing the lowest risk (adjusted OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.49-0.83) for developing PMI. Mortality at 365 days was lower in all obesity groups compared to patients with normal body weight (e.g., unadjusted OR 0.54 (95% CI 0.39-0.73) and adjusted OR 0.52 (95% CI 0.38-0.71) in obesity class I). CONCLUSION: Obesity class I was associated with a lower incidence of PMI, and obesity in general was associated with a lower all-cause mortality at 365 days.

3.
Clin Chem ; 65(11): 1437-1447, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to derive and externally validate a 0/2-h algorithm using the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI)-Access assay. METHODS: We enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 2 prospective diagnostic studies using central adjudication. Two independent cardiologists adjudicated the final diagnosis, including all available medical information including cardiac imaging. hs-cTnI-Access concentrations were measured at presentation and after 2 h in a blinded fashion. RESULTS: AMI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 164 of 1131 (14.5%) patients in the derivation cohort. Rule-out by the hs-cTnI-Access 0/2-h algorithm was defined as 0-h hs-cTnI-Access concentration <4 ng/L in patients with an onset of chest pain >3 h (direct rule-out) or a 0-h hs-cTnI-Access concentration <5 ng/L and an absolute change within 2 h <5 ng/L in all other patients. Derived thresholds for rule-in were a 0-h hs-cTnI-Access concentration ≥50 ng/L (direct rule-in) or an absolute change within 2 h ≥20 ng/L. In the derivation cohort, these cutoffs ruled out 55% of patients with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.8% (95% CI, 99.3-100) and sensitivity of 99.4% (95% CI, 96.5-99.9), and ruled in 30% of patients with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 73% (95% CI, 66.1-79). In the validation cohort, AMI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 88 of 1280 (6.9%) patients. These cutoffs ruled out 77.9% of patients with an NPV of 99.8% (95% CI, 99.3-100) and sensitivity of 97.7% (95% CI, 92.0-99.7), and ruled in 5.8% of patients with a PPV of 77% (95% CI, 65.8-86) in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Safety and efficacy of the l hs-cTnI-Access 0/2-h algorithm for triage toward rule-out or rule-in of AMI are very high. TRIAL REGISTRATION: APACE, NCT00470587; ADAPT, ACTRN1261100106994; IMPACT, ACTRN12611000206921.

4.
Clin Chem ; 65(2): 302-312, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early diagnosis of urgent abdominal pain (UAP) is challenging. Most causes of UAP are associated with extensive inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that quantifying inflammation using interleukin-6 and/or procalcitonin would provide incremental value in the emergency diagnosis of UAP. METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated prospective, multicenter diagnostic study enrolling patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute abdominal pain. Clinical judgment of the treating physician regarding the presence of UAP was quantified using a visual analog scale after initial clinical and physician-directed laboratory assessment, and again after imaging. Two independent specialists adjudicated the final diagnosis and the classification as UAP (life-threatening, needing urgent surgery and/or hospitalization for acute medical reasons) using all information including histology and follow-up. Interleukin-6 and procalcitonin were measured blinded in a central laboratory. RESULTS: UAP was adjudicated in 376 of 1038 (36%) patients. Diagnostic accuracy for UAP was higher for interleukin-6 [area under the ROC curve (AUC), 0.80; 95% CI, 0.77-0.82] vs procalcitonin (AUC, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.62-0.68) and clinical judgment (AUC, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.65-0.72; both P < 0.001). Combined assessment of interleukin-6 and clinical judgment increased the AUC at presentation to 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80-0.85) and after imaging to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.84-0.89) and improved the correct identification of patients with and without UAP (net improvement in mean predicted probability: presentation, +19%; after imaging, +15%; P < 0.001). Decision curve analysis documented incremental value across the full range of pretest probabilities. A clinical judgment/interleukin-6 algorithm ruled out UAP with a sensitivity of 97% and ruled in UAP with a specificity of 93%. CONCLUSIONS: Interleukin-6 significantly improves the early diagnosis of UAP in the ED.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Int J Cardiol ; 269: 114-121, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various scores have been derived for the assessment of syncope patients in the emergency department (ED) but stay inconsistently validated. We aim to compare their performance to the one of a common, easy-to-use CHADS2 score. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients ≥ 40 years old presenting with syncope to the ED in a multicenter study. Early clinical judgment (ECJ) of the treating ED-physician regarding the probability of cardiac syncope was quantified. Two independent physicians adjudicated the final diagnosis after 1-year follow-up. Major cardiovascular events (MACE) and death were recorded during 2 years of follow-up. Nine scores were compared by their area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC) for death, MACE or the diagnosis of cardiac syncope. RESULTS: 1490 patients were available for score validation. The CHADS2-score presented a higher or equally high accuracy for death in the long- and short-term follow-up than other syncope-specific risk scores. This score also performed well for the prediction of MACE in the long- and short-term evaluation and stratified patients with accuracy comparative to OESIL, one of the best performing syncope-specific risk score. All scores performed poorly for diagnosing cardiac syncope when compared to the ECJ. CONCLUSIONS: The CHADS2-score performed comparably to more complicated syncope-specific risk scores in the prediction of death and MACE in ED syncope patients. While better tools incorporating biochemical and electrocardiographic markers are needed, this study suggests that the CHADS2-score is currently a good option to stratify risk in syncope patients in the ED. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01548352.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/normas , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Síncope/diagnóstico , Síncope/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Circulation ; 138(10): 989-999, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining 2 signals of cardiomyocyte injury, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), might overcome some individual pathophysiological and analytical limitations and thereby increase diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction with a single blood draw. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of combinations of high-sensitivity (hs) cTnI and hs-cTnT for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: The diagnostic performance of combining hs-cTnI (Architect, Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Elecsys, Roche) concentrations (sum, product, ratio, and a combination algorithm) obtained at the time of presentation was evaluated in a large multicenter diagnostic study of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The optimal rule-out and rule-in thresholds were externally validated in a second large multicenter diagnostic study. The proportion of patients eligible for early rule-out was compared with the European Society of Cardiology 0/1 and 0/3 hour algorithms. RESULTS: Combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations did not consistently increase overall diagnostic accuracy as compared with the individual isoforms. However, the combination improved the proportion of patients meeting criteria for very early rule-out. With the European Society of Cardiology 2015 guideline recommended algorithms and cut-offs, the proportion meeting rule-out criteria after the baseline blood sampling was limited (6% to 24%) and assay dependent. Application of optimized cut-off values using the sum (9 ng/L) and product (18 ng2/L2) of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations led to an increase in the proportion ruled-out after a single blood draw to 34% to 41% in the original (sum: negative predictive value [NPV] 100% [95% confidence interval (CI), 99.5% to 100%]; product: NPV 100% [95% CI, 99.5% to 100%]) and in the validation cohort (sum: NPV 99.6% [95% CI, 99.0-99.9%]; product: NPV 99.4% [95% CI, 98.8-99.8%]). The use of a combination algorithm (hs-cTnI <4 ng/L and hs-cTnT <9 ng/L) showed comparable results for rule-out (40% to 43% ruled out; NPV original cohort 99.9% [95% CI, 99.2-100%]; NPV validation cohort 99.5% [95% CI, 98.9-99.8%]) and rule-in (positive predictive value [PPV] original cohort 74.4% [95% Cl, 69.6-78.8%]; PPV validation cohort 84.0% [95% Cl, 79.7-87.6%]). CONCLUSIONS: New strategies combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations may significantly increase the number of patients eligible for very early and safe rule-out, but do not seem helpful for the rule-in of acute myocardial infarction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL (APACE): https://www.clinicaltrial.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00470587. URL (ADAPT): www.anzctr.org.au . Unique identifier: ACTRN12611001069943.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Austrália , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Nova Zelândia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
7.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 23(4): e12538, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cardiac electrical biomarker (CEB) is a novel electrocardiographic (ECG) marker quantifying the dipolar activity of the heart with higher levels indicating myocardial injury. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 1097 patients presenting with suspected non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) to the emergency department (ED). Digital 12-lead ECGs were recorded at presentation and the CEB values were calculated in a blinded fashion. