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mSphere ; 4(6)2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694899


The release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) by fungi is a fundamental cellular process. EVs carry several biomolecules, including pigments, proteins, enzymes, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates, and are involved in physiological and pathological processes. EVs may play a pivotal role in the establishment of fungal infections, as they can interact with the host immune system to elicit multiple outcomes. It has been observed that, depending on the fungal pathogen, EVs can exacerbate or attenuate fungal infections. The study of the interaction between fungal EVs and the host immune system and understanding of the mechanisms that regulate those interactions might be useful for the development of new adjuvants as well as the improvement of protective immune responses against infectious or noninfectious diseases. In this review, we describe the immunomodulatory properties of EVs produced by pathogenic fungi and discuss their potential as adjuvants for prophylactic or therapeutic strategies.

Ciênc. rural ; 47(5): e20160899, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-839802


ABSTRACT: Essential oils are the most important compounds produced during secondary metabolism in aromatic plants. Essential oils are volatile, have characteristic odor and are used as defensive agents by plants. In pepper, it is possible to say that essential oils are the “flavor fingerprint” of each species. In the present article, eight species of pepper were studied in order to extract their essential oils and oleoresins, test their antibacterial and antifungal activities and also to identify the compounds present in the most bioactive samples. Results demonstrated that two essential oils [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. and Schinus terebinthifolius] and three oleoresins (Schinus terebinthifolius and Piper nigrum white and black) recorded significant antimicrobial activity. These active essential oils and oleoresins are interesting for use in biotechnological processes employed in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.

RESUMO: Os óleos essenciais são os compostos mais importantes produzidos durante o metabolismo secundário de plantas aromáticas. No caso das pimentas, é possível afirmar que os óleos essenciais são a “impressão digital do sabor” de cada espécie. No presente artigo, oito espécies de pimenta foram estudadas a fim de extrair seus óleos essenciais e oleoresinas, testar a sua atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica, bem como, identificar os compostos presentes nas amostras mais ativas. Os resultados obtidos mostram que dois óleos essenciais (Pimenta dioica e Schinus terebinthifolius) e três oleoresinas (Schinus terebinthifolius e Piper nigrum branco e preto) apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana significativa. Esses óleos essenciais e oleoresinas bioativos mostram-se interessantes para a utilização em processos biotecnológicos empregados na indústria alimentar, farmacêutica e outras indústrias.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 8(12): e3317, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25474158


BACKGROUND: Paracoccin (PCN) is an N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin from the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Recombinant PCN (rPCN) induces a T helper (Th) 1 immune response when prophylactically administered to BALB/c mice, protecting them against subsequent challenge with P. brasiliensis. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of rPCN in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and the mechanism accounting for its beneficial action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four distinct regimens of rPCN administration were assayed to identify which was the most protective, relative to vehicle administration. In all rPCN-treated mice, pulmonary granulomas were less numerous and more compact. Moreover, fewer colony-forming units were recovered from the lungs of rPCN-treated mice. Although all therapeutic regimens of rPCN were protective, maximal efficacy was obtained with two subcutaneous injections of 0.5 µg rPCN at 3 and 10 days after infection. The rPCN treatment was also associated with higher pulmonary levels of IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, nitric oxide (NO), and IL-10, without IL-4 augmentation. Encouraged by the pulmonary cytokine profile of treated mice and by the fact that in vitro rPCN-stimulated macrophages released high levels of IL-12, we investigated the interaction of rPCN with Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Using a reporter assay in transfected HEK293T cells, we verified that rPCN activated TLR2 and TLR4. The activation occurred independently of TLR2 heterodimerization with TLR1 or TLR6 and did not require the presence of the CD14 or CD36 co-receptors. The interaction between rPCN and TLR2 depended on carbohydrate recognition because it was affected by mutation of the receptor's N-glycosylation sites. The fourth TLR2 N-glycan was especially critical for the rPCN-TLR2 interaction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our results, we propose that PCN acts as a TLR agonist. PCN binds to N-glycans on TLRs, triggers regulated Th1 immunity, and exerts a therapeutic effect against P. brasiliensis infection.

Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Lectinas/administração & dosagem , Paracoccidioidomicose/prevenção & controle , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas Fúngicas/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lectinas/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Paracoccidioidomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Paracoccidioidomicose/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia