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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520169

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 - Brief Form (PID-5-BF) - is an instrument for assessment of the five pathological personality traits from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) alternative model of personality disorders. OBJECTIVES: To determine the psychometric properties of the version of the PID-5-BF translated and adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. METHODS: The process of translating and cross-culturally adapting the text was carried out by independent translators and the resulting version was administered to 176 patients in two hospitals in Rio Grande do Sul. The internal structure was tested by means of confirmatory factor analysis. Evidence of reliability was tested by examining the internal consistency of the scales and their convergent and concurrent validity with other methods of psychopathology. RESULTS: The five factors were replicated in the present sample with adequate indicators of fit of the data to the model. Appropriate reliability coefficients for the scales and evidence of validity were observed, indicating the clinical usefulness of the PID-5-BF in the Brazilian context. CONCLUSION: The psychometric properties of PID-5-BF proved satisfactory in an initial sample of Brazilians.

2.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 42(1): 64-73, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1099396

RESUMO

Abstract Objective To analyze associations between attempted suicide and childhood trauma. Methods A seven month comparative case-control study (28 subjects - patients with suicide attempt; 56 controls - patients without suicide attempt). The following instruments were used: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). Results The group with suicide attempt had significantly higher scores for some variables: emotional abuse (p < 0.001), physical abuse (p < 0.001), emotional neglect (p < 0.001), and physical neglect (p < 0.001). Conclusions The results suggest that variables related to previous trauma may influence future suicide attempts. The adoption of preventive and therapeutic actions related to mistreatments during child development is a crucial factor in reduction of suicide risk.

3.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 42(1): 64-73, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze associations between attempted suicide and childhood trauma. METHODS: A seven month comparative case-control study (28 subjects - patients with suicide attempt; 56 controls - patients without suicide attempt). The following instruments were used: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). RESULTS: The group with suicide attempt had significantly higher scores for some variables: emotional abuse (p < 0.001), physical abuse (p < 0.001), emotional neglect (p < 0.001), and physical neglect (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that variables related to previous trauma may influence future suicide attempts. The adoption of preventive and therapeutic actions related to mistreatments during child development is a crucial factor in reduction of suicide risk.

4.
J Psychiatr Res ; 121: 159-172, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830722

RESUMO

Establishing the diagnosis of trauma-related disorders such as Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) have always been a challenge in clinical practice and in academic research, due to clinical and biological heterogeneity. Machine learning (ML) techniques can be applied to improve classification of disorders, to predict outcomes or to determine person-specific treatment selection. We aim to review the existing literature on the use of machine learning techniques in the assessment of subjects with ASD or PTSD. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science for articles published in any language up to May 2019. We found 806 abstracts and included 49 studies in our review. Most of the included studies used multiple levels of biological data to predict risk factors or to identify early symptoms related to PTSD. Other studies used ML classification techniques to distinguish individuals with ASD or PTSD from other psychiatric disorder or from trauma-exposed and healthy controls. We also found studies that attempted to define outcome profiles using clustering techniques and studies that assessed the relationship among symptoms using network analysis. Finally, we proposed a quality assessment in this review, evaluating methodological and technical features on machine learning studies. We concluded that etiologic and clinical heterogeneity of ASD/PTSD patients is suitable to machine learning techniques and a major challenge for the future is to use it in clinical practice for the benefit of patients in an individual level.

5.
Rev. psicanal ; 26(3): http://revista.sppa.org.br/index.php/RPdaSPPA/article/view/470/490, dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050026

RESUMO

O grupo formado a partir da parceria SMED ­ SPPA, que há mais de doze anos trabalha com o estudo e com a aplicação de técnicas que disponibilizem o conhecimento psicanalítico na formação continuada de profissionais voltados à educação infantil, expandiu-se para um grupo de pesquisa interinstitucional e interdisciplinar com a finalidade de estudar as Rodas de conversa SMED ­ SPPA através de metodologia desenvolvida ao longo desses anos. O presente artigo descreve sucintamente a história da parceria entre as duas instituições, apresentando também a Fase 1 do Projeto de Pesquisa Diálogo entre educação e psicanálise: rodas de conversa entre SMED e SPPA. Trata-se de pesquisa naturalística com abordagem qualitativa exploratória. Trabalha-se com uma amostra de dois grupos, compostos, cada um, por vinte educadores, um assessor pedagógico da SMED e dois psicanalistas da SPPA. Para a coleta de dados, são utilizados os seguintes instrumentos: gravação de vídeos das reuniões; cadernos de campo escritos pelos psicanalistas e assessores e, por fim, questionários sobre expectativas a serem preenchidos pelos educadores. As narrativas que emergem da transcrição dos vídeos são analisadas pelo método de Bardin. Aproveitar-se-á a primeira experiência de campo (Fase 1) para a definição das categorias temáticas significativas, de tal forma que a sua relevância seja testada em uma segunda rodada do trabalho de campo (AU)


The group formed from the SMED ­ SPPA partnership, which for over twelve years has been working with the study and application of techniques that provide psychoanalytic knowledge in the continuing education of professionals focused on early childhood education, formed an interinstitutional and interdisciplinary research group. The purpose of this research is to study the SMED ­ SPPA Conversation circles, a methodology developed over the years and which is a product of this partnership. This article briefly describes the history of the partnership between the two institutions, and also presents Phase 1 of the Research Project Dialogue between education and psychoanalysis: conversation circles between SMED and SPPA. It is a naturalistic research with exploratory qualitative approach. We work with a sample with two groups, each consisting of twenty educators, one SMED pedagogical advisor and two SPPA psychoanalysts. For data collection, the following instruments are used: video recording of meetings; field notebooks written by psychoanalysts and advisors; questionnaires about expectations to be fulfilled by educators. The narratives that emerge from the transcription of the videos will be analyzed by Bardin's method. The first field experiment (Phase 1) will be used to define meaningful thematic categories, so that their relevance is tested in a second round of fieldwork


El grupo formado a partir de la asociación SMED ­ SPPA, que durante más de doce años ha estado trabajando con el estudio y la aplicación de técnicas que proporcionan conocimiento psicoanalítico en la educación continua de profesionales centrados en la educación infantil, formó un grupo de investigación interinstitucional e interdisciplinario. El propósito de esta investigación es estudiar las ruedas de conversación SMED ­ SPPA, una metodología desarrollada a lo largo de los años y que es un producto de esta asociación. Este artículo describe brevemente la historia de la asociación entre las dos instituciones y también presenta la Fase 1 del Proyecto de Investigación Diálogo entre educación y psicoanálisis: ruedas de conversación entre SMED y SPPA. Es una investigación naturalista con enfoque cualitativo exploratorio. Trabajamos con una muestra con dos grupos, cada uno compuesto por veinte educadores, un asesor pedagógico de SMED y dos psicoanalistas de SPPA. Para la recolección de datos, se utilizan los siguientes instrumentos: grabación de video de reuniones; cuadernos de campo escritos por psicoanalistas y asesores; cuestionarios sobre expectativas que deben cumplir los educadores. Las narraciones que emergen de la transcripción de los videos son analizadas por el método de Bardin. El primer experimento de campo (Fase 1) se utilizará para definir categorías temáticas significativas, de modo que su relevancia se evalúe en una segunda ronda de trabajo de campo


Assuntos
Marginalização Social , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Aconselhamento , Discriminação Social , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento
6.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(3): 283-291, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644694

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner domestic violence against women causes physical and psychological harm to victims. The relevance of this topic is indisputable and there is a need to identify in greater detail how these women experience violence, since these factors have considerable clinical implications. OBJECTIVE: To develop a Portuguese version of the Module for Assessment of Domestic Violence, adapted from Axis I of the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis (OPD-2), considering content validity and psychometric characteristics. METHOD: Cross-cultural adaptation was based on guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. OPD clinical interviews were recorded and transcribed. These interviews were analyzed by two independent judges trained in the OPD-2. RESULTS: The sample comprised 56 women who had been victims of domestic violence, with a mean age of 30.07 years (standard deviation = 9.65). The adapted version has content validity and good psychometric characteristics. Evaluation of semantic equivalence took into account the psychodynamic references, using the same ideas as the original instrument. Interexaminer reliability between the judges was substantial (k = 0.63) and Cronbach's alpha for the new version indicates good reliability. CONCLUSION: The OPD-2 offers a psychodynamic diagnosis of the victim that complements traditional nosological diagnosis, particularly in the context of domestic violence with the adaptation of Axis I. Certain biases could have been detrimental to aspects of this study, but they were controlled. The study objective was achieved and the Module was successfully adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. The results are in line with those of the original study.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Psicometria , Autorrelato , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto Jovem
7.
Brain Behav ; 9(11): e01430, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588692

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Domestic violence places woman as the victim and man as the aggressor in the family environment. There is limited consistent and clear information based on empirical evidence on the dynamic functioning of the victims. OBJECTIVE: To further understand the psychodynamics of women in the cycle of violence taking into account the aspects of psychological trauma. It is transversal research design. The sample was composed of ten women victim of domestic violence. Data collection was based on the OPD-2 Clinical Interview. Content analysis was performed from categories created by a posteriori: (a) Previous history; (b) Behavioral aspects; (c) Emotional aspects; (d) Reason for being in the relationship; (e) Type of violence and explanation for the reason of violence; (f) Support network and daily activities; and (g) Clinical and legal referral. RESULTS: Constant violence causes changes in the structural functioning and psychological conflict of the victims: difficulties in mentalization, instability in relationships, emotional dependence, abandonment of her own life for her partners, difficulty in having a sense of identity. Victims presented difficulties in making significant changes in daily life to break the cycle of violence. CONCLUSION: The research sought to collaborate with more evidence on the subject, suggesting a reformulation on forms of encounter to break the cycle of violence.

