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1.
Pathogens ; 10(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578128

RESUMO

The role of purified natural products in the prevention and treatment of countless diseases of bacterial, fungal, and viral origin cannot be overestimated. New antiviral drugs have been obtained from natural sources and transformed into preparations for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Flavonoids, polyphenols, saponins, proanthocyanins, polysaccharides, organic acids, proteins, polypeptides, and essential oils derived from plants, animals, or microorganisms can control and combat foodborne viral infections, including hepatitis A. The components of essential oils are characterized by numerous therapeutic and antioxidant properties and exhibit a broad spectrum of antimicrobial and antiviral activity. Due to these properties, they can be used to preserve meat, fruit, vegetables, and their products. Over the past two decades, much effort has been made to identify natural products, mostly of plant origin, to combat foodborne viruses. Natural plant extracts have several potential uses, not limited to increasing the safety of food products and improving their quality, but also as natural antiviral agents.

2.
Pathogens ; 10(9)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578174

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility to clotrimazole of 125 isolates of Candida spp. originated from the genitourinary system of hospitalized patients as well as outpatients, tested in the mycological laboratory of Wroclaw Medical University in the years 1999-2018. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of clotrimazole and fluconazole were determined with the use of the microdilution method according to EUCAST, and the MFC was determined by subsequent subculture on Sabouraud agar. For the tested population of Candida yeasts, the MIC values of clotrimazole ranged from 0.008 to 8 mg/L, and MIC90 was 1 mg/L, whereas MIC50 was 0.008 mg/L. The minimal fungicidal concentration ranged between 1 and >8 mg/L. The great majority of the isolates (88%; 110/125) displayed MIC < 1 mg/L and were classified as WT (wild-type), whereas MIC ≥ 1 mg/L was determined for 2/61 (3.2%) isolates of C. albicans, 9/38 (23.6%) of C. glabrata, 1/2 of C. tropicalis, and 3/3 of C. guilliermondii. Six isolates (four of C. glabrata and two of C. albicans), defined as non-WT for clotrimazole, were classified as resistant to fluconazole, according to CBP from EUCAST. The isolates with elevated MIC to clotrimazole originated mostly from patients of the pediatric hematology unit, and their proportion in this population amounted to 17.8% (13 out of 73 isolates). In contrast, among strains from ambulatory patients, the highest observed MIC value was 1 mg/L (1 out of 37 isolates; 2.7%). The data obtained correlate well with those of most published studies on the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp. to clotrimazole, which is usually very high. However, the existence of reports regarding the growing prevalence of resistant isolates has also to be noted. These results support the need for routinely checking the susceptibility of Candida clinical isolates to this imidazole derivative.

3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361822

RESUMO

Human noroviruses, which belong to the enterovirus family, are one of the most common etiological agents of food-borne diseases. In recent years, intensive research has been carried out regarding the antiviral activity of plant metabolites that could be used for the preservation of fresh food, because they are safer for consumption when compared to synthetic chemicals. Plant preparations with proven antimicrobial activity differ in their chemical compositions, which significantly affects their biological activity. Our review aimed to present the results of research related to the characteristics, applicability, and mechanisms of the action of various plant-based preparations and metabolites against norovirus. New strategies to combat intestinal viruses are necessary, not only to ensure food safety and reduce infections in humans but also to lower the direct health costs associated with them.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Humanos
4.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(6): 707-713, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) may be present in the female cervical canal without any symptoms of infection. Chronic chlamydial infections lead to many serious complications and perinatal infections, while the presence of GBS is a reservoir for infections of newborns or invasive streptococcal infection in adults. OBJECTIVES: To examine healthy women for C. trachomatis without symptoms from the reproductive system, assess the frequency of asymptomatic infections, detect GBS in the cervical canal, demonstrate differences in drug susceptibility, and determine the serotype of S. agalactiae strains and correlations among the ones present in the cervical canal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 315 cervical swabs were collected for genetic and microbiological analysis for the presence of C. trachomatis and S. agalactiae. Latex and diffusion-disk methods were used to determine the serotype and susceptibility of streptococci. RESULTS: Ten out of 315 women (3.2%) were C. trachomatis-positive. Using traditional methods of microscopy, culture and serology, 42 strains (13.3% of the subjects) obtained from patients were identified as S. agalactiae and further analyzed. The most common serotypes identified were II (18/42, 42.9%), V (11/42, 26.2%) and III (10/42, 23.8%). The less common serotypes found were VII (2/10, 4.8%), and Ib (1/10, 2.4%); no Ia, IV or VII serotypes were found. All the strains were susceptible to penicillin, while 71.4% of them were susceptible to erythromycin and 81.0% were susceptible to clindamycin. Seven isolates (16.7%) were concomitantly resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. CONCLUSIONS: Chlamydia trachomatis was confirmed in 3.2% of the respondents, and GBS was found in 13.3%, despite a lack of symptoms of infection. The incidence of C. trachomatis infections and GBS colonization in Poland is similar to those in other European countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polônia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação
5.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 70(2): 195-200, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215785

