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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 158728, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108826

RESUMO

Marine ecosystems are suffering from the gradual rise in temperature due to climate change. Warming scenarios and the intensification of extreme climate events, such as marine heatwaves (MHWs), have been negatively affecting marine organisms. In addition, they are also threatened by anthropogenic pollution. Lithium (Li) is an emerging pollutant that has become a major concern due to its increasing use in a variety of applications. Understanding its influence on marine environments in combination with warming scenarios is crucial, as very little is known about its impact on marine organisms, especially when also considering the increasingly concerning impacts of climate change. With this in mind, this research aimed to assess how different scenarios of increasing temperature may affect the response of Mytilus galloprovincialis to Li. Mussels bioaccumulation levels, as well as physiological and biochemical biomarkers were analyzed after 28 days of exposure to Li under different temperature scenarios (control - 17 °C; warming - 21 °C and marine heatwave - MHW). The results indicate that mussels accumulated Li, independently of the temperature scenario. The respiration rate was higher in contaminated mussels than in the non-contaminated ones, with no differences among temperature scenarios. Furthermore, the metabolic rate decreased in non-contaminated mussels exposed to 21 °C and MHW, while mussels exposed to the combination of Li and MHW presented the highest metabolic rate. The mussels exposed to MHW and Li evidenced the highest cellular damage but Li was not neurotoxic in M. galloprovincialis. This study highlighted that MHW + Li was the most stressful condition, inducing clear negative effects in this species that can impair the growth and reproduction of an entire population. In general, the presented results highlight the importance of future studies in which it is necessary to combine the effects of pollutants and climate change scenarios, namely extreme weather events such as MHWs.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Lítio/toxicidade , Temperatura , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Mytilus/fisiologia , Água do Mar , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159374, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240931

RESUMO

The Lithium (Li) industry has been expanding worldwide, over the last decades, and projections expect an increasing demand for its production in the coming years. It has been identified as an emerging pollutant and it occurs widely in aquatic environments, raising concern about its effects on ecosystems. Besides the increasing research on this topic, there is still limited understanding and discussion on the marine and coastal implications of Li occurrence. The present review aims to fill these knowledge gaps by analysing the literature concerning Li occurrence and its effects on marine and coastal ecosystems, including transition areas. Since 1960, the number of publications has increased, especially over the last decade, and available information has reported Li in water and sediments of these areas, while few studies investigated Li in tissues of biota. Among all the studied ecosystems, Chile reported one of the highest Li concentrations. Regarding the adverse effects of Li in aquatic organisms, Bacillariophyceae, Scyphozoa, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Cephalopoda, Polychaeta, Malacostraca, Echinoidea and Actinopteri were the studied taxonomic classes, and development inhibition, malformations, cellular and metabolic alterations, and behaviour changes were some of the observed impacts. This review might be particularly important in the mitigation of Li pollution as well as in the implementation of new directives and thresholds, as it highlights the impacts of Li and the urgent need to address new solutions and alternatives, meeting the Agenda 2030 for sustainable development.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Lítio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Organismos Aquáticos , Peixes
3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358520

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is a ubiquitous trace element in the aquatic environment, and is usually found at low levels. Copper environmental concentrations can be altered as a result anthropogenic activities. Shellfish are useful bioindicators to ensure adequate environmental monitoring. Thus, the aim of the present study was as follows: (a) determine the LC50 of copper(I) chloride in grooved carpet shell (Ruditapes decussatus) collected in the Santa Gilla lagoon (Sardinia, Italy), and (b) analyze the antioxidant biomarkers in digestive gland and gills of same specimens exposed to different concentrations of the above-mentioned metal (0.045, 0.45, and 0.90 mg/L) for 96 h. A withdrawal period of 96 h was considered for the treated clam, carrying out the same biochemical analyses, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and total glutathione (GSH+2GSSG) in the two tissues. Different time and dose responses of the antioxidant biomarkers were recorded in the digestive glands and gills. Oxidative stress biomarkers highlighted the ability of Cu to induce oxidative stress in R. decussatus. Clam, following the withdrawal period of 96 h, has not been able to achieve the control levels of all biochemical markers in the digestive gland and gills. R. decussatus can be a suitable model to assess the ecotoxicity of copper in aquatic ecosystems. These findings may advance knowledge on the role and the effects of copper on oxidative stress biomarkers in grooved carpet shell. The metal ecotoxicity response can be useful to perform accurate biomarker-based monitoring programs using this bivalve species.