8.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(3): 237-246, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043526

RESUMO

Abstract Objective To assess the association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and acute stress disorder (ASD) in patients who have suffered physical trauma. Methods Data were collected at an emergency hospital in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Participants were over 18 years of age, victims of physical trauma, and had been hospitalized for a minimum of 48 hours. A total of 117 hospitalized patients who agreed to participate in the research were grouped according to the shift in which blood was collected (38 subjects from the morning shift and 79 from the afternoon shift), had their BDNF levels measured and responded to other questionnaires. Respondents were further grouped by age into three ranges: 18-30, 31-50 and 51-70 years. Results We found a significant difference in the distribution of BDNF between the two shifts in which blood samples were collected, with the afternoon group having higher BDNF levels (U = 1906.5, p = 0.018). A difference was observed only between the 18-30 group and the 51-70 group in the afternoon shift (Umorning = 1107, pmorning = 0.575; Uafternoon = 7175, pafternoon = 0.028). Conclusions The population whose blood samples were collected in the afternoon showed significantly higher values of BDNF compared to those of the morning shift. This same population presented lower BDNF levels when associated with ASD subtypes A1, A2, and A. We hypothesize that the lower values of BDNF measured in the morning shift were due to a response to the circadian cycle of cortisol, whose action inhibits the expression of serum neurotrophins.


Resumo Objetivo Verificar a associação entre os níveis de fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]) e transtorno de estresse agudo (TEA) em pacientes que sofreram trauma físico. Métodos Os dados foram coletados em um hospital de emergência de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os participantes eram maiores de 18 anos, vítimas de trauma físico e estavam hospitalizados por um período mínimo de 48 horas. Um total de 117 pacientes hospitalizados que concordaram em participar da pesquisa foram agrupados de acordo com o turno de realização da coleta de sangue (38 sujeitos no turno da manhã e 79 sujeitos no turno da tarde), tiveram seus níveis de BDNF medidos e responderam a outros questionários. Os entrevistados também foram agrupados por idade em três faixas etárias: 18-30, 31-50 e 51-70 anos. Resultados Encontramos uma diferença significativa na distribuição de BDNF entre os turnos, sendo que o grupo da tarde apresentou níveis maiores de BDNF (U = 1906,5, p = 0,018). Houve diferença entre o grupo de 18-30 anos e o de 51-70 anos no turno da tarde (Umanhã = 1107, pmanhã = 0,575; Utarde = 7175, ptarde = 0,028). Conclusões A população cuja coleta ocorreu à tarde apresentou valores significativamente maiores de BDNF em relação à coleta do turno da manhã. Esta mesma população apresentou menores níveis dessa neurotrofina quando associada com os subtipos A1, A2 e A de TEA. É possível hipotetizar que os menores valores de BDNF aferidos na coleta do turno da manhã se devam a uma resposta ao ciclo circadiano do cortisol, cuja ação inibe a expressão de neurotrofinas séricas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Brasil , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ritmo Circadiano , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/sangue , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Hospitalização , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(3): 283-291, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043532

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Intimate partner domestic violence against women causes physical and psychological harm to victims. The relevance of this topic is indisputable and there is a need to identify in greater detail how these women experience violence, since these factors have considerable clinical implications. Objective: To develop a Portuguese version of the Module for Assessment of Domestic Violence, adapted from Axis I of the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis (OPD-2), considering content validity and psychometric characteristics. Method: Cross-cultural adaptation was based on guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. OPD clinical interviews were recorded and transcribed. These interviews were analyzed by two independent judges trained in the OPD-2. Results: The sample comprised 56 women who had been victims of domestic violence, with a mean age of 30.07 years (standard deviation = 9.65). The adapted version has content validity and good psychometric characteristics. Evaluation of semantic equivalence took into account the psychodynamic references, using the same ideas as the original instrument. Interexaminer reliability between the judges was substantial (k = 0.63) and Cronbach's alpha for the new version indicates good reliability. Conclusion: The OPD-2 offers a psychodynamic diagnosis of the victim that complements traditional nosological diagnosis, particularly in the context of domestic violence with the adaptation of Axis I. Certain biases could have been detrimental to aspects of this study, but they were controlled. The study objective was achieved and the Module was successfully adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. The results are in line with those of the original study.


