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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166532

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present paper analyzes the role of different imaging modalities for left atrial appendage (LAA) assessment and the recommended specific measurements to improve device selection with regard to the Amulet device. BACKGROUND: Morphological LAA assessment is one of the pivotal factors to achieve proper LAA sealing and potentially reduce the risk of complications by minimizing manipulation inside the appendage. METHODS: Eight experienced physicians in LAAO were asked to contribute in the preparation of a device sizing consensus manuscript after comprehensive assessment of previous published data on LAA imaging/measurement. RESULTS: LAA morphology is often complex and requires more detailed spatial resolution and 3-dimensional assessments to reduce the risk of mis-sizing. Traditionally, upsizing of devices based upon the largest measured LAA diameters have been used. However, this may lead to oversizing in markedly elliptical appendages. Thus, when 3D imaging modalities are available, utilizing the LAA mean diameters might be a better alternative. Operators should also note the systematic biases in differences in measurements obtained with different imaging modalities, with CT giving the largest measurements, followed by 3D-TEE, and then 2D-TEE and angiography. In fact, for 2D imaging techniques (2D-TEE and angiography), LAA diameters tend to be underestimated, and therefore, LAA largest diameters seem to be still the best option for device sizing. Some specific anatomies such as proximal chicken-wing or conic LAAs may require different measurements and implantations to achieve implant success. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, LAA mean diameters might be a better alternative to largest diameters when 3D imaging modalities are available.

2.
Int J Cardiol ; 305: 35-41, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Relationship between STEMI time of presentation, its circadian pattern and cardiovascular outcomes is unclear. Our objective is to analyze clinical outcomes of STEMI according to time of presentation and circadian pattern. METHODS: We analyzed data from patients treated within the regional STEMI Network from January 2010 to December 2015. On-hour group included patients treated between 8:00 h and 19:59 h on weekdays, the rest were catalogued as off-hour group. The primary endpoint was 1-year all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints were 30-day all-cause mortality and in-hospital complications. RESULTS: A total of 8608 patients were included, 44.1% in the on-hour group and 55.9% in the off-hour group. We observed a shorter patient delay and longer system delay in the off-hour group compared to on-hour group with no difference in total ischemic time. At 30-day and 1-year follow-up there were no differences in adjusted all-cause mortality between groups [OR 0.91 (CI95%: 0.73-1.12; p = 0.35) and OR 0.99 (CI95%: 0.83-1.17; p = 0.87), respectively]. A circadian pattern was observed between 9:00 am and 12:30 pm, with no differences in 30-day and 1-year mortality between patients included in this time interval [OR 1.02 (IC95%: 0.81-1.30; p = 0.85) and OR 1.12 (IC95%: 0.92-1.36; p = 0.25) respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Off-hour STEMI presentation was associated with a shorter patient delay and longer system delay without an increase in total ischemic time. The off-hour presentation was not related to an increase in 1-year all-cause mortality when compared to on-hour. A circadian pattern was found, without differences in 30-day and 1-year mortality.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e014035, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009525