RESUMO

Background: Candida spp. has been identified as the most common member of human gut microbiota. This yeast-like fungus is recognized as an opportunistic organism due to its potential to cause diseases in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between diet and health of the study participants and the presence of gastrointestinal Candida spp. Susceptibility of Candida to antifungal drugs was determined. Material and methods: Material comprised of oral swabs and fecal samples self-collected by the study participants. The participants filled in a nutritional questionnaire. A total of 30 people took part in the study, including 28 women and 2 men. The study was conducted in Wroclaw, Poland. Susceptibility of Candida to antifungal drugs was determined using Bio-Rad's FUNGITEST™ Kit designed for the susceptibility testing of yeasts to six antifungal drugs. Results: In the group with negative Candida spp. cultures, healthier wheat flour substitutes were consumed significantly more frequently than in the group with positive Candida spp. cultures. Yellow cheeses and quark were eaten significantly more frequently in the group with negative Candida spp. cultures. No antifungal resistance was detected in the study group. Conclusions: The increased consumption of purified wheat flour products was linked to the presence of gastrointestinal Candida spp. A higher consumption of cheese was observed in the group with negative Candida spp. cultures, which may indicate the inhibitory effect of saturated fatty acids on the growth of human Candida spp. Sensitivity of C. albicans to antifungal drugs may increase effectiveness of candidiasis treatment.


Assuntos
Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Adulto , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia
6.
Gut Pathog ; 11: 10, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828388

RESUMO

Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) are facultative pathogens that are part of the normal human intestinal flora. The ExPEC group includes uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC), and avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). Virulence factors (VF) related to the pathogenicity of ExPEC are numerous and have a wide range of activities, from those related to bacteria colonization to those related to virulence, including adhesins, toxins, iron acquisition factors, lipopolysaccharides, polysaccharide capsules, and invasins, which are usually encoded on pathogenicity islands (PAIs), plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Mechanisms underlying the dynamics of ExPEC transmission and the selection of virulent clones are still poorly understood and require further research. The time shift between colonization of ExPEC and the development of infection remains problematic in the context of establishing the relation between consumption of contaminated food and the appearance of first disease symptoms. What appears to be most difficult is to prove that ExPEC strains cause disease symptoms and to examine the mechanism of transition from the asymptomatic colonization of the intestines to the spreading of the bacteria outside the digestive system. A significant problem for researchers who are trying to ascribe ExPEC transmission to food, people or the environment is to draw the distinction between colonization of ExPEC and infection. Food safety is an important challenge for public health both at the production stage and in the course of its processing and distribution. Examination of the genetic similarity of ExPEC strains will allow to determine their origin from different sources. Many levels of genotyping have been proposed in which the typing of strains, plasmids and genes is compared in order to obtain a more complete picture of this complex problem. The aim of our study was to characterize E. coli strains isolated from humans, animals and food for the presence of bacterial genes encoding virulence factors such as toxins, and iron acquisition systems (siderophores) in the context of an increasing spread of ExPEC infections.