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. The prognostic endpoint was all-cause mortality during 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: NSTEMI was the final diagnosis in 14% of patients. CEB levels were higher in patients with NSTEMI compared to other causes of chest pain (median 44 (IQR 21-98) vs. 30 (IQR 16-61), p < .001). A weak but significant correlation between levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) at admission to the ED and the CEB was found (r = .23, p < .001). The use of the CEB in addition to conventional ECG criteria improved the diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of NSTEMI as quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve from 0.66 to 0.71 (p < .001) and the sensitivity improved from 43% to 79% (p < .001). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the CEB, an ECG marker of myocardial injury, significantly improves the accuracy and sensitivity of the ECG for the diagnosis of NSTEMI.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Int J Cardiol ; 243: 354-359, 2017 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28566262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV) have a compromised late outcome caused by ventricular dysfunction. Standard medical heart failure therapy has not been shown to improve RV function and survival in these patients. Phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibition increases contractility in experimental models of RV hypertrophy, but not in the normal RV. In clinical practice, the effects of PDE-5 inhibition on systemic RV function and exercise capacity in adults with a systemic RV have not been tested. METHODS: The SERVE protocol is a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled multicenter superiority trial to study the effect of PDE-5 inhibition with Tadalafil on RV volumes and function in patients with either D-transposition of the great arteries repaired with an atrial switch procedure or with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries. Tadalafil 20mg or placebo will be given over a study period of 3years. The primary endpoint is the change in mean end-systolic RV volumes from baseline to study end at 3years of follow-up (or at the time of permanent discontinuation of the randomized treatment if stopped before 3- years of follow-up), and will be measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) or by cardiac computed tomography in patients with contraindications for CMR. Secondary endpoints are changes in RV ejection fraction, VO2max and NT-proBNP. CONCLUSION: The objective of this study is to assess the effect of PDE-5 inhibition with Tadalafil on RV size and function, exercise capacity and neurohumoral activation in adults with a systemic RV over a 3-year follow-up period.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Tadalafila/uso terapêutico , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/tratamento farmacológico , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/farmacologia , Tadalafila/farmacologia , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Direita/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Clin Chem ; 63(7): 1227-1236, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28515106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared 2 high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn)-based 2-h strategies in patients presenting with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to the emergency department (ED): the 2-h accelerated diagnostic protocol (2h-ADP) combining hs-cTn, electrocardiogram, and a risk score, and the 2-h algorithm exclusively based on hs-cTn concentrations and their absolute changes. METHODS: Analyses were performed in 2 independent diagnostic cohorts [European Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndrome Evaluation (APACE) study, Australian-New Zealand 2-h Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol to Assess patients with chest Pain symptoms using contemporary Troponins as the only biomarker (ADAPT) study] employing hs-cTnT (Elecsys) and hs-cTnI (Architect). The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. RESULTS: AMI was the final diagnosis in 16.5% (95% CI, 14.6%-18.6%) of the 1372 patients in APACE, and 12.6% (95% CI, 10.7%-14.7%) of 1153 patients in ADAPT. The negative predictive value (NPV) and sensitivity for AMI were very high and comparable with both strategies using either hs-cTnT or hs-cTnI in both cohorts (all statistical comparisons nonsignificant). The percentage of patients triaged toward rule-out was significantly lower with the 2h-ADP (36%-43%) vs the 2-h algorithm (55%-68%) with both assays and in both cohorts (P < 0.001). The sensitivity of the 2h-ADP was higher for 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events. CONCLUSIONS: Both algorithms provided very high and comparable safety as quantified by the NPV and sensitivity for AMI and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 30 days in patients triaged toward rule-out, although sensitivity for MACE at 30 days was lower with both algorithms in cohort 2. Although the 2-h algorithm was more efficacious, not all patients ruled out for AMI by this algorithm were appropriate candidates for early discharge. The 2h-ADP seems superior in the selection of patients for early discharge from the ED. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: APACE: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00470587ADAPT: Australia-New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001069943.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular/normas , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue
10.