Resumo Introdução: A violência doméstica por parceiro íntimo contra as mulheres causa danos físicos e psicológicos às vítimas. A relevância deste tópico é indiscutível, e é necessário identificar em mais detalhe como essas mulheres sofrem violência, uma vez que esses fatores têm implicações clínicas consideráveis. Objetivo: Desenvolver uma versão em português do Módulo de Avaliação da Violência Doméstica, adaptado do Eixo I do Diagnóstico Psicodinâmico Operacionalizado (Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis - OPD-2), considerando a validade de conteúdo e as características psicométricas. Método: A adaptação transcultural foi baseada nas diretrizes para o processo de adaptação transcultural de medidas de autorrelato. As entrevistas clínicas do OPD foram gravadas e transcritas. Essas entrevistas foram analisadas por dois juízes independentes treinados no OPD-2. Resultados: A amostra foi composta por 56 mulheres vítimas de violência doméstica, com idade média de 30,07 anos (desvio padrão = 9,65). A versão adaptada demonstrou validade de conteúdo e boas características psicométricas. A avaliação da equivalência semântica levou em consideração as referências psicodinâmicas, utilizando as mesmas ideias do instrumento original. A confiabilidade entre os juízes foi substancial (k = 0,63), e o alfa de Cronbach para a nova versão indica boa confiabilidade. Conclusão: O OPD-2 oferece um diagnóstico psicodinâmico da vítima que complementa o diagnóstico nosológico tradicional, particularmente no contexto de violência doméstica com a adaptação do Eixo I. Certos vieses poderiam ter sido prejudiciais aos aspectos deste estudo, mas foram controlados. O objetivo do estudo foi alcançado e o Módulo foi adaptado com sucesso para o português do Brasil. Os resultados estão alinhados com os do estudo original.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Portugal , Psicometria , Brasil , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Autorrelato , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 280: 112525, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445423

RESUMO

Acute stress disorder (ASD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are developed from exposure to traumatic events including war, interpersonal violence and natural disasters. We investigated prevalence and trauma-related information in patients from an outpatient psychiatric unit in Brazil among 2014-2017. A prevalence of ASD/PTSD of 40.8% was found in 179 patients. Female, Caucasian, married, mostly educated during 10-12 years long and employed patients composed a main profile. The presence of any previous trauma in adulthood and childhood were related to ASD/PTSD with longer follow-up time. This study provides evidence of stress-related disorders in a heterogeneous environment.


Assuntos
Ambulatório Hospitalar/economia , Pobreza/economia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/economia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/economia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Renda/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ambulatório Hospitalar/tendências , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/tendências , Prevalência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Violência/economia , Violência/psicologia , Violência/tendências
11.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(2): 201-210, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291412

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis (OPD-2) is an operational multiaxial diagnostic assessment and treatment planning tool. This systematic review sought to analyze empirical studies that used the OPD as an instrument. In addition to identifying the studies, we analyzed the topics covered and the results of research that used the OPD empirically. METHOD: Articles, dissertations and empirical theses that mentioned or used the OPD instrument in the last five years (2012-2017) were included in this review. The strategy included searching with combinations of the descriptors "Operationalized and psychodynamic and diagnosis" from the Portal de Periódicos CAPES on the PubMed, Google Scholar, and ResearchGate databases for work published in English, Portuguese or Spanish in the last five years. RESULTS: The search returned a total of 189 papers, but only 20 were included. The studies selected discussed the validity and reliability of the instrument, the therapeutic process and analysis of outcomes, assessment of different mental disorders, and also included studies comparing different instruments and techniques. Considerable scientific effort has evidently been dedicated to accumulating more consistent data on psychodynamic diagnosis. CONCLUSION: It was demonstrated that the OPD is an essential clinical tool for dimensional comprehension of the subject and for scientific research. However, the number of publications on the subject is not yet significant and the methods employed are diverse. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on topics such as applicability in different contexts and to different pathologies, promoting greater visibility and with greater representativeness of professionals who have experience with the instrument.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica , Humanos
12.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220472, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship among personality (according to Cloninger's psychobiological model), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, trait resilience and quality of life (QoL) in people who were exposed to the Kiss nightclub fire. METHODS: 188 participants were assessed with the Posttraumatic Checklist-civilian version (PCL-C), the Resilience Scale (RS), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-Bref), and the WHOQOL-100 Spirituality, religiousness, and personal beliefs (WHOQOL-100-SRPB). Data were analyzed in a dimensional approach, with correlation analysis, multiple linear regression and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), with PCL-C, RS, and WHOQOL-Bref dimensions as dependent variables. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression showed that PTSD symptoms were predicted by harm avoidance (ß = .34, p < .001), self-directedness (ß = -.28, p < .01), and self-transcendence (ß = .24, p < .01). Trait resilience was predicted by harm avoidance (ß = -.38, p < .01), self-directedness (ß = .20, p < .05), and self-transcendence (ß = .18, p < .05). Also, PTSD symptoms had considerable negative effect on all dimensions of QoL. Self-transcendence was a positive predictor of subjective and spiritual QoL. SEM showed that QoL was predicted by PTSD symptoms (ß = -.52, p < .001), trait resilience (ß = .30, p < .001), cooperativeness (ß = .135, p = 0.40), and self-directedness (ß = .27, p < .01). The effect of self-directedness on QoL was mediated by PTSD symptoms and trait resilience. PTSD symptoms also mediated the relationship between trait resilience and QoL, and RS mediated the relationship of personality and PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSION: The study gives insights on prediction of PTSD severity, trait resilience and QoL from temperament and character traits, in a sample of people exposed to the Kiss nightclub fire. Harm avoidance was the most influent trait on PTSD symptoms and trait resilience. Self-directedness was the most import trait related to QoL, still that it was more related to PTSD severity than personality traits. Self-transcendence had positive effects on both PTSD symptoms and trait resilience, indicating a coping style that may coexist with psychopathology.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Fogo , Redução do Dano , Personalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(3): 237-246, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and acute stress disorder (ASD) in patients who have suffered physical trauma. METHODS: Data were collected at an emergency hospital in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Participants were over 18 years of age, victims of physical trauma, and had been hospitalized for a minimum of 48 hours. A total of 117 hospitalized patients who agreed to participate in the research were grouped according to the shift in which blood was collected (38 subjects from the morning shift and 79 from the afternoon shift), had their BDNF levels measured and responded to other questionnaires. Respondents were further grouped by age into three ranges: 18-30, 31-50 and 51-70 years. RESULTS: We found a significant difference in the distribution of BDNF between the two shifts in which blood samples were collected, with the afternoon group having higher BDNF levels (U = 1906.5, p = 0.018). A difference was observed only between the 18-30 group and the 51-70 group in the afternoon shift (Umorning = 1107, pmorning = 0.575; Uafternoon = 7175, pafternoon = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: The population whose blood samples were collected in the afternoon showed significantly higher values of BDNF compared to those of the morning shift. This same population presented lower BDNF levels when associated with ASD subtypes A1, A2, and A. We hypothesize that the lower values of BDNF measured in the morning shift were due to a response to the circadian cycle of cortisol, whose action inhibits the expression of serum neurotrophins.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Brasil , Ritmo Circadiano , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(2): 201-210, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014738

