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1.
Environ Res ; 195: 110755, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556353

RESUMO

Nowadays, multi-walled carbon nanotubes are considered to be emerging contaminants and their impact in ecosystem has drawn special research attention, while other contaminants, such as caffeine, have more coverage in literature. Despite this, the effects of a combination of the two has yet to be evaluated, especially considering predicted temperature rise. In the present study a typical bioindicator species for marine environment, the clam Ruditapes decussatus, and classical tools, such as biomarkers and histopathological indices, were used to shed light on the species' response to these contaminants, under actual and predicted warming scenarios. The results obtained showed that both contaminants have a harmful effect at tissue level, as shown by higher histopathological index, especially in digestive tubules. Temperatures seemed to induce greater biochemical impacts than caffeine (CAF) and -COOH functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) when acting alone, namely in terms of antioxidant defences and energy reserves content, which were exacerbated when both contaminants were acting in combination (MIX treatment). Overall, the present findings highlight the complex response of clams to both pollutants, evidencing the role of temperature on clams' sensitivity, especially to mixture of pollutants.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 175: 304-312, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516854

RESUMO

Steam explosion can be used to pretreat lignocellulosic materials to decrease energy and chemical consumption during pulping to obtain environmentally friendly lignin and to improve lignin yield without changing its structure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extraction of lignin from oil palm mesocarp fibers and sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion pretreatment followed by acetosolv. The biomasses were pretreated at 168 °C for a reaction time of 10 min. Steam explosion combined with acetosolv at lower severities was also carried out. Steam explosion followed by acetosolv increased the lignin yield by approximately 15% and 17% in oil palm mesocarp fibers and sugarcane bagasse, respectively. In addition, steam explosion decreased the reaction time of acetosolv four-fold while maintaining the lignin yield from sugarcane bagasse. Similar results were not obtained for oil palm mesocarp. High-purity and high-quality lignins were obtained using steam explosion pretreatment with structural characteristics similar to raw ones. Sugarcane bagasse lignin seems to be a better option for application in material science due its higher lignin yield and higher thermal stability. Our findings demonstrate that steam explosion is efficient for improving lignin yield and/or decreasing pulping severity.

3.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 54, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies analyzing neonatal deaths in middle-income countries may contribute to design interventions to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, established by United Nations. This study goal is to analyze the annual trend of neonatal mortality in São Paulo State, Brazil, over a 10-year period and its underlying causes and to identify maternal and neonatal characteristics at birth associated with neonatal mortality. METHOD: A population-based study of births and deaths from 0 to 27 days between 2004 and 2013 in São Paulo State, Brazil, was performed. The annual trend of neonatal mortality rate according to gestational age was analyzed by Poisson or by Negative Binomial Regression models. Basic causes of neonatal death were classified according to ICD-10. Association of maternal demographic variables (block 1), prenatal and delivery care variables (block 2), and neonatal characteristics at birth (block 3) with neonatal mortality was evaluated by Poisson regression analysis adjusted by year of birth. RESULTS: Among 6,056,883 live births in São Paulo State during the study period, 48,309 died from 0 to 27 days (neonatal mortality rate: 8.0/1,000 live births). For the whole group and for infants with gestational age 22-27, 28-31, 32-36, 37-41 and ≥ 42 weeks, reduction of neonatal mortality rate was, respectively, 18 %, 15 %, 38 %, 53 %, 31 %, and 58 %. Median time until 50 % of deaths occurred was 3 days. Main basic causes of death were respiratory disorders (25 %), malformations (20 %), infections (17 %), and perinatal asphyxia (7 %). Variables independently associated with neonatal deaths were maternal schooling, prenatal care, parity, newborn sex, 1st minute Apgar, and malformations. Cesarean delivery, compared to vaginal, was protective against neonatal mortality for infants at 22-31 weeks, but it was a risk factor for those with 32-41 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the significant decrease in neonatal mortality rate over the 10-year period in São Paulo State, improved access to qualified health care is needed in order to avoid preventable neonatal deaths and increase survival of infants that need more complex levels of assistance.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 142031, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182219

