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1.
BMJ ; 372: n311, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation was associated with decreased risk of death among patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in the United States. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide cohort of patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs, a large integrated national healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: All 4297 patients admitted to hospital from 1 March to 31 July 2020 with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and without a history of anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was 30 day mortality. Secondary outcomes were inpatient mortality, initiating therapeutic anticoagulation (a proxy for clinical deterioration, including thromboembolic events), and bleeding that required transfusion. RESULTS: Of 4297 patients admitted to hospital with covid-19, 3627 (84.4%) received prophylactic anticoagulation within 24 hours of admission. More than 99% (n=3600) of treated patients received subcutaneous heparin or enoxaparin. 622 deaths occurred within 30 days of hospital admission, 513 among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation. Most deaths (510/622, 82%) occurred during hospital stay. Using inverse probability of treatment weighted analyses, the cumulative incidence of mortality at 30 days was 14.3% (95% confidence interval 13.1% to 15.5%) among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation and 18.7% (15.1% to 22.9%) among those who did not. Compared with patients who did not receive prophylactic anticoagulation, those who did had a 27% decreased risk for 30 day mortality (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.81). Similar associations were found for inpatient mortality and initiation of therapeutic anticoagulation. Receipt of prophylactic anticoagulation was not associated with increased risk of bleeding that required transfusion (hazard ratio 0.87, 0.71 to 1.05). Quantitative bias analysis showed that results were robust to unmeasured confounding (e-value lower 95% confidence interval 1.77 for 30 day mortality). Results persisted in several sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation among patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 was associated with a decreased risk of 30 day mortality and no increased risk of serious bleeding events. These findings provide strong real world evidence to support guidelines recommending the use of prophylactic anticoagulation as initial treatment for patients with covid-19 on hospital admission.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Tromboembolia/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246073, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insomnia may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in HIV (HIV-CVD); however, mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. METHODS: We examined cross-sectional associations of insomnia symptoms with biological mechanisms of HIV-CVD (immune activation, systemic inflammation, and coagulation) among 1,542 people with HIV from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Biomarker Cohort. Past-month insomnia symptoms were assessed by the item, "Difficulty falling or staying asleep?," with the following response options: "I do not have this symptom" or "I have this symptom and…" "it doesn't bother me," "it bothers me a little," "it bothers me," "it bothers me a lot." Circulating levels of the monocyte activation marker soluble CD14 (sCD14), inflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6), and coagulation marker D-dimer were determined from blood specimens. Demographic- and fully-adjusted (CVD risk factors, potential confounders, HIV-related factors) regression models were constructed, with log-transformed biomarker variables as the outcomes. We present the exponentiated regression coefficient (exp[b]) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: We observed no significant associations between insomnia symptoms and sCD14 or IL-6. For D-dimer, veterans in the "Bothers a Lot" group had, on average, 17% higher D-dimer than veterans in the "No Difficulty Falling or Staying Asleep" group in the demographic-adjusted model (exp[b] = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.01-1.37, p = .04). This association was nonsignificant in the fully-adjusted model (exp[b] = 1.09, 95%CI = 0.94-1.26, p = .27). CONCLUSION: We observed little evidence of relationships between insomnia symptoms and markers of biological mechanisms of HIV-CVD. Other mechanisms may be responsible for the insomnia-CVD relationship in HIV; however, future studies with comprehensive assessments of insomnia symptoms are warranted.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2034461, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464320