RESUMO

Background Hypothermia has been associated with therapeutic benefits including reduced mortality and better neurologic outcomes in survivors of cardiac arrest. However, undesirable side effects have been reported in patients undergoing coronary interventions. Using a large animal model of temperature management, we aimed to describe how temperature interferes with the coronary vasculature. Methods and Results Coronary hemodynamics and endothelial function were studied in 12 pigs at various core temperatures. Left circumflex coronary artery was challenged with intracoronary nitroglycerin, bradykinin, and adenosine at normothermia (38°C) and mild hypothermia (34°C), followed by either rewarming (38°C; n=6) or moderate hypothermia (MoHT; 32°C, n=6). Invasive coronary hemodynamics by Doppler wire revealed a slower coronary blood velocity at 32°C in the MoHT protocol (normothermia 20.2±11.2 cm/s versus mild hypothermia 18.7±4.3 cm/s versus MoHT 11.3±5.3 cm/s, P=0.007). MoHT time point was also associated with high values of hyperemic microvascular resistance (>3 mm Hg/cm per second) (normothermia 2.0±0.6 mm Hg/cm per second versus mild hypothermia 2.0±0.8 mm Hg/cm per second versus MoHT 3.4±1.6 mm Hg/cm per second, P=0.273). Assessment of coronary vasodilation by quantitative coronary analysis showed increased endothelium-dependent (bradykinin) vasodilation at 32°C when compared with normothermia (normothermia 6.96% change versus mild hypothermia 9.01% change versus MoHT 25.42% change, P=0.044). Results from coronary reactivity in vitro were in agreement with angiography data and established that endothelium-dependent relaxation in MoHT completely relies on NO production. Conclusions In this porcine model of temperature management, 34°C hypothermia and rewarming (38°C) did not affect coronary hemodynamics or endothelial function. However, 32°C hypothermia altered coronary vasculature physiology by slowing coronary blood flow, increasing microvascular resistance, and exacerbating endothelium-dependent vasodilatory response.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic total occlusion (CTO) is common in patients with diabetes mellitus. Data on the long-term outcomes after treatment of CTOs in this high-risk population are scarce. AIM: To compare the long-term clinical outcomes of CTO revascularization either by coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus optimal medical treatment (MT) alone in patients with diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 538 consecutive patients with diabetes and at least one CTO were identified from 2010 to 2014 in our center. In the present analysis, patients were stratified according to the CTO treatment strategy that was selected. MT was selected in 61% of patients whereas revascularization in the remaining 39%. Patients undergoing revascularization were younger, had higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), lower ACEF score, and more positive myocardial ischemia detection results compared to the MT group (p < .001).Patients referred for CABG had higher rates of left main disease compared to the PCI and MT groups (32% vs. 3% and 11%, respectively; p < .001). Complete revascularization was more often achieved in the CABG group, compared to the PCI group (62% vs. 32% p < .001). Multivariable analysis showed that revascularization with CABG was associated with lower rates of all-cause and cardiac mortality rates compared to MT, [hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.70, p < .001 and HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.20-81, p = .011, respectively]. Successful CTO-PCI showed a trend towards benefit in all-cause mortality (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.33-1.04, p = .06). CONCLUSION: In our registry, CTO revascularization in diabetic patients, especially with CABG, was associated with lower long-term mortality rates as compared to MT alone.

6.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 73(1): 28-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036510

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the efficacy of oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy, some patients continue to have a high residual risk and develop a stroke on OAC therapy (resistant stroke [RS]), and there is a lack of evidence on the management of these patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and efficacy of left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) as secondary prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who have experienced a stroke/transient ischemic attack despite OAC treatment. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Amplatzer Cardiac Plug multicenter registry on 1047 consecutive patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation undergoing LAAO. Patientes with previous stroke on OAC therapy as indication for LAAO were identified and compared with patients with other indications. RESULTS: A total of 115 patients (11%) with RS were identified. The CHA2DS2-VASc and the HAS-BLED score were significantly higher in the RS group (respectively 5.5±1.5 vs 4.3±1.6; P <.001; 3.9±1.3 vs 3.1±1.2; P <.001). No significant differences were observed in periprocedural major safety events (7.8 vs 4.5%; P=.1). With a mean clinical follow-up of 16.2±12.2 months, the observed annual stroke/transient ischemic attack rate for the RS group was 2.6% (65% risk reduction) and the observed annual major bleeding rate was 0% (100% risk reduction). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with RS undergoing LAAO showed similar safety outcomes to patients without RS, with a significant reduction in stroke/transient ischemic attack and major bleeding events during follow-up. Adequately powered controlled trials are needed to further investigate the use of LAAO in RS patients.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(1): 11-18, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732135