Int J Cardiol ; 238: 166-172, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28320607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise ECG stress testing is the most widely available method for evaluation of patients with suspected myocardial ischemia. Its major limitation is the relatively poor accuracy of ST-segment changes regarding ischemia detection. Little is known about the optimal method to assess ST-deviations. METHODS: A total of 1558 consecutive patients undergoing bicycle exercise stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) were enrolled. Presence of inducible myocardial ischemia was adjudicated using MPI results. The diagnostic value of ST-deviations for detection of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was systematically analyzed 1) for each individual lead, 2) at three different intervals after the J-point (J+40ms, J+60ms, J+80ms), and 3) at different time points during the test (baseline, maximal workload, 2min into recovery). RESULTS: Exercise-induced ischemia was detected in 481 (31%) patients. The diagnostic accuracy of ST-deviations was highest at +80ms after the J-point, and at 2min into recovery. At this point, ST-amplitude showed an AUC of 0.63 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) for the best-performing lead I. The combination of ST-amplitude and ST-slope in lead I did not increase the AUC. Lead I reached a sensitivity of 37% and a specificity of 83%, with similar sensitivity to manual ECG analysis (34%, p=0.31) but lower specificity (90%, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: When using ECG stress testing for evaluation of patients with suspected myocardial ischemia, the diagnostic accuracy of ST-deviations is highest when evaluated at +80ms after the J-point, and at 2min into recovery.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Eletrocardiografia/instrumentação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Am Heart J ; 181: 16-25, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27823689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early and accurate diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an important medical and economic challenge. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the performance of the new European Society of Cardiology rapid 0-hour/3-hour (0 h/3 h) rule out protocol for AMI. METHODS: We enrolled 2,727 consecutive patients presenting with suspected AMI without persistent ST-segment elevation to the emergency department in a prospective international multicenter study. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. The performance of the 0 h/3 h rule out protocol was evaluated using 4 high-sensitivity (primary analysis) and 3 sensitive cardiac troponin (cTn) assays. RESULTS: Acute myocardial infarction was the final diagnosis in 473 patients (17.3%). Using the 4 high-sensitivity cTn assays, the 0-hour rule out protocol correctly ruled out 99.8% (95% [confidence interval] CI, 98.7%-100%), 99.6% (95% CI, 98.5%-99.9%), 100% (95% CI, 97.9%-100%), and 100% (95% CI, 98.0%-100%) of late presenters (>6 h from chest pain onset). The 3-hour rule out protocol correctly ruled out 99.9% (95% CI, 99.1%-100%), 99.5% (95% CI, 98.3%-99.9%), 100% (95% CI, 98.1%-100%), and 100% (95% CI, 98.2%-100%) of early presenters (<6 h from chest pain onset). Using the 3 sensitive cTn assays, the 0-hour rule out protocol correctly ruled out 99.6% (95% CI, 98.6%-99.9%), 99.0% (95% CI, 96.9%-99.7%), and 99.1% (95% CI, 97.2%-99.8%) of late presenters; and the 3-hour rule out protocol correctly ruled out 99.4% (95% CI, 98.3%-99.8%), 99.2% (95% CI, 97.3%-99.8%), and 99.0% (95% CI, 97.2%-99.7%) of early presenters. Overall, the 0 h/3 h rule out protocol assigned 40% to 60% of patients to rule out. None of the patients assigned rule out died during 3-months follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The 0 h/3 h rule out protocol seems to allow the accurate rule out of AMI using both high-sensitivity and sensitive cTn measurements in conjunction with clinical assessment. Additional studies are warranted for external validation.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dor no Peito/sangue , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Am Heart J ; 173: 8-17, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26920591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A pilot study using a novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay suggested that cTnI might be released into blood during exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. We investigated the potential clinical value of this signal. METHODS: We included 819 patients with suspected exercise-induced myocardial ischemia referred for rest/bicycle myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography. The treating cardiologist used all available clinical information to quantify clinical judgment regarding the presence of myocardial ischemia using a visual analog scale twice: prior and after stress testing. High-sensitivity cTnI measurements were obtained before, immediately after peak stress, and 2 hours after stress testing in a blinded manner. Myocardial ischemia was adjudicated using perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography and coronary angiography findings. RESULTS: Exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was detected in 278 (34%) patients. High-sensitivity cTnI levels were significantly higher at all time points in patients with myocardial ischemia as compared with those without (P < .001 for all). Combining clinical judgment prior exercise testing with baseline hs-cTnI levels increased diagnostic accuracy as quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) from 0.672 to 0.757 (P < .001). Combining clinical judgment after exercise testing (AUC 0.704) with baseline or poststress hs-cTnI levels also increased the diagnostic accuracy (AUC 0.761-0.771, P < .001 for all). In contrast, exercise-induced changes in hs-cTnI during exercise did not seem useful, as they were small and similar in patients with or without myocardial ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: High-sensitivity cTnI concentrations at rest and after exercise, but not its exercise-induced changes, provide substantial incremental value to clinical judgment including exercise electrocardiography regarding the presence of myocardial ischemia.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/efeitos adversos , Exercício , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Projetos Piloto , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
13.