4.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(21)2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365748

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate tissue repair of excisional wounds in hyperglycemic animals treated with chitosan-alginate membranes (CAM) produced in the presence of glycerol. 8-week C57B1 male mice were divided into normoglycemic animals with a 0.9% saline solution topical treatment (CTSF); hyperglycemic animals with 0.9% saline solution topical treatment (DMSF) and hyperglycemic animals with glycerol-plasticized chitosan-alginate membrane topical treatment (DMCAM). On post-wound day three, the DMCAM group presented a lower number of leukocytes, mature mastocytes, a higher number of vessels (p < 0.05), and active mastocytes (p < 0.05) when compared to the CTSF and DMSF groups. There were no differences regarding the distribution, deposition, organization, and thickness of collagen fibers. On day 7 there were no differences in the analysis of fibroblasts, mastocytes, and TGF-ß1 and VEGF expressions among the groups. Regarding collagen fibers, the DMCAM group presented slight red-orange birefringence when compared to the CTSF and DMSF groups. On day 14 there was a slight concentration of thinner elastic fibers for the DMCAM group, with a greater reorganization of papillary skin and improved red-orange birefringence collagen fibers, as well as net-shaped orientation, similar to intact skin. In addition, improved elastic fiber organization distributed in the entire neo-dermis and a larger presence of elaunin fibers were observed, in a similar pattern found in the intact skin. The use of CAM in cutaneous lesions boosted tissue repair since there was a smaller number of inflammatory cells and mastocytes, and an improvement in collagen deposition and collagen fibers. These results demonstrate the high potential of plasticized chitosan-alginate membrane for skin wound dressing of hyperglycemic patients.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 1): 159586, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273566

RESUMO

As a result of the wide use of Titanium (Ti) compounds in various products, Ti and Ti nanoparticles (nTi) are released into aquatic environments, inducing varying degrees of toxicity on aquatic fauna. Ulva lactuca, green macroalgae commonly found in coastal areas, has been extensively studied due to its worldwide distribution and capacity to accumulate trace elements under toxic conditions, which makes it a good universal sorbent. The present study aimed to establish the remediation properties of U. lactuca by evaluating the toxicity of Ti and nTi in bivalves, in the presence and absence of algae. Using the bivalve species Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ti toxicity was evaluated by assessing changes in mussel's metabolic capacity and oxidative status. Results evidenced cellular damage in M. galloprovincialis exposed to Ti and nTi. This was a result of the inactivation of antioxidant defences. The presence of U. lactuca limited cellular damage, however, this was not a result of the previously demonstrated bioremediation capacity, as no accumulation of Ti was verified in algal tissues. As a metabolic depression was verified for mussels exposed to Ti/nTi in the presence of algae, we hypothesise that U. lactuca may have been responsible for changes to the water quality which induced this response.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192589

RESUMO

The traditional use of organic solvents in various branches of industry is being rethought as these compounds very often display high volatility, toxicity and lipophilicity (related to the ability to interact with biological membranes). More recently, developments in the field of Green Chemistry are focusing on the design of more sustainable and cost-effective solvent alternatives like Ionic Liquids (ILs), bio-based solvents and natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs). The present study aimed at performing an ecotoxicological screening of 15 NADESs using an extensive set of marine and freshwater bioassays, based on different endpoints as the following: immobilization of the crustacean Daphnia magna, growth inhibition of Raphidocelis subcapitata and of Phaeodactylum tricornutum, larval development alterations on the serpulid Ficopomatus enigmaticus and bioluminescence inhibition of Aliivibrio fischeri. What emerged was a general absence of toxicity of all samples. However, both algal assays showed a certain degree of biostimulation, up to over 100% growth increase in respect to controls with 8 out of 15 compounds tested with Raphidocelis subcapitata. Despite NADESs-induced negligible toxicity effects to invertebrates, encouraging their labelling as "sustainable" solvents, the liability of their intentional or accidental release into aquatic systems may represent a serious risk in terms of ecosystem functioning impairments.