RESUMO

Importance: Smoking is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but the relative contribution to each subtype (coronary artery disease [CAD], peripheral artery disease [PAD], and large-artery stroke) remains less well understood. Objective: To determine the association between genetic liability to smoking and risk of CAD, PAD, and large-artery stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: Mendelian randomization study using summary statistics from genome-wide associations of smoking (UK Biobank; up to 462 690 individuals), CAD (Coronary Artery Disease Genome Wide Replication and Meta-analysis plus the Coronary Artery Disease Genetics Consortium; up to 60 801 cases, 123 504 controls), PAD (VA Million Veteran Program; up to 24 009 cases, 150 983 controls), and large-artery stroke (MEGASTROKE; up to 4373 cases, 406 111 controls). This study was conducted using summary statistic data from large, previously described cohorts. Review of those publications does not reveal the total recruitment dates for those cohorts. Data analyses were conducted from August 2019 to June 2020. Exposures: Genetic liability to smoking (as proxied by genetic variants associated with lifetime smoking index). Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk (odds ratios [ORs]) of CAD, PAD, and large-artery stroke. Results: Genetic liability to smoking was associated with increased risk of PAD (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.78-2.56; P = 3.6 × 10-16), CAD (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.25-1.75; P = 4.4 × 10-6), and stroke (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02-1.92; P = .04). Genetic liability to smoking was associated with greater risk of PAD than risk of large-artery stroke (ratio of ORs, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.05-2.19; P = .02) or CAD (ratio of ORs, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.12-1.84; P = .004). The association between genetic liability to smoking and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases remained independent from the effects of smoking on traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions and Relevance: In this mendelian randomization analysis of data from large studies of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, genetic liability to smoking was a strong risk factor for CAD, PAD, and stroke, although the estimated association was strongest between smoking and PAD. The association between smoking and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fumar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/genética , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética
4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(23): e017645, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222591

RESUMO

Background Hospitalization with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in patients uninfected with HIV. We evaluated whether people living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher risk of CVD or mortality than individuals uninfected with HIV following hospitalization with CAP. Methods and Results We analyzed data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study on US veterans admitted with their first episode of CAP from April 2003 through December 2014. We used Cox regression analyses to determine whether HIV status was associated with incident CVD events and mortality from date of admission through 30 days after discharge (30-day mortality), adjusting for known CVD risk factors. We included 4384 patients (67% [n=2951] PLWH). PLWH admitted with CAP were younger, had less severe CAP, and had fewer CVD risk factors than patients with CAP who were uninfected with HIV. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, CVD risk was similar in PLWH compared with HIV-uninfected (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% CI, 0.70-1.12), but HIV infection was associated with higher mortality risk (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.16-1.90). In models stratified by HIV status, CAP severity was significantly associated with incident CVD and 30-day mortality in PLWH and patients uninfected with HIV. Conclusions In this study, the risk of CVD events during or after hospitalization for CAP was similar in PLWH and patients uninfected with HIV, after adjusting for known CVD risk factors and CAP severity. HIV infection, however, was associated with increased 30-day mortality after CAP hospitalization in multivariable-adjusted models. PLWH should be included in future studies evaluating mechanisms and prevention of CVD events after CAP.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18729, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127959

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) may increase pulmonary hypertension (PH) risk among people living with HIV (PLWH). Prior studies on this topic have been relatively small and examined selected populations. We determine whether HIV/HCV coinfection is associated with higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and prevalent echocardiographic PH. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 6032 (16% HIV/HCV coinfected) Veterans Aging Cohort Study participants enrolled 4/1/2003-9/30/2012 with echocardiographic PASP measures. We performed multiple linear and logistic regression analyses to determine whether HIV/HCV mono- or co-infection were associated with PASP and PH compared to uninfected individuals. Individuals with HIV/HCV coinfection displayed a higher PASP than uninfected individuals ([Formula: see text]=1.10, 95% CI 0.01, 2.20) but there was no association between HIV/HCV coinfection and prevalent PH. Subset analyses examined HIV and HCV disease severity markers separately and jointly. Among PLWH, HCV coinfection ([Formula: see text]=1.47, 95% CI 0.26, 2.67) and CD4 + cell count ([Formula: see text]= - 0.68, 95% CI - 1.10, - 0.27), but not HIV viral load nor ART regimen, were associated with PASP. Among people with HCV, neither HIV coinfection nor HCV biomarkers were associated with PASP. Among US veterans referred for echocardiography, HIV/HCV coinfection was not associated with a clinically significant elevation in pulmonary pressure. Lower absolute CD4 + T-cell count was inversely associated with PASP which warrants further investigation in prospective studies.