Am Heart J ; 171(1): 92-102.e1-5, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26699605

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: We aimed to prospectively derive and validate a novel 0-/1-hour algorithm using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) for the early "rule-out" and "rule-in" of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: In a prospective multicenter diagnostic study, we enrolled 1,500 patients presenting with suspected AMI to the emergency department. The final diagnosis was centrally adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists blinded to hs-cTnI concentrations. The hs-cTnI (Siemens Vista) 0-/1-hour algorithm incorporated measurements performed at baseline and absolute changes within 1 hour, was derived in the first 750 patients (derivation cohort), and then validated in the second 750 (validation cohort). RESULTS: Overall, AMI was the final diagnosis in 16% of patients. Applying the hs-cTnI 0-/1-hour algorithm developed in the derivation cohort to the validation cohort, 57% of patients could be classified as "rule-out"; 10%, as "rule-in"; and 33%, as "observe." In the validation cohort, the sensitivity and the negative predictive value for AMI in the "rule-out" zone were 100% (95% CI 96%-100%) and 100% (95% CI 99%-100%), respectively. The specificity and the positive predictive value (PPV) for AMI in the "rule-in" zone were 96% (95% CI 94%-97%) and 70% (95% CI 60%-79%), respectively. Negative predictive value and positive predictive value of the 0-/1-hour algorithm were higher compared to the standard of care combining hs-cTnI with the electrocardiogram (both P < .001). CONCLUSION: The hs-cTnI 0-/1-hour algorithm performs very well for early rule-out as well as rule-in of AMI. The clinical implications are that used in conjunction with all other clinical information, the 0-/1-hour algorithm will be a safe and effective approach to substantially reduce time to diagnosis.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Eletrocardiografia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 45(11): 1175-83, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26331403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent pilot study suggested that exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia may lead to a delayed release of cardiac biomarkers, so that later sampling, for example, at 4 h after exercise could be used for diagnostic purpose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an observational study, we enrolled 129 consecutive patients referred for evaluation of a suspected coronary artery disease by rest/stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography. The treating cardiologist used all available clinical information to quantify clinical judgment regarding the presence of myocardial ischaemia using a visual analogue scale twice: prior and after stress testing. BNP levels were determined in a blinded fashion at rest, at peak stress and 4 h after peak stress. The presence of myocardial ischaemia was adjudicated based on perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography and coronary angiography findings by an independent cardiologist. RESULTS: Myocardial ischaemia was detected in 58 patients (45%). Patients with myocardial ischaemia had significantly higher BNP levels at all times, compared to patients without ischaemia: BNP rest (99 vs. 61 pg/mL P = 0·007), BNP stress (125 vs. 77 pg/mL P = 0·02) and BNP 4 h (114 vs. 71 pg/mL P = 0·018). Diagnostic accuracy as quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was moderate for all time points (AUC 0·64-0·66). The change in BNP between rest and 4 h did not provide added value, neither to the baseline BNP level nor to clinical judgment. CONCLUSION: In contrast to our hypothesis, myocardial ischaemia did not lead to a differential delayed release of BNP. Late sampling did not seem clinically useful.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Tomografia Computadorizada por Emissão de Fóton Único de Sincronização Cardíaca , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio , Curva ROC , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 195: 163-70, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26043151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is currently unknown, whether and to what extent sensitive cardiac troponin (s-cTn) allows shortening of the time required for safe rule-out and rule-in of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: We aimed to develop and validate early rule-out and rule-in algorithms for AMI using a thoroughly-examined and commonly used s-cTnI assay in a prospective multicenter study including 2173 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected AMI. S-cTnI was measured in a blinded fashion at 0 h, 1 h, and 2 h. The final diagnosis was centrally adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. In the derivation cohort (n = 1496), we developed 1h- and 2h-algorithms assigning patients to "rule-out", "rule-in", or "observe". The algorithms were then prospectively validated in the validation cohort (n = 677). RESULTS: AMI was the adjudicated diagnosis in 17% of patients. After applying the s-cTnI 1h-algorithm developed in the derivation cohort to the validation cohort, 65% of patients were classified as "rule-out", 12% as "rule-in", and 23% to "observe". The negative predictive value for AMI in the "rule-out" group was 98.6% (95% CI, 96.9-99.5), the positive predictive value for AMI in the "rule-in" group 76.3% (95% CI, 65.4-85.1). Overall, 30-day mortality was 0.2% in the "rule-out" group, 1.0% in the "observe" group, and 3.0% in the "rule-in" group. Similar results were obtained for the 2h-algorithm. CONCLUSION: When used in conjunction with other clinical information including the ECG, a simple algorithm incorporating s-cTnI values at presentation and after 1h (or 2h) will allow safe rule-out and accurate rule-in of AMI in the majority of patients.