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction The Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis (OPD-2) is an operational multiaxial diagnostic assessment and treatment planning tool. This systematic review sought to analyze empirical studies that used the OPD as an instrument. In addition to identifying the studies, we analyzed the topics covered and the results of research that used the OPD empirically. Method Articles, dissertations and empirical theses that mentioned or used the OPD instrument in the last five years (2012-2017) were included in this review. The strategy included searching with combinations of the descriptors "Operationalized and psychodynamic and diagnosis" from the Portal de Periódicos CAPES on the PubMed, Google Scholar, and ResearchGate databases for work published in English, Portuguese or Spanish in the last five years. Results The search returned a total of 189 papers, but only 20 were included. The studies selected discussed the validity and reliability of the instrument, the therapeutic process and analysis of outcomes, assessment of different mental disorders, and also included studies comparing different instruments and techniques. Considerable scientific effort has evidently been dedicated to accumulating more consistent data on psychodynamic diagnosis. Conclusion It was demonstrated that the OPD is an essential clinical tool for dimensional comprehension of the subject and for scientific research. However, the number of publications on the subject is not yet significant and the methods employed are diverse. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on topics such as applicability in different contexts and to different pathologies, promoting greater visibility and with greater representativeness of professionals who have experience with the instrument.


Resumo Introdução O Diagnóstico Psicodinâmico Operacional (OPD-2) é uma ferramenta operacional de avaliação diagnóstica multiaxial e planejamento terapêutico. Esta revisão sistemática buscou analisar estudos empíricos que utilizassem o OPD como instrumento; além de identificar os estudos, foram verificados os tópicos e resultados de pesquisa que utilizaram empiricamente o OPD. Método Foram incluídos os artigos, dissertações e teses empíricas dos últimos cinco anos (2012 a 2017) que abordaram ou utilizaram o instrumento OPD. A estratégia de busca incluiu o cruzamento dos descritores "Operacionalizado e Psicodinâmico e Diagnóstico", do Portal de Periódicos CAPES, nas bases de dados do PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, publicado em inglês, português ou espanhol nos últimos cinco anos. Resultados A busca resultou em um total de 189 artigos, mas apenas 20 foram incluídos. Os estudos selecionados trataram da validade e confiabilidade do instrumento, processo terapêutico e análise de resultados, avaliação de diferentes transtornos mentais e estudos comparativos com diferentes instrumentos ou técnicas. Um notável esforço científico no desenvolvimento de dados mais consistentes sobre o diagnóstico psicodinâmico. Conclusão Demonstrou-se que a OPD é uma ferramenta clínica essencial em relação à compreensão dimensional do sujeito e em pesquisas científicas. No entanto, o número de produções sobre o assunto ainda não é significativo, os métodos são diversos, mas os dados estão crescendo, como: a aplicabilidade em diferentes contextos, diferentes patologias, promover maior visibilidade com maior representatividade de profissionais que possuem conhecimento do instrumento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico
15.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(1): 9-17, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004840