RESUMO

It is currently assumed that climate change related factors pose severe challenges to biodiversity maintenance. This paper assesses the multi-stressor effects of elevated temperature (15 °C as control, 25 °C as elevated) and CO2 levels (pH 8.1 as control, 7.5 and 7.0 representing acidifying conditions) on the physiological (survival and regenerative capacity), behavioral (feeding and burrowing activities), and biochemical changes (metabolic capacity, oxidative status and biotransformation mechanisms) experienced by the keystone polychaete Hediste diversicolor. Temperature rise enlarged the adverse effect of marine acidification on the survival of H. diversicolor, delayed the beginning of the excavation activity, enhancing the negative effects that pH decrease had in the burrowing behavior of this polychaete. Additionally, regardless of the temperature, exposure of H. diversicolor to acidification results in a reduction in the feeding rate. It is the first time that this decreased feeding capacity is found related to seawater acidification in this species. The healing of the wound and the blastemal formation were retarded due to these two climatic factors which hinder the regenerative process of polychaetes. These vital physiological functions of H. diversicolor can be related to the oxidative stress induced by climate change conditions since free radicals overproduced will impair cells functioning, affecting species biochemical and physiological performance, including feeding and tissue regeneration. The present results also demonstrated that although polychaetes' metabolic capacity was enhanced under stress conditions, organisms were still able to increase or maintain their energy reserves. Our findings are of major environmental relevance considering that predicted climate change conditions will affect species vital and ecological and physiological capacities. These can be translated into shrinking not only at the individual and population level but also in microbial and endofaunal diversities, in the detritus processing in estuaries and biogeochemical cycles at the ecosystem level. Thus the conservation of H. diversicolor populations is vital for the normal functioning of estuarine mudflat ecosystems.


Assuntos
Poliquetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Água do Mar
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111219, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931966

RESUMO

Contamination by organic and inorganic compounds remains one of the most complex problems in both brackish and marine environments, causing potential implications for the reproductive success and survival of several broadcast spawners. Ficopomatus enigmaticus is a tubeworm polychaete that has previously been used as a model organism for ecotoxicological analysis, due to its sensitivity and ecological relevance. In the present study, the effects of five trace elements (zinc, copper, cadmium, arsenic and lead), one surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (benzo(a)pyrene, B(a)P) on the sperm quality of F. enigmaticus were investigated. Sperm suspensions were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of each selected contaminant under four salinity conditions (10, 20, 30, 35). Possible adverse effects on sperm function were assessed by measuring oxidative stress, membrane integrity, viability and DNA damage. Sperm quality impairments induced by organic contaminants were more evident than those induced by inorganic compounds. SDS exerted the largest effect on sperm. In addition, F. enigmaticus sperm showed high tolerance to salinity variation, supporting the wide use of this species as a promising model organism for ecotoxicological assays. Easy and rapid methods on polychaete spermatozoids were shown to be effective as integrated sperm quality parameters or as an alternative analysis for early assessment of marine and brackish water pollution.


Assuntos
Poliquetos/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Arsênico/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Cádmio/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Masculino , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Salinidade , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
6.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115458, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254618

RESUMO

Considering the increasing use of Lithium (Li) and the necessity to fulfil this demand, labile Li occurrence in the environment will be enhanced. Thus, additional research is needed regarding the presence of this element in marine environment and its potential toxic impacts towards inhabiting wildlife. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Li toxicity based on the exposure of Mytilus galloprovincialis to this metal, assessing the biochemical changes related with mussels' metabolism, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. For this, organisms were exposed to different Li concentrations (100, 250, 750 µg/L) for 28 days. The results obtained clearly demonstrated that Li lead to mussels' metabolism depression. The present study also revealed that, especially at the highest concentrations, antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes were not activated, leading to the occurrence of lipid peroxidation and loss of redox homeostasis, with increased content in oxidized glutathione in comparison to the reduced form. Furthermore, after 28 days, higher Li exposure concentrations induced neurotoxic effects in mussels, with a decrease in acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity. The responses observed were closely related with Li concentrations in mussels' tissues, which were more pronounced at higher exposure concentrations. Such results highlight the potential toxic effects of Li to marine species, which may even be higher under predicted climate changes and/or in the presence of other pollutants.