6.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003379, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that racial and ethnic minority communities around the world are experiencing a disproportionate burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We investigated racial and ethnic disparities in patterns of COVID-19 testing (i.e., who received testing and who tested positive) and subsequent mortality in the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective cohort study included 5,834,543 individuals receiving care in the US Department of Veterans Affairs; most (91%) were men, 74% were non-Hispanic White (White), 19% were non-Hispanic Black (Black), and 7% were Hispanic. We evaluated associations between race/ethnicity and receipt of COVID-19 testing, a positive test result, and 30-day mortality, with multivariable adjustment for a wide range of demographic and clinical characteristics including comorbid conditions, health behaviors, medication history, site of care, and urban versus rural residence. Between February 8 and July 22, 2020, 254,595 individuals were tested for COVID-19, of whom 16,317 tested positive and 1,057 died. Black individuals were more likely to be tested (rate per 1,000 individuals: 60.0, 95% CI 59.6-60.5) than Hispanic (52.7, 95% CI 52.1-53.4) and White individuals (38.6, 95% CI 38.4-38.7). While individuals from minority backgrounds were more likely to test positive (Black versus White: odds ratio [OR] 1.93, 95% CI 1.85-2.01, p < 0.001; Hispanic versus White: OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.74-1.94, p < 0.001), 30-day mortality did not differ by race/ethnicity (Black versus White: OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80-1.17, p = 0.74; Hispanic versus White: OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.73-1.34, p = 0.94). The disparity between Black and White individuals in testing positive for COVID-19 was stronger in the Midwest (OR 2.66, 95% CI 2.41-2.95, p < 0.001) than the West (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11-1.39, p < 0.001). The disparity in testing positive for COVID-19 between Hispanic and White individuals was consistent across region, calendar time, and outbreak pattern. Study limitations include underrepresentation of women and a lack of detailed information on social determinants of health. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide study, we found that Black and Hispanic individuals are experiencing an excess burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection not entirely explained by underlying medical conditions or where they live or receive care. There is an urgent need to proactively tailor strategies to contain and prevent further outbreaks in racial and ethnic minority communities.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(7): ofaa280, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760749

RESUMO

Background: Depression is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We hypothesized that reducing depressive symptoms would improve HIV-related cardiovascular risk. Methods: We conducted a single-center, randomized (1:1), controlled, parallel-group, assessor-blinded, pilot trial comparing Beating the Blues US (BtB)-an evidence-based, 8-session, internet cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression-with usual care (UC) in HIV-positive participants receiving virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy and with Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 scores ≥10. The primary endpoint was change in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints were FMD change at 24 weeks and inflammation, coagulation, and metabolic biomarker changes at 12 and 24 weeks. Results: Fifty-four participants were randomized (27 in each arm). Mean reductions in PHQ-9 scores were significantly greater with BtB versus UC at 12 weeks (-5.60 vs -1.52; P = .007) and 24 weeks (-6.00 vs -1.38; P = .008); reductions in the Hopkins Symptom Checklist Depression Scale-20 scores were also significantly greater with BtB versus UC at 24 weeks (-0.72 vs -0.35; P = .029). Changes in FMD between arms were not significantly different at 12 or 24 weeks. Significantly larger reductions in soluble (s)CD14 and sCD163 with BtB versus UC were found at 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. Conclusions: Compared with UC, internet cognitive-behavioral therapy using BtB resulted in greater improvements in depressive symptoms and monocyte activation markers but did not improve FMD in this pilot trial. These data support performing larger studies to determine the potential salutatory effects of behavioral therapies for depression on HIV-related inflammation.

8.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA119313847, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the third most common form of atherosclerotic vascular disease and is characterized by significant functional disability and increased cardiovascular mortality. Recent genetic data support a role for a procoagulation protein variant, the factor V Leiden mutation, in PAD. The role of other hemostatic factors in PAD remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of hemostatic factors in PAD using Mendelian randomization. Approach and Results: Two-sample Mendelian randomization to evaluate the roles of FVII (factor VII), FVIII (factor VIII), FXI (factor XI), VWF (von Willebrand factor), and fibrinogen in PAD was performed using summary statistics from GWAS for hemostatic factors performed within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in the Genome Epidemiology Consortium and from GWAS performed for PAD within the Million Veteran Program. Genetically determined FVIII and VWF, but not FVII, FXI, or fibrinogen, were associated with PAD in Mendelian randomization experiments (FVIII: odds ratio, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.23-1.62], P=6.0×10-7, VWF: odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.07-1.52], P=0.0073). In single variant sensitivity analysis, the ABO locus was the strongest genetic instrument for both FVIII and VWF. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a role for hemostasis, and by extension, thrombosis in PAD. Further study is warranted to determine whether VWF and FVIII independently affect the biology of PAD.

9.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that racial and ethnic minority communities around the world are experiencing a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality from symptomatic SARS-Cov-2 infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Most studies investigating racial and ethnic disparities to date have focused on hospitalized patients or have not characterized who received testing or those who tested positive for Covid-19. OBJECTIVE: To compare patterns of testing and test results for coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) and subsequent mortality by race and ethnicity in the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). PARTICIPANTS: 5,834,543 individuals in care, among whom 62,098 were tested and 5,630 tested positive for Covid-19 between February 8 and May 4, 2020. Exposures: Self-reported race/ethnicity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluated associations between race/ethnicity and receipt of Covid-19 testing, a positive test result, and 30-day mortality, accounting for a wide range of demographic and clinical risk factors including comorbid conditions, site of care, and urban versus rural residence. RESULTS: Among all individuals in care, 74% were non-Hispanic white (white), 19% non-Hispanic black (black), and 7% Hispanic. Compared with white individuals, black and Hispanic individuals were more likely to be tested for Covid-19 (tests per 1000: white=9.0, [95% CI 8.9 to 9.1]; black=16.4, [16.2 to 16.7]; and Hispanic=12.2, [11.9 to 12.5]). While individuals from minority backgrounds were more likely to test positive (black vs white: OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.81 to 2.12; Hispanic vs white: OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.53 to 1.96), 30-day mortality did not differ by race/ethnicity (black vs white: OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.33; Hispanic vs white: OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.87). CONCLUSIONS: Black and Hispanic individuals are experiencing an excess burden of Covid-19 not entirely explained by underlying medical conditions or where they live or receive care. While there was no observed difference in mortality by race or ethnicity, our findings may underestimate risk in the broader US population as health disparities tend to be reduced in VA.

10.
medRxiv ; 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511595

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), an evolving pandemic. Limited data are available characterizing SARS-Cov-2 infection in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between demographic and clinical factors and testing positive for coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19+), and among Covid-19+ subsequent hospitalization and intensive care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study including all patients tested for Covid-19 between February 8 and March 30, 2020, inclusive. We extracted electronic health record data from the national Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States, on 2,026,227 patients born between 1945 and 1965 and active in care. Exposures: Demographic data, comorbidities, medication history, substance use, vital signs, and laboratory measures. Laboratory tests were analyzed first individually and then grouped into a validated summary measure of physiologic injury (VACS Index). Main Outcomes and Measures: We evaluated which factors were associated with Covid-19+ among all who tested. Among Covid-19+ we identified factors associated with hospitalization or intensive care. We identified independent associations using multivariable and conditional multivariable logistic regression with multiple imputation of missing values. RESULTS: Among Veterans aged 54-75 years, 585/3,789 (15.4%) tested Covid-19+. In adjusted analysis (C-statistic=0.806) black race was associated with Covid-19+ (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.79-5.78) and the association remained in analyses conditional on site (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.89-3.46). In adjusted models, laboratory abnormalities (especially fibrosis-4 score [FIB-4] >3.25 OR 8.73, 95% CI 4.11-18.56), and VACS Index (per 5-point increase OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.43-1.84) were strongly associated with hospitalization. Associations were similar for intensive care. Although significant in unadjusted analyses, associations with comorbid conditions and medications were substantially reduced and, in most cases, no longer significant after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Black race was strongly associated with Covid-19+, but not with hospitalization or intensive care. Among Covid-19+, risk of hospitalization and intensive care may be better characterized by laboratory measures and vital signs than by comorbid conditions or prior medication exposure.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(5): e204330, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383748