RESUMO

Abstract Objective To explore and describe a profile of patients admitted to a psychiatric emergency facility, comparing patients with and without a recent suicide attempt in terms of their clinical characteristics and aggression. Methods This was an exploratory comparative study where patients were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). Participants with a suicide attempt in the last 24 hours (SA) were compared to participants with a prior history of suicide attempt but no recent attempt (PHSA). Results 63 individuals (SA: 26; PHSA: 37) were selected. Both groups had similar demographic and clinical characteristics. The most prevalent diagnoses were mood (57.1%) and personality (50.8%) disorders. The majority of patients in both groups had a history of aggression episodes. Physical aggression in the week prior to admission was more prevalent in the PHSA group (51.4 vs. 19.2%, p = 0.017). The PHSA group also presented higher activation scores (p = 0.025), while the SA group presented higher affect scores on BPRS dimensions (p = 0.002). Conclusion The majority of individuals with a history of suicide attempt also presented a history of aggression. Inpatients with recent suicide attempt were hospitalized mainly due to the risk of suicide, while those with no recent suicide attempt were hospitalized mainly due to the risk of hetero-aggression. These findings support the hypothesis of an aggressive profile in suicidal patients and may open up a path for future research.


Resumo Objetivo Explorar e descrever o perfil de pacientes internados em uma unidade de emergência psiquiátrica, comparando os pacientes com e sem tentativa recente de suicídio em termos de suas características clínicas e agressividade. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo exploratório comparativo, onde os pacientes foram avaliados por meio da Escala Breve de Avaliação Psiquiátrica (BPRS) e da Escala de Agressividade Declarada (OAS). Os participantes com tentativa de suicídio (TS) nas últimas 24 horas foram comparados com participantes com história prévia de tentativa de suicídio, mas sem tentativa recente (HPTS). Resultados Foram selecionados 63 indivíduos (TS: 26; HPTS: 37). Ambos os grupos tinham características demográficas e clínicas semelhantes. Os diagnósticos mais prevalentes foram transtornos de humor (57,1%) e de personalidade (50,8%). A maioria dos pacientes em ambos os grupos apresentava história de agressão. A agressão física na semana anterior à internação foi mais prevalente no grupo HPTS (51,4 vs. 19,2%, p = 0,017). O grupo HPTS também apresentou maior ativação (p = 0,025), enquanto o grupo TS apresentou maior afetividade nas dimensões da BPRS (p = 0,002). Conclusão A maioria dos indivíduos com história de tentativa de suicídio também apresentou história de agressão. Os pacientes internados com tentativa recente de suicídio foram hospitalizados principalmente devido ao risco de suicídio, enquanto aqueles sem tentativa recente de suicídio foram hospitalizados principalmente devido ao risco de heteroagressão. Esses achados apoiam a hipótese de um perfil agressivo em pacientes suicidas e podem abrir caminho para pesquisas futuras.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Agressão/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Humor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Serviços de Emergência Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(1): 9-17, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore and describe a profile of patients admitted to a psychiatric emergency facility, comparing patients with and without a recent suicide attempt in terms of their clinical characteristics and aggression. METHODS: This was an exploratory comparative study where patients were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). Participants with a suicide attempt in the last 24 hours (SA) were compared to participants with a prior history of suicide attempt but no recent attempt (PHSA). RESULTS: 63 individuals (SA: 26; PHSA: 37) were selected. Both groups had similar demographic and clinical characteristics. The most prevalent diagnoses were mood (57.1%) and personality (50.8%) disorders. The majority of patients in both groups had a history of aggression episodes. Physical aggression in the week prior to admission was more prevalent in the PHSA group (51.4 vs. 19.2%, p = 0.017). The PHSA group also presented higher activation scores (p = 0.025), while the SA group presented higher affect scores on BPRS dimensions (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The majority of individuals with a history of suicide attempt also presented a history of aggression. Inpatients with recent suicide attempt were hospitalized mainly due to the risk of suicide, while those with no recent suicide attempt were hospitalized mainly due to the risk of hetero-aggression. These findings support the hypothesis of an aggressive profile in suicidal patients and may open up a path for future research.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Serviços de Emergência Psiquiátrica , Hospitalização , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Serviços de Emergência Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev. Bras. Psicoter. (Online) ; 21(1): 39-51, Jan./Abril 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1052198