7.
Aquat Toxicol ; 250: 106263, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939883

RESUMO

Marine-coastal systems have been increasingly exposed to multiple stressors, including anthropogenic pollution and variations of Climate Change (CC) related factors, whose coexistence could create associated environmental and ecotoxicological risks. Among emergent stressors, 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor (4-MBC) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) UV-filters are compounds widely used in increasing consumer products, resulting in their ubiquity in aquatic environments and possible pressing challenges on gamete susceptibility. Since most marine invertebrates reproduce by external fertilization, after spawning, gametes may be exposed to several pressures, affecting reproductive success and outcome. The present study focuses on the spermiotoxicity of the environmentally relevant UV-filters 4-MBC and BP-3 combined with salinity shifts, as potential modulators of their harmful effects. For this, Mytilus galloprovincialis male gametes were exposed in vitro to environmentally relevant and slightly higher concentrations (1, 10 and 100 µg/L) of 4-MBC or BP-3 under three different salinities (S 20, 30 and 40). Sperm quality endpoints associated with oxidative status, viability, motility, kinetics, and genotoxicity were evaluated. Similarities and differences in sperm responses among all conditions were highlighted by principal coordinates analysis (PCO). Results showed that salinity acting alone posed greater sperms impairments at the lowest (20) and highest (40) tested levels. When salinity acts as a co-varying stressor, salinity-dominant interactive effects resulted evident, especially for 4-MBC at S 40 and BP-3 at S 20. These findings were pointed out as the worst exposure conditions for M. galloprovincialis sperms, since caused major toxicological effects in terms of: (I) oxidative stress, sperm structural impairments, motility and kinetic alterations in 4-MBC-exposed sperms; (II) DNA damage, compromised mitochondrial activity and hyperactivation in BP-3-exposed ones. Overall, it stands out that salinity influences UV-filter toxicological pathways and, thereby, the potential environmental risk of these contaminants on M. galloprovincialis male gametes, especially in an expected salinity stress scenario.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Masculino , Salinidade , Sêmen/química , Sêmen/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Environ Pollut ; 312: 119987, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995291

RESUMO

Avobenzone (AVO) is one of the most frequent ultraviolet (UV) filters in personal care products (PCPs). The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a bioindicator often used for ecotoxicological research. Since UV filters reach higher peaks during summer in aquatic bodies, coincident with mussels' spawning period, and bivalves are sessile, both male gametes and adults of this species were used in this experiment. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess how AVO affects M. galloprovincialis at different biological levels. In vitro experiments on sperms (30 min-exposure) and in vivo experiments on adults (28 days-exposure) were carried out at 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 µg/L of AVO concentrations. The oxidative and physiological status together with genotoxicity in exposed sperms were assessed. Several biochemical parameters related to enzymatic antioxidant defences, biotransformation enzymes, cell membrane damage, energy reserves, and neurotoxicity were evaluated in adult mussels. Results of in vitro sperm exposure to AVO showed significant overproduction of superoxide anions and DNA damages in all treatments and decrease in sperm viability at 1.0 and 10.0 µg/L. AVO exposure also led to complete inhibition of motility of sperms at the highest concentration, while a significant increase of curvilinear velocity and decrease of wobble occurred at 1.0 µg/L. In vivo exposed adults exhibited a significant decrease in metabolic capacity at 0.1 µg/L, a significant increase in the total protein content and enzymatic turnover as superoxide dismutase (antioxidant defence) at 10 µg/L. This study revealed an ecological concern related to the high sensitivity of sperms respectively to adults under environmentally relevant concentrations of AVO, underpinning an hypothesis of male reproductive function impairments.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Masculino , Mytilus/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Propiofenonas , Sêmen/metabolismo , Protetores Solares/metabolismo , Protetores Solares/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Am J Perinatol ; 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article aimed to report a temporal series of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)-associated neonatal mortality rates in preterm live births in São Paulo state, Brazil, and to identify social, maternal, and neonatal characteristics associated with these deaths. STUDY DESIGN: This is a population-based study of all live births with gestational age (GA) between 22 and 36 weeks, birth weight ≥400 g, without congenital anomalies from mothers living in São Paulo state during 2004 to 2015. RDS-associated neonatal mortality was defined as death up to 27 days after birth with ICD-10 codes P22.0 or P28.0. RDS-associated neonatal mortality rate (annual percent change [APC] with 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) was analyzed by Prais-Winsten. Kaplan-Meier estimator identified the time after birth that the RDS-associated neonatal death occurred. Poisson's regression model compared social maternal and neonatal characteristics between preterm live births that survived the neonatal period and those with RDS-associated neonatal deaths, with results expressed in incidence rate ratio and 95% CI. RESULTS: A total of 645,276 preterm live births were included in the study, of which 612,110 survived and 11,078 had RDS-associated neonatal deaths. RDS-associated neonatal mortality rate was 17.17 per thousand preterm live births, with a decreasing annual trend (APC: -6.50%; 95% CI: -9.11 to -3.82%). The median time of these deaths was 48 hours after birth. The following risk factors for RDS-associated neonatal death were identified: maternal schooling ≤7 years (1.18; 1.09-1.29), zero to three prenatal care visits (1.25; 1.18-1.32), multiple pregnancy (1.24; 1.16-1.33), vaginal delivery (1.29; 1.22-1.36), GA 22 to 27 weeks (106.35; 98.36-114.98), GA 28 to 31 weeks (20.12; 18.62-21.73), male sex (1.16; 1.10-1.22), and 5-minute Apgar scores of 0 to 3 (6.74; 6.08-7.47) and 4 to 6 (3.97; 3.72-4.23). CONCLUSION: During the study period, RDS-associated neonatal mortality rates showed significant reduction. The relationship between RDS-associated neonatal deaths and social, maternal, and neonatal factors suggests the need for perinatal strategies to reduce prematurity and to improve the initial management of preterm infants. KEY POINTS: · RDS is associated with preterm live births.. · Impact of RDS-associated neonatal mortality in middle-income countries is scarce.. · Qualified perinatal care can reduce RDS-associated neonatal mortality..

