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1.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578989

RESUMO

Reaction of the Cu(I) sources, [Cu5](Mes)5 and [(iDipp)CuOtBu] (Mes = mesityl; iDipp = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene) with the Zn(I) complex [Zn2](Cp*)2 leads to a mixture of intermetallic Cu/Zn clusters with a distribution of species that is dependent on the stoichiometric ratio of the reactants, the reaction time, as well as the temperature. Systematic and careful investigation of the product mixtures rendered the isolation of two new clusters possible, i.e., the Zn-rich, red cluster 1, [CuZn10](Cp*)7 = [Cu(ZnZnCp*)3(ZnCp*)4], as well as the Cu-rich, dark-green cluster 2 [Cu10Zn2](Mes)6(Cp*)2. Structure and bonding of these two species was rationalized with the help of density functional theory calculations. Whereas 1 can be viewed as an 18-electron Cu center coordinated to four ZnCp* and three ZnZnCp* one-electron ligands (with some interligand bonding interaction), compound 2 is better to be described as a six-electron superatom cluster. This unusual electron count is associated with a prolate distortion from a spherical superatom structure. This unexpected situation is likely to be associated with the ZnCp* capping units that offer the possibility to strongly bind to the top and the bottom of the cluster in addition to the bridging mesityl ligands stabilizing the Cu core of the cluster.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 55(24): 12492-12495, 2016 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27989180

RESUMO

When the dinuclear RuII,II precursor [Ru2(OOCCH3)4] is employed under redox-inert conditions, a RuII,II analogue of HKUST-1 was successfully prepared and characterized as a phase-pure microcrystalline powder. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy confirms the oxidation state of the Ru centers of the paddle-wheel nodes in the framework. The porosity of 1371 m2/mmol of RuII,II-HKUST-1 exceeds that of the parent compound HKUST1 (1049 m2/ mmol).

3.
Chem Sci ; 7(10): 6413-6421, 2016 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28451097

RESUMO

The analogy between ZnR fragments and the hydrogen radical represents a fruitful concept in organometallic synthesis. The organozinc(ii) and -zinc(i) sources ZnMe2 (Me = methyl) and [Zn2Cp*2] (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) provide one-electron fragments ·ZnR (R = Me, Cp*), which can be trapped by transition metal complexes [L a M], yielding [L b (ZnR) n ]. The addition of the dizinc compound [Zn2Cp*2] to coordinatively unsaturated [L a M] by the homolytic cleavage of the Zn-Zn bond can be compared to the classic oxidative addition reaction of H2, forming dihydride complexes [L a M(H)2]. It has also been widely shown that dihydrogen coordinates under preservation of the H-H bond in the case of certain electronic properties of the transition metal fragment. The σ-aromatic triangular clusters [Zn3Cp*3]+ and [Zn2CuCp*3] may be regarded as the first indication of this so far unknown, side-on coordination mode of [Zn2Cp*2]. With this background in mind the question arises if a series of complexes featuring the Zn2M structural motif can be prepared exhibiting a (more or less) intact Zn-Zn interaction, i.e. di-zinc complexes which are analogous to non-classical dihydrogen complexes of the Kubas type. In order to probe this idea, a series of interrelated organozinc nickel and palladium complexes and clusters were synthesized and characterized as model compounds: [Ni(ZnCp*)(ZnMe)(PMe3)3] (1), [Ni(ZnCp*)2(ZnMe)2(PMe3)2] (2), [{Ni(CN t Bu)2(µ2-ZnCp*)(µ2-ZnMe)}2] (3), [Pd(ZnCp*)4(CN t Bu)2] (4) and [Pd3Zn6(PCy3)2(Cp*)4] (5). The dependence of Zn···Zn interactions as a function of the ligand environments and the metal centers was studied. Experimental X-ray crystallographic structural data and DFT calculations support the analogy between dihydrogen and dizinc transition metal complexes.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(14): 4370-4, 2015 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25676739

RESUMO

The triangular clusters [Zn3Cp*3](+) and [Zn2CuCp*3] were obtained by addition of the in situ generated, electrophilic, and isolobal species [ZnCp*](+) and [CuCp*] to Carmona's compound, [Cp*Zn-ZnCp*], without splitting the ZnZn bond. The choice of non-coordinating fluoroaromatic solvents was crucial. The bonding situations of the all-hydrocarbon-ligand-protected clusters were investigated by quantum chemical calculations revealing a high degree of σ-aromaticity similar to the triatomic hydrogen ion [H3](+). The new species serve as molecular building units of Cu(n)Zn(m) nanobrass clusters as indicated by LIFDI mass spectrometry.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 54(1): 352-8, 2015 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25517995

