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J Food Sci ; 85(11): 3885-3898, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063351


Although the ice phase greatly influences the properties of ice cream, other structural components also affect its rheological behavior, particularly after melting. In this study, mix viscosity (serum phase viscosity), extent of fat destabilization (FD), and overrun were manipulated to produce different microstructures. The effects of these structural components were evaluated on the rheological properties of the ice creams and melted ice creams. In oscillatory thermorheometry, mix viscosity and then overrun, influenced G' and tanδ below -10 °C. When ice phase decreased (between -10 and -2.7 °C), mix viscosity had reduced effects, but continued to strongly affect G' and tanδ, followed by FD, and with lower effects from overrun. When the ice phase was completely melted at 0 °C, FD had most influence on G' and tanδ, followed by overrun, and with lower effects from mix viscosity. In creep/recovery test, six-element model described well creep behavior of melted ice cream at 0 °C. Viscous behavior at lower shear rate (η0 0 °C) was most influenced by mix viscosity, followed by FD, and lower overrun effects. In stress growth measurement, transient behavior, represented by σY 0 °C, of melted matrix at 0 °C was most influenced by FD, followed by mix viscosity, with lower overrun effects. In flow ramp measurement, Hysteresis Area was most affected by mix viscosity, followed by overrun, and with lower FD effects. Moreover, correlation between Hyst 0 °C and tanδ Peak suggested that structure formation affected the magnitude of tanδ Peak. These results document the importance of microstructure on properties of melted ice cream. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The understanding of how structural components, such as mix viscosity, fat destabilization, and overrun, affect the ice cream matrix can help manufacturers to control its rheological behavior. The influence of these structural components on the G', tanδ, η0 0 °C , σY 0 °C , and Hyst 0 °C can be also used to understand the structural rearrangements that occur in meltdown tests and sensory analyses for future studies. Therefore, elucidation of these mechanisms on the rheological properties can directly assist in quality control and new product development in the ice cream industry.

J Food Sci ; 84(9): 2562-2571, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423589


This study aims at exploring ice cream meltdown behavior by changing the levels of stabilizer (ST), polysorbate 80 (PS80), and overrun (OR). By adjusting the formulation of ice cream, the degree of fat destabilization (FD), mix viscosity (MV), and overrun can be controlled within a certain range, which in turn presents different meltdown behaviors for study. In addition to the drip-through test, the shape of ice cream as it melts was recorded as height change to further investigate ice cream meltdown. Mix viscosity (at 50 s-1 ) and fat destabilization were found to have a significant effect not only on drip-through rate, but also the induction time, final weight of the drip-through part, height-change rate, and final height of melted ice cream. On the other side, overrun was found only to have an effect on meltdown when no stabilizers were added. These results indicate serum phase viscosity (mix viscosity) and fat destabilization are important parameters to describe ice cream meltdown. Besides, the entire ice cream meltdown curve and height collapse curve provide important information on ice cream meltdown behavior. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: A new direction of analysis of ice cream meltdown behavior is provided in this study. The induction time, the final drip-through weight, and the height change during the meltdown process were found to be the indicators on the influence of microstructure on ice cream meltdown behavior for the future study.

Gorduras/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sorvetes/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos , Congelamento , Polissorbatos/química , Viscosidade