10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 182: 113944, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908486

RESUMO

Cobalt (Co) is among the hazardous substances identified in aquatic environments. Industrialization and population growth have also contributed to climate change, namely in what concerns ocean temperature rise. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of temperature rise on the impacts caused by Co on Mytilus galloprovincialis. To this end, mussels were exposed for 28 days to 17 °C and 21 °C, without and with 200 µg L-1 of Co. Results showed no significant differences in Co bioaccumulation by the organisms between temperatures. A significant interaction between temperature and Co contamination was observed in terms of oxidative damage, detoxification capacity, and neurotoxicity, with a synergistic effect particularly evident in terms of biotransformation enzymes' activity. The obtained results point out that population survival and distribution may be limited in the long term, highlighting the need for future research on the combined effects of both stressors.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cobalto/toxicidade , Oceanos e Mares , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(43): 64370-64391, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852751

RESUMO

The potential adverse effects of UV-filter pollution in marine environments have been the focus of research in recent years. This systematic review aims to determine the extent of this emerging problem, both quantitatively and qualitatively, combining temporal and science mapping analyses to explore the development of the field of UV-filters in the marine environment (from 1990 to 2021), and to outline new research frontiers. The temporal trend analysis revealed an exponential growth of published studies over the last decade (70% since 2016), confirming the emerging role of this topic in environmental science. The meta-analysis determined that 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4-MBC) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) are top-priority environmental pollutants due to their increasing usage and, in turn, a frequent occurrence in marine ecosystems. This meta-analysis determined the focus on these two contaminants for this review. A critical discussion of the applications, regulatory aspects, and environmental occurrences of these selected compounds was provided. The present study also focused on the most recent (2015-2021) field and laboratory studies investigating the ecotoxicological impacts of 4-MBC and BP-3 on marine invertebrates. This review highlights the need for more research efforts to fill the knowledge gaps on the realistic effects these compounds may have when considered individually, in combination, or as subsequent exposures. Overall, this review aims to establish guidelines for further studies to understand the effect of UV-filters on marine ecosystems and marine invertebrate communities.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas , Cânfora , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Benzofenonas/toxicidade , Cânfora/análogos & derivados , Cânfora/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Chemosphere ; 307(Pt 2): 135577, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792214