7.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; : 103561, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307128

RESUMO

Carboxylesterases (CEs) are key enzymes which catalyse the hydrolysis reactions of multiple xenobiotics and endogenous ester moieties. Given their growing interest in the context of marine pollution and biomonitoring, this study focused on the in vitro sensitivity of marine invertebrate CEs to some pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products and plastic additives to assess their potential interaction on this enzymatic system and its suitability as biomarkers. Three bivalves, one gastropod and two crustaceans were used and CEs were quantified following current protocols set for mammalian models. Four substrates were screened for CEs determination and to test their adequacy in the hepatic fraction measures of the selected invertebrates. Two commercial recombinant human isoforms (hCE1 and hCE2) were also included for methodological validation. Among the invertebrates, mussels were revealed as the most sensitive to xenobiotic exposures while gastropods were the least as well as with particular substrate-specific preferences. Among chemicals of environmental concern, the plastic additive tetrabromobisphenol A displayed the highest CE-inhibitory capacity in all species. Since plastic additives easily breakdown from the polymer and may accumulate and metabolise in marine biota, their interaction with the CE key metabolic/detoxification processes may have consequences in invertebrate's physiology, affect bioaccumulation and therefore trophic web transfer and, ultimately, human health as shellfish consumers.

8.
Chemosphere ; : 128820, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199112

RESUMO

Space launchers often use aluminized-solid fuel ("propergol") as propellant and its combustion releases tons of Al2O3 and HCl that sink in terrestrial and aquatic environments, polluting and decreasing water pH. We studied the impact of these events on the biochemical/physiological performance of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium jelskii, with wild specimens collected from a non-impacted site in French Guiana. In the laboratory, shrimps were exposed for one week to: i) undisturbed conditions; ii) Al2O3 exposure (0.5 mg L-1) at normal pH (6.6); iii) decreased pH (4.5) (mimicking HCl release in the environment) with no Al2O3; or iv) Al2O3 0.5 mg L-1 and pH 4.5, representing the average conditions found in the water bodies around the Ariane 5 launch pad. Results showed that shrimps bioaccumulated aluminium (Al) regardless of water pH. The combined effect of Al2O3 and low pH caused the most impact: acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities decreased, indicating neurotoxicity and reduced detoxification capacity, respectively. Animal respiration was enhanced with Al2O3 and pH variations alone, but the synergic interaction of both stressors caused respiration to decrease, suggesting metabolic depression. Oxidative damage followed a similar pattern to respiration rates across conditions, suggesting free radical-mediation in Al toxicity. Antioxidant activities varied among enzymes, with glutathione reductase being the most impacted by Al2O3 exposure. This study shows the importance of addressing space ports' impact on the environment, setting the bases for selecting the most appropriate biomarkers for future monitoring programs using a widespread and sensitive crustacean in the context of an increasing space-oriented activity across the world.

9.
Environ Res ; : 110381, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130173

RESUMO

Coastal organisms (i.e. intertidal or upper subtidal species) live in between the terrestrial and aquatic realms, making them particularly vulnerable to climate change. In this context, intertidal organisms may suffer from the predicted sea level rise (increasing their submerged time) while subtidal organisms may suffer from anthropically-induced hypoxia and its consequences. Although there is some knowledge on how coastal organisms adapt to environmental changes, the biochemical and physiological consequences of prolonged submergence periods have not yet been well characterized. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the biochemical alterations experienced by intertidal organisms maintained always under tidal exposure (IT); intertidal organisms maintained submersed (IS); subtidal organisms maintained always submersed (SS); subtidal organisms under tidal exposure (ST). For this, Mytilus galloprovincialis specimens from contiguous intertidal and subtidal populations were exposed to the above mentioned conditions for twenty-eight days. Results indicated that both intertidal and subtidal mussels are adapted to the oxidative stress pressure caused by tidal and submerged conditions tested. Intertidal mussels did not seem to be negatively affected by submergence while ST specimens were energetically challenged by tidal exposure. Both IT and ST mussels consumed glycogen to fuel up mechanisms aiming to maintain redox homeostasis. Overall, both intertidal and subtidal populations were capable of coping with tidal exposure, although the strategies employed differed between them. These findings indicate that although IT mussels may not significantly suffer from the longer-term submergence, hypoxic events occurring in the context of global warming and other anthropogenic impacts may have consequences on both IT and ST populations. Altogether, it is important to highlight that tides may act as a confounding factor in experiments concerning coastal organisms, as it causes additional physiological and biochemical perturbations.