RESUMO

Importance: Zinc supplementation can reduce alcohol-related microbial translocation and inflammation. Objective: To assess whether zinc supplementation reduces markers of mortality and risk of cardiovascular disease, reduces levels of inflammation and microbial translocation, and slows HIV disease progression in people with heavy alcohol use who are living with HIV/AIDS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study is a double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of zinc supplementation among participants recruited from 2013 to 2015. Participants were recruited from HIV and addiction clinical and nonclinical care sites in St Petersburg, Russia. Participants were adults (aged 18-70 years) with documented HIV infection who were antiretroviral therapy-naive at baseline and had past 30-day heavy alcohol consumption. Data analysis was performed from February 2017 to February 2020. Intervention: Pharmacy-grade zinc gluconate supplementation (15 mg for men and 12 mg for women, taken daily by mouth for 18 months) was compared with a placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was mortality risk measured as a change in Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index score between baseline and 18 months. The VACS Index scores range from 0 to 164, with higher scores indicating higher mortality risk. Secondary outcomes were change in CD4 cell count between baseline and 18 months, the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk (Reynolds Risk Score, which ranges from 0% to 100%, with higher scores indicating higher risk), and changes in inflammatory or microbial translocation biomarkers at 18 months. Adjusted linear regression analyses were performed. Results: A total of 254 participants (184 men [72%]; mean [SD] age, 34 [6] years) were enrolled in the trial; 126 were randomized to receive zinc, and 128 were randomized to receive placebo. Participants had high CD4 cell counts (mean [SD], 521 [292] cells/mm3), and 188 (74%) reported heavy drinking in the past week. In the main analyses, zinc supplementation did not affect changes in the VACS Index score at 18 months (change for zinc, mean [SD], 0.49 [14.6]; median [interquartile range], 0.0 [-7.0 to 6.0]; change for placebo, mean [SD], 5.5 [17.2]; median [interquartile range], 6.0 [-6.0 to 14.0]; adjusted mean difference [AMD], -4.68; 95% CI, -9.62 to 0.25; P = .06) or any secondary outcomes, including change in CD4 cell count (AMD, 41.8 cells/mm3; 95% CI, -20.3 to 103.8 cells/mm3; P = .19), Reynolds Risk Score (AMD, -0.014; 95% CI, -0.167 to 0.139; P = .85), interleukin-6 level (AMD, -0.13 pg/mL; 95% CI, -0.38 to 0.11 pg/mL; P = .30), dimerized plasmin fragment D level (AMD, -0.21 µg/mL fibrinogen equivalent units; 95% CI, -0.48 to 0.07 µg/mL fibrinogen equivalent units; P = .14), soluble CD14 level (AMD, -38.01 ng/mL; 95% CI, -166.90 to 90.88 ng/mL; P = .56), intestinal fatty acid binding protein level (AMD, 0.08 pg/mL; 95% CI, -0.07 to 0.22 pg/mL; P = .32), and lipopolysaccharide binding protein level (AMD, -0.09 ng/mL; 95% CI, -0.23 to 0.06 ng/mL; P = .24). In the per-protocol analyses, zinc supplementation statistically significantly affected changes in the VACS Index score at 18 months (AMD, -7.49; 95% CI, -13.74 to -1.23; P = .02); however, the adherence rate to zinc supplementation was 51%. Conclusions and Relevance: Zinc supplementation did not reduce mortality risk, CD4 cell counts, cardiovascular disease risk, and levels of inflammation or microbial translocation in people with heavy alcohol use who are living with HIV/AIDS. Zinc supplementation did not change the VACS Index score but may have been limited by low adherence. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01934803.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/complicações , Suplementos Nutricionais , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Veteranos , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Federação Russa , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 17(4): 354-372, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314325

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarize recent literature on the contribution of substance use and depression to non-AIDS-related comorbidities. Discussion of recent randomized clinical trials and implementation research to curtail risk attributed to each behavioral health issue is provided. RECENT FINDINGS: Smoking, unhealthy alcohol use, opioid use, and depression are common among PWH and individually contribute to increased risk for non-AIDS-related comorbidities. The concurrence of these conditions is notable, yet understudied, and provides opportunity for linked-screening and potential treatment of more than one behavioral health factor. Current results from randomized clinical trials are inconsistent. Investigating interventions to reduce the impact of these behavioral health conditions with a focus on implementation into clinical care is important. Non-AIDS-defining cancers, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, and diabetes are leading causes of morbidity in people with HIV. Behavioral health factors including substance use and mental health issues, often co-occurring, likely contribute to the excess risk of non-AIDS-related comorbidities.