RESUMO

Most of the electric and electronic waste is not recycled and the release of its components into the environment is expected, including the rare-earth element Lanthanum (La), which has already been reported in the aquatic systems. Furthermore, considering climate change factors such as the predicted increase in temperature, the susceptibility of aquatic organisms to these rare elements may be modified. In light of this, the present study aimed to evaluate the relevance of temperature on La-derived effects in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Several biomarkers and La bioaccumulation were assessed in organisms exposed to 0 (control) and 10 µg/L of La at two distinct temperatures (17 and 22 °C) for 28 days. Results showed that temperature did not influence La bioaccumulation in mussels. However, exposure to La resulted in a decreased metabolic capacity and an enhancement of biotransformation enzymes activity, as a possible defense behavior of mussels to avoid La accumulation and toxicity. Nevertheless, antioxidant defenses were also inhibited leading to increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels. Warming alone seemed to cause a metabolic shutdown seen as reduced enzyme activities and protein carbonylation (PC) levels. Simultaneous La exposure and temperature rise caused combined effects on mussels, as they accused metabolic depression, biotransformation defenses activation, antioxidant capacity reduction, and higher cellular damage. Overall, this study highlights the need to perform environmental risk assessment studies, by considering emerging contaminants exposures at relevant concentrations, both at present and forecasted climate change scenarios.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Lantânio/metabolismo , Mytilus/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1226, 2022 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prematurity and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are strongly associated. RDS continues to be an important contributor to neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to identify clusters of preterm live births and RDS-associated neonatal deaths, and their cooccurrence pattern in São Paulo State, Brazil, between 2004 and 2015.  METHODS: Population-based study of all live births with gestational age ≥ 22 weeks, birthweight ≥ 400 g, without congenital anomalies from mothers living in São Paulo State, Brazil, during 2004-2015. RDS-associated neonatal mortality was defined as deaths < 28 days with ICD-10 codes P22.0 or P28.0. RDS-associated neonatal mortality and preterm live births rates per municipality were submitted to first- and second-order spatial analysis before and after smoothing using local Bayes estimates. Spearman test was applied to identify the correlation pattern between both rates. RESULTS: Six hundred forty-five thousand two hundred seventy-six preterm live births and 11,078 RDS-associated neonatal deaths in São Paulo State, Brazil, during the study period were analyzed. After smoothing, a non-random spatial distribution of preterm live births rate (I = 0.78; p = 0.001) and RDS-associated neonatal mortality rate (I = 0.73; p = 0.001) was identified. LISA maps confirmed clusters for both, with a negative correlation (r = -0.24; p = 0.0000). Clusters of high RDS-associated neonatal mortality rates overlapping with clusters of low preterm live births rates were detected. CONCLUSIONS: Asymmetric cluster distribution of preterm live births and RDS-associated neonatal deaths may be helpful to indicate areas for perinatal healthcare improvement.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Nascido Vivo , Gravidez
14.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 1): 113642, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724725

RESUMO

Plastic debris are dispersed in the marine environment and are consequently available to many organisms of different trophic levels, including sediment-dwelling organisms such as polychaetae. Plastic degradation generates micro (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) and as well as releases bounded plastic additives, increasing the ecotoxicological risk for marine organisms. Therefore, this review summarizes current knowledge on the accumulation and effects of MPs and NPs and plastic additives in polychaetes, derived from laboratory and field evidences. Thirty-six papers (from January 2011 to September 2021) were selected and analysed: about 80% of the selected works were published since 2016, confirming the emerging role of this topic in environmental sciences. The majority of the analysed manuscripts (68%) were carried out in the laboratory under controlled conditions. These studies showed that polychaetes accumulate and are responsive to this contaminant class, displaying behavioural, physiological, biochemical and immunological alterations. The polychaetes Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina were the most frequent used species to study MPs, NPs and plastic additive effects. The consideration of field studies revealed that MP accumulation was dependent on the plastic type present in the sediments and on the feeding strategy of the species. Polychaetes are known to play an important role in coastal and estuarine food webs and exposure to MPs, NPs and plastic additives may impair their behavioural, physiological, biochemical and immunological responses. Thus, the estimated global increase of these contaminants in the marine environment could affect the health of these benthic organisms, with consequences at population and ecosystem levels.