RESUMO

A psicoterapia psicanalítica com pessoas surdas é um recurso de cuidado psicológico que está se construindo e ainda é desconhecida, como possibilidade de exercício, por muitos profissionais. Apesar de estar, lentamente, se tornando alvo de interesse de alguns psicoterapeutas, ainda carece de pesquisas e mais publicações que a descrevam e convidem a reflexões sobre a prática. Assim como com ouvintes, a escuta do sofrimento de pacientes surdos é viável e efetiva. Contudo, é importante que aquele que trata esteja ciente das diferenças e alterações necessárias, advindas da condição da surdez, para que as sessões ocorram sem romper com os fundamentos psicanalíticos. Este artigo tem por objetivo conduzir o leitor a pensar sobre as particularidades desse atendimento. A partir de entrevistas feitas com psicólogos clínicos que realizam essa atividade, os fundamentos da psicoterapia psicanalítica e uma pesquisa teórica sobre a surdez,foi possível considerar algumas adaptações importantes ao setting e ao sujeito que se dispõe a fazer essa escuta aparentemente diferenciada.(AU)


The psychoanalytic psychotherapy with deaf people is a psychological care facility that is being built and still unknown, as a possibility of exercise by many professionals. Moreover, although it is slowly becoming the subject of interest of some psychotherapists, still needs more research and publications that describe and invite for reflections about the practice. As with listeners, listening to the suffering of deaf patients is feasible and effective. However, it is important that the one who do that, be aware of the differences and necessary changes arising from the condition of deafness, so that the sessions take place without breaking with the psychoanalytic fundamentals. Thus, this monograph aims to discuss the profile and performance of the professional who worksin this niche, leading the reader to think about the particulars of this service. From an analysis, interweaving interviews with clinicians who perform this activity, the fundamentals of psychoanalytic psychotherapy and the research bibliography ­ diverse ­ made about deafness, hypotheses were raised. Such considerations indicate some important adaptations to the setting and the guy who is willing to do this listening, apparently, differentiated.(AU)


La psicoterapia psicoanalítica con personas sordas es un recurso de cuidado psicológico que se está construyendo y aún es desconocida, como posibilidad de ejercicio, por muchos profesionales. Aunque esté, lentamente, convirtiéndose en blanco de interés de algunos psicoterapeutas, todavía carece de investigaciones y más publicaciones que la describen e inviten a reflexiones sobre la práctica. Así como con oyentes, la escucha del sufrimiento de pacientessordos es viable y efectiva. Sin embargo, esimportante que el que trata sea consciente de las diferencias y alteraciones necesarias, derivadas de la condición de la sordera, para que las sesiones ocurra sin romper con los fundamentos psicoanalíticos. Este artículo tiene por objetivo conducir al lector a pensar sobre las particularidades de esa atención. A partir de entrevistas realizadas con psicólogos clínicos que realizan esa actividad, los fundamentos de la psicoterapia psicoanalítica y una investigación teórica sobre la sordera, fue posible considerar algunas adaptaciones importantes al setting y al sujeto que se dispone a hacer esa escucha aparentemente diferenciada.(AU)


Assuntos
Relações Médico-Paciente , Psicanálise , Psicoterapia , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva
18.
Psicol. clín ; 30(3): 579-593, set.-dez. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-976608

RESUMO

Este estudo avaliou o funcionamento psicodinâmico de pacientes com Transtorno de Estresse por meio do Diagnóstico Operacionalizado Psicodinâmico (OPD-2), no que se refere à estrutura, conflito intrapsíquico e padrão interacional do sujeito. Foram avaliados três pacientes com diagnóstico de Transtorno de Estresse, seja Transtorno de Estresse Agudo, seja Transtorno de Estresse Pós-Traumático. As entrevistas foram transcritas e codificadas conforme o OPD-2, considerando a confiabilidade teste-reteste para a codificação dos itens. Todos os participantes apresentaram níveis moderados de sofrimento subjetivo, com limitações na continuidade de atividades cotidianas. O conflito prevalente foi a necessidade de ser cuidado versus a autossuficiência. O nível de estrutura psíquica foi avaliado como moderado, cujo receio principal é a perda de um objeto importante ou separação significativa de apoio e há dificuldade de regulação emocional. A compreensão dimensional do OPD permitiu uma compreensão do funcionamento psicodinâmico dos pacientes de forma mais clara, o que pode facilitar o entendimento do contexto clínico de estresse.


This study evaluated the psychodynamic functioning of patients with Stress Disorder through Operational Psychodynamic Diagnosis (OPD-2), regarding the structure, intrapsychic conflict and interactional pattern of the subject. Three patients with a diagnosis of Stress Disorder, either Acute Stress Disorder or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, were evaluated. The interviews were transcribed and coded according to the OPD-2, considering the test-retest reliability for the coding of the items. All participants presented moderate levels of subjective suffering, with limitations in the continuity of daily activities. The prevailing conflict was the need to be cared for versus self-sufficiency. The level of psychic structure was assessed as moderate, in which the main fear is the loss of an important object or significant separation from support and there is difficulty in emotional regulation. By the dimensional understanding of the OPD, an understanding of the patients' psychodynamic functioning was made clearer, which may help in the understanding of the clinical context of stress.


