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1.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(3): 406-410, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 20% of tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide are attributable to smoking, and it is associated with an increased risk of latent and active TB, recurrence, and mortality. The aim of this study is to assess the smoking prevalence and the effects on treatment outcomes in TB patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in patients with a recent TB diagnosis. The smoking status was defined, in addition to the patients' knowledge and attitudes toward smoking. The patients were followed up until the end of the treatment, and the treatment result was recorded. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included in this study. The prevalence of active smoking was 31.5%. Active smokers had less chance for cure (62.1% versus 82.5%; p=0.032) and more treatment dropout (31.0% versus 12.7%; p=0.035) than non-active smokers. Patients demonstrated positive attitudes and good knowledge about smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Active smokers had less chance for cure and more abandonment than non-active smokers. These results can be useful for the proper planning of actions that impact TB control, especially in the treatment results, such as cognitive-behavioral approaches to smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Fumar , Tuberculose , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
2.
Infection ; 49(3): 457-461, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385298

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The establishment of candidate genetic determinants associated with tuberculosis (TB) is a challenge, considering the divergent frequencies among populations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between MIF - 794 CATT 5-8 polymorphism and susceptibility to TB. METHODS: Case-control study. Patients > 18 years, with pulmonary TB were included. The control group consisted of blood donors and household contacts, not relatives, healthy and > 18 years. MIF - 794 CATT 5-8 were genotyped using sequencing of PCR and capillary electrophoresis. RESULTS: 126 patients and 119 controls were included. The genotype 5/5 was more frequent among cases (15.1%) than in controls (5.9%) (p = 0.019). Cases had more frequently the allele 5 (29.4%) as compared with controls (19.3%) (p = 0.010). Prevalence of 7/X + 8/X genotypes was not different between cases and controls (p = 0.821). There was no difference between patients with alleles 7 and 8 and those with alleles 5 and 6 (p = 0.608). CONCLUSIONS: The genotype 5/5 and the allele 5 of MIF - 794 CATT 5-8 were more frequent among TB patients than in controls.

3.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(1): 111-114, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adequate anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment is an important factor that can affect the patient's outcome. Higher mortality is found in patients who do not receive optimal treatment that includes isoniazid and rifampicin. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of use of alternative TB treatment regimens (without rifampicin and isoniazid) and mortality among patients requiring intensive care. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study, from January 2010 to December 2018. Patients aged > 18 years with a TB diagnosis, admitted to the ICU of a general, tertiary care, university-affiliated hospital (Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - HCPA) were included. Data on TB treatment used and outcomes of treatment were collected. RESULTS: 462 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis; 284 used the usual treatment regimen (rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol - all orally), and 178 used alternative treatment regimens (IV levofloxacin plus oral ethambutol plus IM streptomycin or IV amikacin, without rifampicin and isoniazid). The mortality was higher among users of alternative treatment regimens (63.5%) than among usual treatment regimen users (51.4%) (P = 0.011). In a multivariate analysis, age, albumin and death were independently associated with alternative treatment regimens use. CONCLUSIONS: TB programmes in which IV rifampicin is not widely available should consider including it, especially for critically ill TB patients, for whom there may be improved survival.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antituberculose/administração & dosagem , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/mortalidade , APACHE , Adulto , Amicacina/administração & dosagem , Brasil/epidemiologia , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Etambutol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Isoniazida/administração & dosagem , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pirazinamida/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rifampina/administração & dosagem , Estreptomicina/administração & dosagem
4.
Workplace Health Saf ; 68(11): 519-525, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502371

RESUMO

Background: Most studies that have evaluated the impact of infection-control measures (ICM) reported a decrease in latent tuberculosis (TB) and not in TB. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of ICM on TB incidence among Health Care Workers (HCW's). Methods: We conducted a retrospective record review study in a general, tertiary care, university-affiliated hospital. All TB case reports among HCWs in the hospital from 2005 to 2018 were reviewed. The TB incidence was measured before and after 2012 to evaluate the impact of ICM implemented. Findings: In total, there were 53 TB cases. The number of TB cases before and after the implementation of ICM was 42 (incidence: 100.0 cases/100,000 HCWs/year) and 11 (incidence: 26.2 cases/100,000 HCWs/year), respectively (p < .0001). Conclusions/Application to Practice: TB incidence among HCWs reduced significantly after the implementation of ICM. The establishment of ICM, such as written TB infection control plan, monitoring, screening, training, and education, can reduce TB incidence.

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