Assuntos
Tempo para o Tratamento , Troponina I , Idoso , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tempo para o Tratamento/normas , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Troponina I/análise , Troponina I/sangue
16.
Circulation ; 131(23): 2032-40, 2015 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25948541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Misdiagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may significantly harm patients and may result from inappropriate clinical decision values (CDVs) for cardiac troponin (cTn) owing to limitations in the current regulatory process. METHODS AND RESULTS: In an international, prospective, multicenter study, we quantified the incidence of inconsistencies in the diagnosis of AMI using fully characterized and clinically available high-sensitivity (hs) cTn assays (hs-cTnI, Abbott; hs-cTnT, Roche) among 2300 consecutive patients with suspected AMI. We hypothesized that the approved CDVs for the 2 assays are not biologically equivalent and might therefore contribute to inconsistencies in the diagnosis of AMI. Findings were validated by use of sex-specific CDVs and parallel measurements of other hs-cTnI assays. AMI was the adjudicated diagnosis in 473 patients (21%). Among these, 86 patients (18.2%) had inconsistent diagnoses when the approved uniform CDV was used. When sex-specific CDVs were used, 14.1% of female and 22.7% of male AMI patients had inconsistent diagnoses. Using biologically equivalent CDV reduced inconsistencies to 10% (P<0.001). These findings were confirmed with parallel measurements of other hs-cTn assays. The incidence of inconsistencies was only 7.0% for assays with CDVs that were nearly biologically equivalent. Patients with inconsistent AMI had long-term mortality comparable to that of patients with consistent diagnoses (P=NS) and a trend toward higher long-term mortality than patients diagnosed with unstable angina (P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Currently approved CDVs are not biologically equivalent and contribute to major inconsistencies in the diagnosis of AMI. One of 5 AMI patients will receive a diagnosis other than AMI if managed with the alternative hs-cTn assay. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00470587.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Cooperação Internacional , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Circulation ; 131(23): 2041-50, 2015 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25948542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether more sensitive cardiac troponin (cTn) assays maintain their clinical utility in patients with renal dysfunction. Moreover, their optimal cutoff levels in this vulnerable patient population have not previously been defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this multicenter study, we examined the clinical utility of 7 more sensitive cTn assays (3 sensitive and 4 high-sensitivity cTn assays) in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction. Among 2813 unselected patients, 447 (16%) had renal dysfunction (defined as Modification of Diet in Renal Disease-estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2)). The final diagnosis was centrally adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists using all available information, including coronary angiography and serial levels of high-sensitivity cTnT. Acute myocardial infarction was the final diagnosis in 36% of all patients with renal dysfunction. Among patients with renal dysfunction and elevated baseline cTn levels (≥99th percentile), acute myocardial infarction was the most common diagnosis for all assays (range, 45%-80%). In patients with renal dysfunction, diagnostic accuracy at presentation, quantified by the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve, was 0.87 to 0.89 with no significant differences between the 7 more sensitive cTn assays and further increased to 0.91 to 0.95 at 3 hours. Overall, the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve in patients with renal dysfunction was only slightly lower than in patients with normal renal function. The optimal receiver-operator characteristic curve-derived cTn cutoff levels in patients with renal dysfunction were significantly higher compared with those in patients with normal renal function (factor, 1.9-3.4). CONCLUSIONS: More sensitive cTn assays maintain high diagnostic accuracy in patients with renal dysfunction. To ensure the best possible clinical use, assay-specific optimal cutoff levels, which are higher in patients with renal dysfunction, should be considered. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00470587.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Rim/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
CMAJ ; 187(8): E243-E252, 2015 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25869867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to prospectively validate a novel 1-hour algorithm using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T measurement for early rule-out and rule-in of acute myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: In a multicentre study, we enrolled 1320 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute MI. The high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T 1-hour algorithm, incorporating baseline values as well as absolute changes within the first hour, was validated against the final diagnosis. The final diagnosis was then adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists using all available information, including coronary angiography, echocardiography, follow-up data and serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels. RESULTS: Acute MI was the final diagnosis in 17.3% of patients. With application of the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T 1-hour algorithm, 786 (59.5%) patients were classified as "rule-out," 216 (16.4%) were classified as "rule-in" and 318 (24.1%) were classified to the "observational zone." The sensitivity and the negative predictive value for acute MI in the rule-out zone were 99.