Assuntos
Depressão/complicações , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Fumar/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hepatopatias/complicações
14.
Lancet HIV ; 7(4): e279-e293, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243826

RESUMO

HIV-related cardiovascular disease research is predominantly from Europe and North America. Of the estimated 37·9 million people living with HIV worldwide, 25·6 million live in sub-Saharan Africa. Although mechanisms for HIV-related cardiovascular disease might be the same in all people with HIV, the distribution of cardiovascular disease risk factors varies by geographical location. Sub-Saharan Africa has a younger population, higher prevalence of elevated blood pressure, lower smoking rates, and lower prevalence of elevated cholesterol than western Europe and North America. These variations mean that the profile of cardiovascular disease differs between low-income and high-income countries. Research in, implementation of, and advocacy for risk reduction of cardiovascular disease in the global context of HIV should account for differences in the distribution of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors (eg, hypertension, smoking), consider non-traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors (eg, access to antiretroviral therapy with more benign cardiovascular disease side effect profiles, indoor air pollution), and encourage the inclusion of relevant risk reduction approaches for cardiovascular disease in HIV-care guidelines. Future research priorities include implementation science to scale up and expand integrated HIV and cardiovascular disease care models, which have shown promise in sub-Saharan Africa; HIV and cardiovascular disease epidemiology and mechanisms in women; and tobacco cessation for people living with HIV.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Pobreza , Prevalência
15.
Psychosom Med ; 82(5): 461-470, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the associations of total, cognitive/affective, and somatic depressive symptoms and antidepressant use with biomarkers of processes implicated in cardiovascular disease in HIV (HIV-CVD). METHODS: We examined data from 1546 HIV-positive and 843 HIV-negative veterans. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and past-year antidepressant use was determined from Veterans Affair pharmacy records. Monocyte (soluble CD14 [sCD14]), inflammatory (interleukin-6 [IL-6]), and coagulation (D-dimer) marker levels were determined from previously banked blood specimens. Linear regression models with multiple imputation were run to estimate the associations between depression-related factors and CVD-relevant biomarkers. RESULTS: Among HIV-positive participants, greater somatic depressive symptoms were associated with higher sCD14 (exp[b] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-1.03) and D-dimer (exp[b] = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00-1.11) after adjustment for demographics and potential confounders. Further adjustment for antidepressant use and HIV factors slightly attenuated these relationships. Associations were also detected for antidepressant use, as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use was related to lower sCD14 (exp[b] = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00) and IL-6 (exp[b] = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.76-0.96), and tricyclic antidepressant use was related to higher sCD14 (exp[b] = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.03-1.12) and IL-6 (exp[b] = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02-1.28). Among HIV-negative participants, total, cognitive/affective, and somatic depressive symptoms were associated with higher IL-6, and tricyclic antidepressant use was related to higher sCD14. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel findings suggest that a) monocyte activation and altered coagulation may represent two pathways through which depression increases HIV-CVD risk and that b) tricyclic antidepressants may elevate and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may attenuate HIV-CVD risk by influencing monocyte and inflammatory activation.

16.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230656, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214373