Este estudio evaluó el funcionamiento psicodinámico de pacientes con Trastorno de Estrés a través del Diagnóstico Operacionalizado Psicodinámico (OPD-2), en lo que se refiere a la estructura, conflicto intrapsíquico y patrón interaccional del sujeto. Se evaluaron tres pacientes con diagnóstico de trastorno de estrés, ya sea trastorno de estrés agudo o trastorno de estrés postraumático. Las entrevistas fueron transcritas y codificadas según el OPD-2, considerando la confiabilidad test-retest para la codificación de los ítems. Todos los participantes presentaron moderado nivel de sufrimiento subjetivo, con limitaciones en la continuidad de actividades cotidianas. El conflicto prevalente fue la necesidad de ser cuidado frente la autosuficiencia. El nivel de estructura psíquica fue evaluado como moderado, cuyo temor principal es la pérdida de un objeto importante o separación significativa de apoyo y hay dificultad de regulación emocional. La comprensión dimensional del OPD permitió una comprensión del funcionamiento psicodinámico de los pacientes de forma más clara, que puede facilitar el entendimiento del contexto clínico de estrés.

19.
Rev. Bras. Psicoter. (Online) ; 20(1): 49-59, 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1000099

RESUMO

O presente artigo descreve algumas considerações a respeito do processo de término em psicoterapia psicanalítica, encontradas na literatura. O objetivo é discorrer sobre aspectos e recomendações que caracterizam a fase final do tratamento, considerando que a mesma é percebida de forma singular pela dupla: terapeutapaciente. Alguns autores destacam a capacidade do ego do paciente, o alcance de objetivos determinados na terapia, a superação de ansiedades e inibições, entre outros, como indicadores para a conclusão do tratamento. Tais critérios e demais questionamentos serão descritos ao longo deste estudo, contemplando principalmente o fechamento integral do processo, observando brevemente alguns aspectos relacionados às interrupções. O fim da terapêutica desperta, tanto em quem se trata quanto nos profissionais, angústias primitivas que devem ser elaboradas por ambos, portanto, reconhecidas e trabalhadas ao máximo durante o tratamento.(Aut)


This article compiles some considerations about the end of the process in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, found in the literature. The objective is to discuss aspects and recommendations that characterize the final phase of the treatment considering that it is perceived in a unique way by each of the dual therapist / patient. Some authors emphasize the capacity of the ego, the achievement of determined goals, the overcoming of anxieties and inhibitions, among others, as indicators for the conclusion of this modality of psychological care. These criteria and other questions will be better described throughout this study, contemplating the complete closure, that is, without stopping the interruptions. The end of the therapy awakens, both in those who are treated and in the professionals, primitive anxieties that must be elaborated by both, therefore, recognized and worked to the maximum during the treatment.(aut)


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicanálise , Psicoterapia , Contratos
20.
Rev. Bras. Psicoter. (Online) ; 20(2): 1-8, Maio-Ago 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1051316

RESUMO

The theory of object relations is fundamental to the psychoanalytic understanding of the development of the mind. The initial relations with caregivers are introjected as patterns of relations containing the self, the object (the other) and the related affects, and are repeated throughout life. The way of dealing with relations (defense mechanisms), the ability to accept the good and bad aspects of the self and the other, and the level of independence are also entailed in the initial experiences. In this article, we propose there is another order of objects that is internalized during development, following a pattern that is similar to that characteristic of the relation with the caregivers. The individual also introjects "society" as an object: self + social object + affects and defenses related to the pattern of the relationship. The relation with this object that represents society is experienced as if it was a human object, being part of all sorts of events in the internal world. The definitions and specifics of the concept are presented, along with its clinical relevance and possible applications.(AU)


A teoria das relações objetais é fundamental para a compreensão psicanalítica do desenvolvimento da mente. As relações iniciais com os cuidadores são introjetadas como padrões de relações contendo o self, o objeto (o outro) e os afetos relacionados, sendo repetidas ao longo da vida. O modo de lidar com as relações (mecanismos de defesa), a capacidade de aceitar os aspectos bons e ruins do self e do outro e o nível de independência também são desenvolvidos, a partir das experiências iniciais. Neste artigo, propomos uma outra ordem de objetos que é internalizada durante o desenvolvimento, seguindo um padrão que é semelhante ao característico à relação com os cuidadores. O indivíduo também introjeta a "sociedade" como um objeto: self + objeto social + afetos e defesas relacionadas ao padrão do relacionamento. A relação com esse objeto que representa a sociedade é vivida no mundo interno como se fosse um objeto humano, fazendo parte de toda dinâmica peculiar a essa realidade. As definições e especificações do conceito são apresentadas, juntamente com sua relevância clínica e possíveis aplicações.(AU)


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica , Aculturação , Apego ao Objeto
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