RESUMO

Although older adults are the fastest-growing age group among cardiovascular patients, nonagenarians with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are under-represented in clinical trials. The aims of this study are to analyze the clinical presentation and outcomes of nonagenarian patients presenting with STEMI and to compare in-hospital and 1-year clinical outcomes between those treated with optimal medical treatment alone and those receiving primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). We included all consecutive nonagenarians presenting with STEMI admitted in 2 academic centers between 2006 and 2018. There were no exclusion criteria. All-cause mortality was assessed in-hospital and at 1-year follow-up. In total, 167 patients (mean age 91.9 ± 0.17 years; 60% females) were included. Emergent catheterization was performed in 60% of our patients, and pPCI was performed in 50% (n = 83). Overall mortality was 22% in-hospital and 41% at 1-year follow-up. The pPCI group had lower mortality than the medical treatment group: 12% versus 32% in-hospital (p <0.01) and 26% versus 45% at 1-year follow-up (p <0.01), respectively. Multivariable analysis identified 4 independent predictors of all-cause mortality at 1 year: mechanical complications (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 9.25, p <0.01), Killip class III/IV (adjusted OR 4.22, p <0.01), serum creatinine at admission (mg/dl; adjusted OR 1.8, p <0.01), and pPCI (adjusted OR 0.52; p <0.05). In conclusion, STEMI in nonagenarians is becoming increasingly common. pPCI may be the preferred strategy in this high-risk cohort when a high grade of disability is not present. Hemodynamic compromise, the presence of complications related to myocardial infarction, renal impairment, and early revascularization may be related to prognosis in these patients.

8.
Artif Organs ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715006

RESUMO

The evidence about the effectiveness and safety of oral anticoagulation in patients on hemodialysis is conflicting and scarce. Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) has demonstrated to be a valid alternative therapeutic option for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). The aim of this study is to present the outcomes of percutaneous LAAO in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis and NVAF in our center. We conducted a retrospective review of clinical records, demographics, LAAO procedure, complications, and outcomes of patients with NVAF and ESRD on hemodialysis who underwent a percutaneous LAAO in our center between January 2017 and January 2019. In the period of the study, eight patients with ESRD on hemodialysis underwent a percutaneous LAAO in our center. The overall mean age was 67.5 years (range 56-81; SD ± 7.2). All patients had permanent NVAF. The total mean dialysis duration was 8.49 years (range 0.83-14.8; SD ± 6.2). The mean CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores were high (4.75 [SD ± 1.16] and 4.62 [SD ± 0.91], respectively). All patients had history of a major hemorrhagic event (BARC Score ≥3). Most patients (n = 6) showed left ventricular hypertrophy, and the average LVEF was 54% (SD ± 6.5). All devices were implanted successfully. Postprocedural antithrombotic regimen prescribed was based on antiplatelet therapy. No deaths, cardioembolic events, or major bleeding (according to the BARC scale) were reported during a mean follow-up of 14.24 months (SD ± 9.44). Percutaneous LAAO could be of particular interest in patients with NVAF and CKD in hemodialysis. Further studies will be necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

9.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732437

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVR) with MitraClip is a therapeutic option for high surgical risk patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). The main objective of this study was to analyze differences in outcomes in patients with severe MR according to the cause of MR. METHODS: Observational, multicenter, and prospective study with consecutive patient inclusion. The primary endpoint was the combination of all-cause mortality and new readmissions due to heart failure after 1 year. We compared clinical and procedural characteristics and the event rate for each MR group. We performed a multivariate analysis to identify predictive variables for the primary endpoint. RESULTS: A total of 558 patients were included: 364 (65.2%) with functional etiology, 111 (19.9%) degenerative and 83 (14.9%) mixed. The mean age was 72.8±11.1 years and 70.3% of the sample were men. There were 95 (17%) events in the overall sample. No significant differences were found in the 3 groups in the number of primary outcome events: 11 (11.3%) in degenerative MR, 71 (21.3%) in functional MR, and 13 (18.1%) in mixed MR (P=.101). Independent predictors were functional class (P=.029), previous surgical revascularization (P=.031), EuroSCORE II (P=.003), diabetes mellitus (P=.037), and left ventricular ejection fraction (P=.015). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the safety and efficacy of TMVR with MitraClip irrespective of MR etiology in real-life data and shows the main factors related to prognosis during the first year of follow up.