10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 230: 105673, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221665

RESUMO

The negative effects induced in marine organisms by Climate Change related abiotic factors consequences, namely ocean warming, are well-known. However, few works studied the combined impacts of ocean warming and contaminants, as pharmaceutical drugs. Carbamazepine (CBZ) and cetirizine (CTZ) occur in the marine environment, showing negative effects in marine organisms. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of ocean warming on the effects of CBZ and CTZ, when acting individually and combined (drug vs drug), in the edible clam Ruditapes philippinarum. For that, drugs concentration, bioconcentration factors and biochemical parameters, related with clam's metabolic capacity and oxidative stress, were evaluated after 28 days exposure to environmentally relevant scenarios of these stressors. The results showed limited impacts of the drugs (single and combined) at control and warming condition. Indeed, it appeared that warming improved the oxidative status of contaminated clams (higher reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio, lower lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation levels), especially when both drugs were combined. This may result from clam's defence mechanisms activation and reduced metabolic capacity that, respectively, increased elimination and limited production of reactive oxygen species. At low stress levels, defence mechanisms were not activated which resulted into oxidative stress. The present findings highlighted that under higher stress levels clams may be able to activate defence strategies that were sufficient to avoid cellular damages and loss of redox homeostasis. Nevertheless, low concentrations were tested in the present study and the observed responses may greatly change under increased pollution levels or temperatures. Further research on this topic is needed since marine heat waves are increasing in frequency and intensity and pollution levels of some pharmaceuticals are also increasing in coastal systems.

11.
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol ; 240: 108922, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164844

RESUMO

The use of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) is growing in different technological fields, raising concern on their potential impacts on the environment. Given its diverse nanothenological applications, graphene oxide (GO) stands out among the most widely used CNMs. Its hydrophilic capacity enables it to remain stable in suspension in water allowing that GO can be accessible for accumulation by aquatic organisms through ingestion, filtration and superficial dermal contact when present in aquatic ecosystems. Considering that the effects induced to aquatic organisms may depend on environment characteristics, such as temperature, salinity, water pH as well as the presence/absence of sediment, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of sediment on the impacts caused by GO exposure. For this, oxidative stress parameters were measured in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum, exposed to different GO concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/L), in the presence and absence of sediment, for a 28-days experimental period. The results here presented showed that regardless the presence or absence of sediment, most of the biochemical parameters considered were altered when clams were exposed to the highest concentration. The present findings further revealed that in the presence of sediment, clams mostly invested in non-enzymatic defenses (such as reduced glutathione, GSH), while animals exposed to GO in the absence of sediment favored their enzymatic antioxidant defense capacity (catalase, CAT and superoxide dismutase, SOD). This study highlights the relevance of environmental variations as key factors influencing organisms' responses to pollutants.

12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127544

RESUMO

We combined the chemical and physical methods of papain immobilization through the aldehyde groups available on oxidized bacterial cellulose (OxBC) to provide high proteolytic activity for future applications as bioactive dressing. Bacterial cellulose (BC) was obtained by the fermentation of Komagataeibacter hansenii in Hestrin-Schramm medium for 5 days, followed by purification and oxidation using NaIO4. Surface response methodology was used to optimize papain immobilization (2%, w/v) for 24 h. The independent variables: pH (3-7) and temperature (5 to 45 °C) were investigated. The mathematically validated optimal conditions of 45 °C and pH 7 had a statistical effect on the immobilization yield (IY) of papain in OxBC (52.9%). These ideal conditions were also used for papain immobilization in BC (unoxidized). The IY of 9.1% was lower than that of OxBC. OxBC-Papain and BC-Papain were investigated using thermal analysis, confocal microscopy, and diffusion testing. The OxBC support exhibited a more interactive chemical structure than the BC support, and was capable of immobilizing papain by covalent bonds (-C-NHR) and adsorption (ion exchange), with 93.3% recovered activity, 49.4% immobilization efficiency, and better thermal stability. Papain immobilized to OxBC by adsorption displayed 53% widespread papain activity. The results indicate the potential of prolonged bioactivity in debrided chronic wounds.