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking is a strong risk factor for disease severity in Crohn's disease (CD) and cessation improves outcomes. The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) predicts cessation success with pharmacotherapy: varenicline doubles cessation over nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for "normal", but not "slow" metabolizers. Varenicline side effects are heightened in slow metabolizers. Methods using NMR to optimize cessation pharmacotherapy have not been evaluated in CD. AIMS: We aim to determine the prevalence of smoking in a CD population and then assess these smokers' attitudes toward a personalized metabolism-informed care (MIC) approach to cessation. METHODS: In this observational study, we surveyed 1098 patients visiting an inflammatory bowel disease center about their smoking history. We then evaluated a subgroup of individuals with CD (n = 32) who participated in a randomized controlled trial of smoking cessation using MIC versus usual care. For MIC, medication selection was informed by the NMR (normal ≥0.31 vs. slow <0.31). The primary outcomes were intervention satisfaction and match rates between NMR and medication choice. RESULTS: The baseline prevalence of smoking in our CD population was 13%. Intervention participants reported high rates of satisfaction (85%) and chose a medication that matched their NMR result more often in the MIC group (100% vs. 64%, p = 0.01). Six of 16 (37.5%) patients prescribed varenicline discontinued due to side effects. CONCLUSION: MIC produced high rates of satisfaction and matching between NMR and medication in CD patients, supporting patient acceptance and feasibility of precision smoking cessation in this population. To reduce smoking in CD, therapies such as MIC are needed to maximize efficacy and minimize side effects.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/patologia , Nicotina/metabolismo , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto , Bupropiona/efeitos adversos , Bupropiona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/tratamento farmacológico , Fumar/epidemiologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vareniclina/efeitos adversos , Vareniclina/uso terapêutico
17.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 63(2): 184-191, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis, is independently associated with incident heart failure (HF). Investigating the association between liver fibrosis and type of HF, specifically HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF; HFrEF) or HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), may provide mechanistic insight into this association. We sought to determine the association between liver fibrosis score (FIB-4) and type of HF, and to assess whether HIV or hepatitis C status modified this association. METHODS: We included patients alive on or after 4/1/2003 from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. We followed patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease until their first HF event, death, last clinic visit, or 9/30/2015. We defined liver fibrosis as: likely advanced fibrosis (FIB-4 > 3.25), indeterminate (FIB-4 range 1.45-3.25), unlikely advanced fibrosis (FIB-4 < 1.45). Primary outcomes were HFrEF and HFpEF (defined using ICD-9 diagnoses for HF, and EF extracted from electronic medical records using natural language processing). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for potential confounders and used to estimate hazard ratios (HR). RESULTS: Among 108,708 predominantly male (96%) participants mean age was 49 years. Likely advanced fibrosis was present in 4% at baseline and was associated with an increased risk of HFpEF [HR (95% confidence interval)] [1.70 (1.3-2.3)]; and non-significantly with HFrEF [1.20 (0.9-1.7)]. These associations were not modified by HIV or hepatitis C status. CONCLUSION: Likely advanced fibrosis was independently associated with incident HFpEF but not HFrEF. This suggests that risk factors and/or mechanisms for liver fibrosis may have greater overlap with those for HFpEF than HFrEF.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Sobreviventes de Longo Prazo ao HIV , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde dos Veteranos , Carga Viral
18.
J Infect Dis ; 222(2): 252-262, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A higher proportion of circulating memory CD4+ T cells is associated with prevalent diabetes mellitus in the general population. Given the broad changes in adaptive immunity, including memory T-cell expansion, and rising prevalence of diabetes in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, we assessed whether similar relationships were present in persons with HIV (PWH). METHODS: Multiple CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets were measured by flow cytometry, and prevalent diabetes cases were adjudicated by 2 physicians for PWH and HIV-negative participants in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Multivariable logistic regression models evaluated the association of T-cell subsets and diabetes stratified by HIV status, adjusted for cytomegalovirus serostatus and traditional risk factors. RESULTS: Among 2385 participants (65% PWH, 95% male, 68% African American), higher CD45RO+ memory CD4+ T cells and lower CD38+ CD4+ T cells were associated with prevalent diabetes, and had a similar effect size, in both the PWH and HIV-negative (P ≤ .05 for all). Lower CD38+CD8+ T cells were also associated with diabetes in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets associated with diabetes are similar in PWH and HIV-negative individuals, suggesting that diabetes in PWH may be related to chronic immune activation.

19.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(3): e55-e64, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969015

RESUMO

Androgen deprivation therapy is a cornerstone of prostate cancer treatment. Pharmacological androgen deprivation includes gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonism and antagonism, androgen receptor inhibition, and CYP17 (cytochrome P450 17A1) inhibition. Studies in the past decade have raised concerns about the potential for androgen deprivation therapy to increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality, possibly by exacerbating cardiovascular risk factors. In this review, we summarize existing data on the cardiovascular effects of androgen deprivation therapy. Among the therapies, abiraterone stands out for increasing risk of cardiac events in meta-analyses of both randomized controlled trials and observational studies. We find a divergence between observational studies, which show consistent positive associations between androgen deprivation therapy use and cardiovascular disease, and randomized controlled trials, which do not show these associations reproducibly.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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