11.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405796

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Recent randomized trials of the MitraClip system have reported controversial results in the treatment of patients with functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and impact of MitraClip implantation on outcomes in FMR according to left ventricular (LV) status. METHODS: Patients with FMR undergoing MitraClip implantation in our center were retrospectively screened and divided into 2 groups according to LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and LV end-diastolic dimension: "very poor LV" (LVEF ≤ 20% and/or LV end-diastolic dimension ≥ 70 mm) and "poor LV" (LVEF> 20% and LV end-diastolic dimension <70 mm). Survival analysis of cardiovascular outcomes included hospital admission due to congestive heart failure, heart transplant, and cardiovascular death. Likewise, we compared the number of hospital admissions and functional class the year before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Fifty-eight consecutive patients with FMR were included (28 with very poor LV and 30 with poor LV). The mean follow-up was 19.5± 13 months. Patients with poor LV showed a significantly better event-free survival for cardiovascular events (log-rank 3.706, P=.010). One year after the intervention, both groups showed symptom improvement. Most of the patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I-II (100% poor LV and 84% very poor LV) and both groups showed a decrease in the number of hospital admissions due to congestive heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: MitraClip implantation seems to be safe and effective in reducing FMR. Although patients with very low LVEF and/or very enlarged LV seemed to have worse cardiovascular outcomes, the intervention was safe and resulted in symptom improvement.

14.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 31(8): 212-216, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke recurrence despite optimal oral anticoagulation (OAC) might represent a novel indication for left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO). The heterogeneity of these patients is generally high, as the presence of valvular atrial fibrillation (VAF) is common. The aim of this study was to explore the role of LAAO as an adjunctive therapy to OAC in patients with recurrent stroke despite optimal OAC. METHODS: The study screened consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous LAAO at nine centers between 2009 and 2017. Patients with recurrent stroke despite optimal OAC were selected and those with an absolute or relative contraindication to OAC were not included in the study. RESULTS: Among 837 patients who underwent LAAO between the study period, a total of 22 (2.6%) met the inclusion criteria. There was a high percentage of VAF (38%) and 59% presented more than one cardioembolic event before LAAO. All patients underwent successful implantation of the device and no procedural major adverse events were reported. In all but 3 patients, anticoagulation was continued after LAAO. With a median clinical follow-up of 1.8 years (range, 0.7-2.8 years), only 1 stroke and 1 transient ischemic attack were reported, translating into a significant reduction of cerebrovascular events before and after LAAO (2.0 ± 1.0 events vs 0.1 ± 0.3 events; P<.01). Imaging follow-up revealed only 1 case of device thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: LAAO as an adjunctive therapy to OAC seems to be feasible and safe in patients with previous cardioembolic events despite optimal OAC. In our series, this strategy was associated with a low rate of cerebrovascular events after LAAO.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Front Physiol ; 10: 237, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967786