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 97.6%-99.9%) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.3%-100%), respectively. The specificity and the positive predictive value for acute MI in the rule-in zone were 95.7% (95% CI 94.3%-96.8%) and 78.2% (95% CI 72.1%-83.6%), respectively. The 1-hour algorithm provided higher negative and positive predictive values than the standard interpretation of highsensitivity cardiac troponin T using a single cut-off level (both p < 0.05). Cumulative 30-day mortality was 0.0%, 1.6% and 1.9% in patients classified in the rule-out, observational and rule-in groups, respectively (p = 0.001). INTERPRETATION: This rapid strategy incorporating high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T baseline values and absolute changes within the first hour substantially accelerated the management of suspected acute MI by allowing safe rule-out as well as accurate rule-in of acute MI in 3 out of 4 patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00470587.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Am J Med ; 128(6): 638-46, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25644323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the value of a novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I measurement to rule out exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in patients without known coronary artery disease. METHODS: We included 714 patients without previously known coronary artery disease who were referred for rest/stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission tomography. All clinical information available to the treating cardiologist was used to quantify the clinical judgment regarding the presence of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia using a visual analogue scale twice: once before and once after bicycle exercise stress testing. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I measurements were obtained before stress testing in a blinded manner. The presence of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was adjudicated on the basis of myocardial perfusion single photon emission tomography combined with coronary angiography findings. RESULTS: Exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was detected in 167 participants (23.4%). High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I levels were significantly higher in patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia (4.0 ng/L [95% confidence interval, 2.8-8.6] vs 2.6 ng/L [95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.1], P < .001) and remained an independent predictor of ischemia in multivariable analysis (P < .001). Combining clinical judgment before exercise testing with high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I levels increased diagnostic accuracy as quantified by the area under the receiver operating curve from 0.64 to 0.73 (P < .001), which also tended to be superior to clinical judgment after exercise testing (0.69, P = .056). A single resting high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I measurement provided similar diagnostic accuracy as integrated clinical judgment after exercise testing including work load, as well as symptoms and electrocardiogram changes (0.70 vs 0.69, P = not significant). CONCLUSIONS: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I measurements seem to complement noninvasive clinical assessment in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Exercício , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Análise de Regressão
20.
Eur Heart J ; 35(34): 2303-11, 2014 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24842285

RESUMO

AIM: It is unknown whether cardiac troponin (cTn) I or cTnT is the preferred biomarker in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation (NSTEMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective multicentre study, we measured cTnI and cTnT using clinically available high-sensitivity assays (hs-cTnI Abbott and hs-cTnT Roche) and compared their diagnostic and prognostic accuracies in consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists using all information pertaining to the individual patient. The mean follow-up was 24 months. Among 2226 consecutive patients, 18% had an adjudicated final diagnosis of NSTEMI. Diagnostic accuracy at presentation as quantified by the area under the receiver-operating-characteristics curve (AUC) for NSTEMI was very high and similar for hs-cTnI [AUC: 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.94] and hs-cTnT (0.94, 95% CI: 0.92-0.94) P = 0.62. In early presenters (<3 h since chest pain onset) hs-cTnI showed a higher diagnostic accuracy (AUC: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.94) when compared with hs-cTnT AUC (0.89, 95% CI: 0.86-0.91) (P = 0.019), while hs-cTnT was superior in late presenters [AUC hs-cTnT 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94-0.96)  vs. hs-cTnI 0.94 (95% CI: 0.93-0.95); P = 0.007]. The prognostic accuracy for all-cause mortality, quantified by AUC, was significantly higher for hs-cTnT (AUC: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.78-0.82) when compared with hs-cTnI (AUC: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.73-0.77; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Both hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT provided high diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. The direct comparison revealed small but potentially important differences that might help to further improve the clinical use of hs-cTn.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/metabolismo , Troponina T/metabolismo , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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