13.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 177: 107479, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039398

RESUMO

Bivalve stocks have been decreasing in the last decades largely due to emergent diseases and consequent mass mortality episodes. Cerastoderma edule (the edible cockle) is one of the most exploited bivalves in Europe and is among the most common hosts for trematodes, the most prevalent macroparasites in coastal waters but yet poorly studied. Therefore, in the present study, this bivalve species was used as host model to determine if trematode infection exerts a negative effect on bivalve energy metabolism and balance and if the tissues targeted by different trematodes influence the metabolic cost, with physiological and biochemical consequences. Cockles were experimentally infected with two trematode species, Himasthla elongata and Renicola roscovitus, that infect the foot and palps, respectively. Trematode infection exerted a negative effect on the metabolism of C. edule, the second intermediate host, by reduction of oxygen consumption. A different host biochemical response was found depending on trematode species, especially in regard to the level of oxygen consumption decrease and the preferential accumulation of lipids and glycogen. This study represents a step towards the understanding of host-trematode relationships that can be used to better predict potential conservation threats to bivalve populations and to maximize the success of stock and disease management.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926215

RESUMO

Carbamazepine (CBZ) is among the ten most frequent pharmaceuticals that occur in the aquatic systems, with known effects on inhabiting organisms, including bivalves. Bivalves are important species in coastal ecosystems, often exhibiting a dominant biomass within invertebrate communities. These organisms play a major role in the functioning of the ecosystem and particularly in food webs (as suspension-feeders) and represent a significant fraction of the fisheries resource. They also have strong interactions with the environment, water and sediment and are considered good bioindicator species. The present paper reviews the known literature on the impacts of CBZ in biological endpoints of marine bivalves exposed to environmentally and non-environmentally relevant concentrations, highlighting differences in terms of biological responses, associated with exposure period, concentrations tested, and species used. Overall, the literature available showed that CBZ induces individual and sub-individual effects in marine bivalves (adults and life stages) and the most common effect reported was the induction of oxidative stress.

15.
Environ Res ; 188: 109846, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846638

RESUMO

Marine toxins in bivalves pose an important risk to human health, and regulatory authorities throughout the world impose maximum toxicity values. In general, bivalve toxicities due to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) above the regulatory limit occur during short periods, but in some cases, it may be extended from weeks to months. The present study examines whether cockles (Cerastoderme edule), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and razor shells (Solen marginatus) naturally exposed to a bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum activated or suppressed biochemical responses as result of the presence of PSTs in their soft tissues. Toxins (C1+2, C3+4, GTX5, GTX6, dcSTX, dcGTX2+3 and dcNEO) and a set of biomarkers (ETS, electron transport system activity; GLY, glycogen; PROT, protein; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase; GST, glutathione S-transferases; LPO, lipid peroxidation; reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione contents and AChE, acetylcholinesterase activity) were determined in the three bivalve species. Specimens were harvested weekly in Aveiro lagoon, Portugal, along thirteen weeks. This period included three weeks in which bivalve toxicity exceeded largely the regulatory limit and the subsequence recovery period of ten weeks. Biochemical performance of the surveyed species clearly indicated that PSTs induce oxidative stress and neurotoxicity, with higher impact on mussels and razor shells than in cockles. The antioxidant enzymes CAT and GPx seemed to be the biomarkers better associated with toxin effects.


Assuntos
Cardiidae , Toxinas Marinhas , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Animais , Humanos , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Portugal , Frutos do Mar/análise
16.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 116: 111175, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806235

RESUMO

Hybrid materials, based on bacterial cellulose (BC) and hydroxyapatite (HA), have been investigated for guided bone regeneration (GBR). However, for some GBR, degradability in the physiological environment is an essential requirement. The present study aimed to explore the use of oxidized bacterial cellulose (OxBC) membranes, associated with strontium apatite, for GBR applications. BC membranes were produced by fermentation and purified, before oxidizing and mineralizing by immersing in strontium chloride solution and sodium bibasic phosphate for 5 cycles. The hybrid materials (BC/HA/Sr, BC/SrAp, OxBC/HA/Sr and OxBC/SrAp) were characterized for biodegradability and bioactivity and for their physicochemical and morphological properties. In vitro cytotoxicity and hemolytic properties of the materials were also investigated. In vivo biocompatibility was analyzed by performing histopathological evaluation at 1, 3 and 9 weeks in mices. Results showed that the samples presented different strontium release profiles and that oxidation enhances degradation under physiological conditions. All the hybrid materials were bioactive. Cell viability assay indicated that the materials are non-cytotoxic and in vivo studies showed low inflammatory response and increased connective tissue repair, as well as degradation in most of the materials, especially the oxidized membranes. This study confirms the potential use of bacterial cellulose-derived hybrid membranes for GBR.

17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111094, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818876

RESUMO

Previous studies suggested the suitability of the brackish-water serpulid (Ficopomatus enigmaticus) to be used as model organism for both marine and brackish waters monitoring, by the performance of sperm toxicity and larval development assays. The present study focused on larval development after the exposure of two F. enigmaticus populations (Mediterranean and Atlantic, collected in Italy and Portugal, respectively) to different trace elements (copper, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, and lead) at different concentrations. Results of larval development assays were presented as the percentage of abnormal developed larvae. The effect, measured in terms of EC50 for all toxicants tested, showed that mercury was the most toxic metal for larvae of both populations. Specifically, the tested trace elements may be racked in the following order from the highest to the lowest toxicity: Mediterranean: mercury > copper > lead > arsenic > cadmium; Atlantic: mercury > copper > cadmium > arsenic > lead. Responses of both populations were similar for arsenic. Lead was the least toxic element for the Atlantic population, while cadmium showed the least toxicity for the Mediterranean population. These preliminary results demonstrate the sensitivity and suitability of the organisms to be used in ecotoxicological bioassays and monitoring protocols. Moreover, chemical analyses on soft tissues and calcareous tubes of collected test organisms and their sampling site water were performed, to identify and quantify the concentration of the tested trace elements in these 3 matrices. Populations exhibited less sensitivity to a certain element together with a relevantly higher concentration of the same element in soft tissues. This may indicate a certain resistance to particular contaminant toxic effects by organisms that tend to accumulate the same toxicant. This highlights the potential correlation between wild-caught test organisms' responses and a deep characterization of the sampling site to identify putative abnormalities or differences in model organism response during bioassay execution.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Ecotoxicologia , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Itália , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Mercúrio/análise , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Portugal , Oligoelementos/análise
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(25): 31854-31862, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504435

RESUMO

Mussels are worldwide bioindicators in pollution monitoring since they fulfil the requirements for being good sentinels. However, some methodological concerns arise in the use of particular biomarkers, particularly those displaying low enzymatic rates and/or limited responsiveness to chemicals and biological-related variability. In the present study, the suitability of oxidative stress and detoxification parameters when using mussels as sentinels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution is addressed. Present results show that the S9 subcellular fraction of the digestive gland in mussels is an adequate and convenient matrix where to measure most pollution-related biomarkers. Furthermore, this work constitutes the first evidence of the potential suitability of using particular carboxylesterase (CE) activities in determining PAHs exposure in mussels. This fact could imply the replacement of more controversial cytochrome P450 components (phase I oxidation), which are only measurable in microsomal fractions, by CEs (measured in S9 fractions) as good alternatives for phase I reactions in PAH-exposed mussels. Some methodological considerations, such as the need of including commercial purified proteins in biomarker determinations for quality assurance, are evaluated.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores , Monitoramento Ambiental
20.
Environ Res ; 188: 109778, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574852

RESUMO

It is known that, for marine coastal ecosystems, pollution and global warming are among the most threatening factors. Among emerging pollutants, nanoparticles (NPs) deserve particular attention as their possible adverse effects are significantly influenced by environmental factors such as salinity, pH and temperature, as well as by their ability to interact with other contaminants. In this framework, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential interactions between CeO2 NPs and the toxic classic metal mercury (Hg), under current and warming conditions. The marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis was used as biological model and exposed to CeO2 NPs and Hg, either alone or in combination, for 28 day at 17 °C and 22 °C. A suite of biomarkers related to energetic metabolism, oxidative stress/damage, redox balance, and neurotoxicity was applied in exposed and non-exposed (control) mussels. The Hg and Ce accumulation was also assessed. Results showed that the exposure to CeO2 NPs alone did not induce toxic effects in M. galloprovincialis. On the contrary, Hg exposure determined a significant loss of energetic metabolism and a general impairment in biochemical performances. Hg accumulation in mussels was not modified by the presence of CeO2 NPs, while the biochemical alterations induced by Hg alone were partially canceled upon co-exposure with CeO2 NPs. The temperature increase induced loss of metabolic and biochemical functions and the effects of temperature prevailed on mussels exposed to pollutants acting alone or combined.


Assuntos
Cério , Mercúrio , Mytilus , Nanopartículas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cério/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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