RESUMO

The synthesis and characterization of the cationic mixed metal Ga/Zn cluster [Zn2(GaCp*)6](2+) (1) is presented. The reaction of [Zn2Cp*2] with [Ga2Cp*][BAr4(F)] leads to the formation of the novel complex being the first example of a [Zn2](2+) core exclusively ligated by metalloid group-13 organyl-ligands. Compound 1 exhibits two different coordination modes: In the solid state, two of the six GaCp* ligands occupy bridging positions, whereas VT (1)H NMR indicates the coexistence of a second isomer in solution featuring six terminal GaCp* ligands. Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out to assign the gallium and zinc positions; the bonding situation in 1 is characterized and the importance of dispersion forces is discussed.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(63): 8681-4, 2014 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24957407

RESUMO

The first example of ligand protected Cu-Zn clusters is described. Reaction of [CpCu(CN(t)Bu)] with [Zn2Cp*2] yields [(CuCN(t)Bu)4(ZnCp*)4] (1a) and [(CuCN(t)Bu)4(ZnCp*)3(ZnCp)] (1b). According to DFT calculations, the [Cu4Zn4] unit fulfils the unified superatom model for cluster valence shell closing.

7.
Dalton Trans ; 42(29): 10540-4, 2013 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23760459

RESUMO

Zn-Cp* bond cleavage reactions leading to novel monovalent cationic zinc species are presented (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl). The treatment of [Zn2Cp*2] with two equiv. of [H(Et2O)2][BAr4(F)] (BAr4(F) = B{C6H3(CF3)2}4) yields the triple-decker complex [Cp*3Zn4(Et2O)2][BAr4(F)] (1) via protolytic removal of a Cp* ligand as Cp*H, whereas the reaction with an equimolar amount of [FeCp2][BAr4(F)] (Cp = cyclopentadienyl) results in the formation of [Cp*Zn2(Et2O)3][BAr4(F)] (2) under oxidative cleavage of a Cp* ring giving decamethylfulvalene, (Cp*)2, and [FeCp2] as by-products. The molecular structures of compounds 1 and 2 are established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. A new synthetic pathway for the formation of [Zn2Cp*2] based on the reductive elimination of Cp*H from in situ formed Cp*ZnH is presented.

8.
Chemistry ; 18(16): 4909-15, 2012 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22416016

RESUMO

The synthesis, characterization, and theoretical investigation by means of quantum-chemical calculations of an oligonuclear metal-rich compound are presented. The reaction of homoleptic dinuclear palladium compound [Pd(2)(µ-GaCp*)(3)(GaCp*)(2)] with ZnMe(2) resulted in the formation of unprecedented ternary Pd/Ga/Zn compound [Pd(2)Zn(6)Ga(2)(Cp*)(5)(CH(3))(3)] (1), which was analyzed by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, MS, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 consisted of two C(s)-symmetric molecular isomers, as revealed by NMR spectroscopy, at which distinct site-preferences related to the Ga and Zn positions were observed by quantum-chemical calculations. Structural characterization of compound 1 showed significantly different coordination environments for both palladium centers. Whilst one Pd atom sat in the central of a bi-capped trigonal prism, thereby resulting in a formal 18-valence electron fragment, {Pd(ZnMe)(2)(ZnCp*)(4)(GaMe)}, the other Pd atom occupied one capping unit, thereby resulting in a highly unsaturated 12-valence electron fragment, {Pd(GaCp*)}. The bonding situation, as determined by atoms-in-molecules analysis (AIM), NBO partial charges, and molecular orbital (MO) analysis, pointed out that significant Pd-Pd interactions had a large stake in the stabilization of this unusual molecule. The characterization and quantum-chemical calculations of compound 1 revealed distinct similarities to related M/Zn/Ga Hume-Rothery intermetallic solid-state compounds, such as Ga/Zn-exchange reactions, the site-preferences of the Zn/Ga positions, and direct M-M bonding, which contributes to the overall stability of the metal-rich compound.