RESUMO

According to clinical studies, around one third of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) will suffer a stroke during their lifetime. Between 70 and 90% of these strokes are caused by thrombus formed in the left atrial appendage. In patients with contraindications to oral anticoagulants, a left atrial appendage occluder (LAAO) is often implanted to prevent blood flow entering in the LAA. A limited range of LAAO devices is available, with different designs and sizes. Together with the heterogeneity of LAA morphology, these factors make LAAO success dependent on clinician's experience. A sub-optimal LAAO implantation can generate thrombi outside the device, eventually leading to stroke if not treated. The aim of this study was to develop clinician-friendly tools based on biophysical models to optimize LAAO device therapies. A web-based 3D interactive virtual implantation platform, so-called VIDAA, was created to select the most appropriate LAAO configurations (type of device, size, landing zone) for a given patient-specific LAA morphology. An initial LAAO configuration is proposed in VIDAA, automatically computed from LAA shape features (centreline, diameters). The most promising LAAO settings and LAA geometries were exported from VIDAA to build volumetric meshes and run Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to assess blood flow patterns after implantation. Risk of thrombus formation was estimated from the simulated hemodynamics with an index combining information from blood flow velocity and complexity. The combination of the VIDAA platform with in silico indices allowed to identify the LAAO configurations associated to a lower risk of thrombus formation; device positioning was key to the creation of regions with turbulent flows after implantation. Our results demonstrate the potential for optimizing LAAO therapy settings during pre-implant planning based on modeling tools and contribute to reduce the risk of thrombus formation after treatment.

18.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 94(4): 527-535, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) are present in more than one third of older patients with myocardial ischemia, but controversy remains about the best therapeutic approach. AIMS: To compare long-term survival after CTO revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI] or coronary artery bypass graft [CABG]) versus medical treatment (MT) alone in patients aged 75 and older. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1,252 consecutive patients with at least one CTO were identified from 2010 to 2014 in our center. Patients were stratified by age (<75 years vs. ≥75 years) in the present analysis. All-cause and cardiac mortality were assessed at a median follow-up of 3.5 years. In the older subgroup (26%), patients were more likely to be treated with MT alone (71% vs. 43% of younger patients; p < 0.001). Patients undergoing revascularization were younger and had higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and lower age, creatinine, ejection fraction (ACEF) score (age/LVEF +1 if creatinine >2.0 mg/dL), compared to the MT group (p < 0.05). As compared to MT, revascularization predicted lower rates of cardiac mortality and all-cause mortality in older patients, both in the subgroups treated with CABG (hazard ratio [HR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17-0.71; HR 0.39, 95%CI 0.18-0.81) and PCI (HR 0.57, 95%CI 0.33-0.98; HR 0.59, 95%CI 0.28-1.2). No differences in mortality were observed according to type of revascularization procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients aged at least 75 years with a CTO, revascularization (PCI or CABG) rather than MT alone may portend a better outcome in terms of all-cause and cardiac mortality.

19.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(7): 1120-1126, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709598

RESUMO

Thrombocytopenia after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is common and has been related to worse clinical outcomes. Comparison of platelet kinetics among different types of valves is limited. Our objectives were to analyze the differences in drop platelet count (DPC) between balloon-expandable valves (BEVs) and self-expanding valves and their prognostic implications after TAVI. Patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI from 2008 to 2016 were included. Exclusion criteria were severe baseline thrombocytopenia and periprocedural death. Postprocedural platelet counts were collected. Two groups were created: DPC ≤30 and DPC >30%. Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria were used to define outcomes. Study population included 609 patients (age 84.7 ± 6.0, 46.6% males). The mean DPC was 32.5 ± 13.9%. The DPC was higher in the BEV arm (33.9 ± 14.2 vs 30.7 ± 13.4%, p = 0.006), and the nadir was reached later in comparison to the self-expanding valve arm (3.0 ± 1.3 vs 2.5 ± 1.1 days, p <0.001). After multivariable analysis, the use of BEV, known coronary artery disease, and left ventricle ejection fraction were the factors associated with a higher rate of DPC >30%. At 30 days, the DPC >30% was related with a higher rate of life-threatening and/or major bleeding (6.8 vs 2.1%, p = 0.009) and death (3.5 vs 0.8%, p = 0.036). At 1 year, the difference in mortality disappeared. In conclusion, in this cohort of patients, the use of BEV seems to be associated with a higher risk of DPC after TAVI. A DPC ≥30% was related with increased risk of life-threatening and/or major bleeding and death at 30 days. Larger and prospective studies are needed to understand this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Contagem de Plaquetas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/etiologia
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