Assuntos
Poliquetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia , Plásticos
15.
Environ Res ; 213: 113739, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750122

RESUMO

Present in an increasing number of products, UV-filters are continuously discharged into aquatic environments. Despite potential risks for inhabiting organisms are recognized, the effects of UV-filter 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor (4-MBC) on marine invertebrates are poorly investigated. By combining in vitro/in vivo exposures through a multi-biomarker approach on sperms and adults, the present study evaluated how 4-MBC affect the mussel species Mytilus galloprovincialis, providing ecologically relevant information on organisms' responses. From the obtained results, considering mortality as endpoint, sperms revealed a greater sensitivity (EC50:347 µg/L) than adults (EC50: not calculable). From an ecotoxicological perspective, this resulted in a derived threshold concentration (LOEC) of 100 µg/L and 72 µg/L, respectively. Effects at the cell/molecular level were provided by general redox-status imbalance and oxidative stress. Sperms showed functional and structural impairments, hyperactivation and DNA damage, while adults showed physiological, metabolic/energetic dysfunctions, DNA damage and activation of oxidative and biotransformation enzymes. High 4-MBC bioaccumulation was also observed in exposed mussels (BCFs:14.0-32.0 L/kg). These findings suggest that 4-MBC may impair fitness and survival of the broadcast spawning mussel M. galloprovincialis, affecting reproduction success and population growth.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Ecotoxicologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Environ Pollut ; 307: 119387, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513194

RESUMO

The increasing use of rare earth elements (REEs) in electric and electronic equipment has been associated with the presence of these elements in aquatic systems. The present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of two REEs, Lanthanum (La) and Gadolinium (Gd), towards the mussel species Mytilus galloprovincialis. For this, the toxicity was assessed after a short-term exposure (14 days) to an environmentally relevant concentration of each element (10 µg/L), followed by a recovery period (14 days) in the absence of any contaminant. The measured biomarkers included energy-related parameters, activity of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes, indicators of oxidative damage, levels of oxidized glutathione and neurotoxicity. After exposure mussels accumulated more La (0.54 µg/g) than Gd (0.15 µg/g). After recovery higher concentration decrease was observed for Gd (≈40% loss) compared to La exposed mussels (≈30% loss) which may be associated with lower detoxification capacity of mussels previously exposed to La. Mussels increased their metabolism (i.e., higher electron transport system activity) only after the exposure to Gd. Exposure to La and Gd resulted into lower energy expenditure, while when both elements were removed glycogen and protein concentrations decreased to values observed in non-contaminated mussels. Antioxidant and biotransformation capacity was mainly increased in the presence of Gd. This defense response avoided the occurrence of cellular damage but still loss of redox balance was found regardless the contaminant, which was re-established after the recovery period. Neurotoxicity was only observed in the presence of Gd with no effects after the recovery period. Results showed that a short-term exposure to La and especially to Gd can exert deleterious effects that may compromise specific biochemical pathways in aquatic species, such as M. galloprovincialis, but under low concentrations organisms can be able to re-establish their biochemical status to control levels after a recovery period.


Assuntos
Metais Terras Raras , Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Gadolínio/toxicidade , Lantânio/metabolismo , Lantânio/toxicidade , Mytilus/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 178: 113601, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367697

RESUMO

With the increase of UV filters usage and consequent release into aquatic environments, the concerns about their potential ecological risks are also increasing. According to this, in the present study, adult polychaetes of the species Ficopomatus enigmaticus were chronically exposed to three concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L) of organic and inorganic filters (Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and nanoparticulate Zinc oxide (nZnO), respectively) in order to analyse biochemical responses related to cellular damage, antioxidant defence, biotransformation mechanisms and, lastly, neurotoxicity. Despite major lipid peroxidation caused by EHMC was observed, both UV filters have produced the same response patterns. In details, a clear concentration-dependent activation of glutathione S-transferases and a significant decrease of acetylcholinesterase levels defined an important neurotoxic effect was observed for both contaminants. These results become important to expand the limited scientific literature on biochemical responses of marine and brackish water invertebrates to organic and inorganic UV filters.