9.
Dalton Trans ; 40(46): 12570-7, 2011 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21989655

RESUMO

The reactions of heteroleptic GaCp*/CO containing transition metal complexes of iron and cobalt, namely [(CO)(3)M(µ(2)-GaCp*)(m)M(CO)(3)] (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl; M = Fe, m = 3; M = Co, m = 2) and [Fe(CO)(4)(GaCp*)], with ZnMe(2) in toluene and the presence of a coordinating co-solvent were investigated. The reaction of the iron complex [Fe(CO)(4)(GaCp*)] with ZnMe(2) in presence of tetrahydrofurane (thf) leads to the dimeric compound [(CO)(4)Fe{µ(2)-Zn(thf)(2)}(2)Fe(CO)(4)] (1). Reaction of [(CO)(3)Fe(µ(2)-GaCp*(3))Fe(CO)(3)] with ZnMe(2) and stoichiometric amounts of thf leads to the formation of [(CO)(3)Fe{µ(2)-Zn(thf)(2)}(2)(µ(2)-ZnMe)(2)Fe(CO)(3)] (2) containing {Zn(thf)(2)} as well as ZnMe ligands. Using pyridine (py) instead of thf leads to [(CO)(3)Fe{µ(2)-Zn(py)(2)}(3)Fe(CO)(3)] (3) via replacement of all GaCp* ligands by three{Zn(py)(2)} groups. In contrast, reaction of [(CO)(3)Co(µ(2)-GaCp*)(2)Co(CO)(3)] with ZnMe(2) in the presence of py or thf leads in both cases to the formation of [(CO)(3)Co{µ(2)-ZnL(2)}(µ(2)-ZnCp*)(2)Co(CO)(3)] (L = py (4), thf (5)) via replacement of GaCp* with {Zn(L)(2)} units as well as Cp* transfer from the gallium to the zinc centre. All compounds were characterised by NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 50(20): 10486-92, 2011 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21928774

RESUMO

The synthesis, structural characterization, and bonding situation analysis of a novel, all-zinc, hepta-coordinated palladium complex [Pd(ZnCp*)(4)(ZnMe)(2){Zn(tmeda)}] (1) is reported. The reaction of the substitution labile d(10) metal starting complex [Pd(CH(3))(2)(tmeda)] (tmeda = N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-ethane-1,2-diamine) with stoichiometric amounts of [Zn(2)Cp*(2)] (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) results in the formation of [Pd(ZnCp*)(4)(ZnMe)(2){Zn(tmeda)}] (1) in 35% yield. Compound 1 has been fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and liquid injection field desorption ionization mass spectrometry. It consists of an unusual [PdZn(7)] metal core and exhibits a terminal {Zn(tmeda)} unit. The bonding situation of 1 with respect to the properties of the three different types of Zn ligands Zn(R,L) (R = CH(3), Cp*; L = tmeda) bonded to the Pd center was studied by density functional theory quantum chemical calculations. The results of energy decomposition and atoms in molecules analysis clearly point out significant differences according to R vs L. While Zn(CH(3)) and ZnCp* can be viewed as 1e donor Zn(I) ligands, {Zn(tmeda)} is best described as a strong 2e Zn(0) donor ligand. Thus, the 18 valence electron complex 1 nicely fits to the family of metal-rich molecules of the general formula [M(ZnR)(a)(GaR)(b)] (a + 2b = n ≥ 8; M = Mo, Ru, Rh; Ni, Pd, Pt; R = Me, Et, Cp*).

11.
Inorg Chem ; 50(12): 5808-14, 2011 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21591639

RESUMO

The reactions of molybdenum(0) and rhodium(I) olefin containing starting materials with the carbenoid group 13 metal ligator ligand GaR (R = Cp*, DDP; Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, DDP = HC(CMeNC(6)H(3)-2,6-(i)Pr(2))(2)) were investigated and compared. Treatment of [Mo(η(4)-butadiene)(3)] with GaCp* under hydrogen atmosphere at 100 °C yields the homoleptic, hexa coordinated, and sterically crowded complex [Mo(GaCp*)(6)] (1) in good yields ≥50%. Compound 1 exhibits an unusual and high coordinated octahedral [MoGa(6)] core. Similarly, [Rh(GaCp*)(5)][CF(3)SO(3)] (2) and [Rh(GaCp*)(5)][BAr(F)] (3) (BAr(F) = B{C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2)}(4)) are prepared by the reaction of GaCp* with the rhodium(I) compound [Rh(coe)(2)(CF(3)SO(3))](2) (coe = cyclooctene) and subsequent anion exchange in case of 3. Compound 2 features a trigonal bipyramidal [RhGa(5)] unit. In contrast, reaction of excess Ga(DDP) with [Rh(coe)(2)(CF(3)SO(3))](2) does not result in a high coordinated homoleptic complex but instead yields [(coe)(toluene)Rh{Ga(DDP)}(CF(3)SO(3))] (4). The common feature of 2 and 4 in the solid state structure is the presence of short CF(3)SO(2)O···Ga contacts involving the GaCp* or rather the Ga(DDP) ligand. Compounds 1, 2, and 4 have been fully characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, variable temperature (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, as well as elemental analysis.

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