Assuntos
Poliquetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Protetores Solares/análise , Protetores Solares/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(43): 64745-64755, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476271

RESUMO

The most important use of lithium (Li) is in rechargeable batteries. The growing use of Li, incorrect disposal of Li-based applications, and inefficient recycling strategies for their elimination will result in the release of this metal into the aquatic systems. Alongside with the impacts caused by pollutants, organisms in coastal ecosystems are also facing environmental changes as those related with climate change scenarios, namely, seawater temperature rise. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate the influence of temperature on Li toxicity, using the Nassariid gastropod Tritia neritea as model species. Metabolism and oxidative stress related biomarkers were evaluated after a 28-day exposure period. The results demonstrated that temperature enhanced the toxic impacts of Li, most probably due to snail increased sensitivity when under warming conditions. As a consequence of inefficient antioxidant and biotransformation capacity, lipid peroxidation was observed in Li-contaminated snails at 21 ºC, demonstrating a significant interaction between both factors. Regarding snails' metabolic capacity, Li did not affect snails, but a clear decrease on their metabolism was observed at increased temperature (with or without Li) which may limit snail defense capacity. Overall, the present findings demonstrated the impacts derived from Li towards marine intertidal gastropods, evidencing enhanced threats under predicted warming conditions. Considering the role of T. neritea in the ecosystem functioning, impacts on this species may greatly affect other populations and eventually the entire community.


Assuntos
Lítio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Lítio/toxicidade , Caramujos/metabolismo , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
19.
J Environ Manage ; 313: 115030, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417811

RESUMO

In the present study, waste-based biochar functionalized with titanium dioxide (TiO2) and afterwards magnetized by an ex-situ approach, defined as synthetic photosensitizer (SPS), was explored for the photocatalytic degradation of sulfadiazine (SDZ), an antibiotic widely used in the aquaculture industry, under solar irradiation. The use of the SPS enhanced the photodegradation efficiency, with a half-life time (t1/2) reduction from 12.2 ± 0.1 h (without SPS) to 5.6 ± 0.4 h. The applied magnetization procedure allowed to obtain a SPS with good reusability for SDZ photodegradation even after five consecutive cycles. To evaluate the effects on marine bivalves of SDZ, before and after photodegradation and in presence or absence of the SPS, a typical bioindicator species, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, was used and different biochemical markers were analysed. Results obtained indicated that the exposure to SDZbefore irradiation, both in absence and presence of SPS, caused an increase in mussels' metabolism and defence mechanisms, evidencing great biochemical impacts. However, after irradiation (in the absence and presence of SPS), biochemical responses were similar to those observed in organisms exposed to control conditions, without SDZ. Therefore, this work provided a promising eco-friendly treatment for the removal of SDZ from aquaculture effluents.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Carbono , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Mytilus/metabolismo , Fotólise , Sulfadiazina , Titânio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22272467

RESUMO

People recovered from COVID-19 may still present complications including respiratory and neurological sequelae. In other viral infections, cognitive impairment occurs due to brain damage or dysfunction caused by vascular lesions and inflammatory processes. Persistent cognitive impairment compromises daily activities and psychosocial adaptation. Some level of neurological and psychiatric consequences were expected and described in severe cases of COVID-19. However, it is debatable whether neuropsychiatric complications are related to COVID-19 or to unfoldings from a severe infection. Nevertheless, the majority of cases recorded worldwide were mild to moderate self-limited illness in non-hospitalized people. Thus, it is important to understand what are the implications of mild COVID-19, which is the largest and understudied pool of COVID-19 cases. We aimed to investigate adults at least four months after recovering from mild COVID-19, which were assessed by neuropsychological, ocular and neurological tests, immune markers assay, and by structural MRI and 18FDG-PET neuroimaging to shed light on putative brain changes and clinical correlations. In approximately one-quarter of mild-COVID-19 individuals, we detected a specific visuoconstructive deficit, which was associated with changes in molecular and structural brain imaging, and correlated with upregulation of peripheral immune markers. Our findings provide evidence of neuroinflammatory burden causing cognitive deficit, in an already large and growing fraction of the world population. While living with a multitude of mild COVID-19 cases, action is required for a more comprehensive assessment and follow-up of the cognitive impairment, allowing to better understand symptom persistence and the necessity of rehabilitation of the affected individuals.

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