7.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 27(12): 1711-1716, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia infection is the most frequently reported infectious, sexually transmitted disease (STD). Generally, Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection of neonates is the result of perinatal exposure to the mother's infected cervix. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of infection caused by C. trachomatis in newborn infants. In this study of C. trachomatis perinatal infection, 107 infants born at the Wroclaw Medical University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Poland) were tested to investigate whether C. trachomatis was present in swabs taken from the eyes and throats of children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Each specimen was tested using the direct immunofluorescence test (DIF) and the nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. RESULTS: The presence of C. trachomatis, irrespective of the origin of the swabs (ocular or from the throat), was confirmed in 62 newborns, amounting to 57.6% of the tested population. The occurrence of C. trachomatis in ocular swabs was confirmed in 35 children (32.7%). In the material taken from the throat, there were 48 newborns considered chlamydia-positive (44.9%). In the specimens taken from both the ocular and pharyngeal locations, there was a higher proportion of positive results while using the nested-PCR method in comparison to the DIF test. The specificity of the DIF method with reference to the nested-PCR was 67.9% for ocular swabs. In the material taken from the throat, the sensitivity of the DIF method with reference to the nested-PCR was 75.0% and the specificity was 62.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the importance of perinatal infections, it is recommended to perform a study among a larger group of patients in order to gain more reliable results.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/métodos , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Ginekol Pol ; 89(3): 115-119, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chlamydial infection is often asymptomatic. The lack of symptoms may result in the infection developing into a chronic. Chlamydial infections of the genitourinary system in women can lead to serious complications like PID, fallopian tubes infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. An infection of the genitourinary system does not cause any lasting immune resistance and does not protect against re-infection. The aim of this research was to conduct tests for Chlamydia trachomatis on healthy women without any genital system symptoms and to estimate the frequency of asymptomatic infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During preventive examinations a cervical smear was obtained from the patients n = 100. The aver-age age of the patients was 24.86 ± 3.15. The swabs were sampled by gynecologists. During the examinations Geneproof PathogenFree DNA isolation Kit and GeneProof Chlamydia trachomatis PCR kit which detects 16S rRNA conservative coding sequence, conservative region of cryptic plasmid DNA, including deletion mutation in cryptic plasmid (Swedish variant). RESULTS: Swabs were sampled from 100 women aged 18-32 who had no symptoms of chlamydial genitourinary system infection. Within the study group 4% of women received a positive result, i.e. 4/100. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed asymptotic infection in 4% of women. In own research it was not possible to confirm cor-relation between the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and the number of partners or the number of sexual intercourses.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
9.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 25(5): 945-950, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28028960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella, one of the primary indicators of food safety, is a common cause of food poisoning of an epidemic nature around the world. These microorganisms can colonize the gastrointestinal tract of both people and animals, and next contaminate not only eggs, milk, meat and dairy products, but also vegetables, fruit, grains and even spices. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples using a reference PN-ISO method and an alternative method based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) coupled with bioluminescence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Food samples were obtained in cooperation with the State Sanitary-Epidemiological Station in Wroclaw. Dairy products, meat, fish, pastry and confectionery, vegetables, herbs and spices were analyzed. The food samples were examined using a standard culturing method according to PN-ISO 6579:2003 for Salmonella spp. and an alternative method based on the isothermal amplification and bioluminescence phenomenon using the 3M MDS device. RESULTS: In 399 tested food samples in 8 materials, using both the reference and the alternative LAMP-based method, the presence of salmonella was confirmed. The results obtained show the 100% sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the presented alternative, LAMP-based technique compared to the reference PN-ISO method. CONCLUSIONS: The alternative method using isothermal amplification and bioluminescence makes it possible to detect Salmonella in foods in a much shorter time than the referential culturing method.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/normas , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/normas , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Padrões de Referência
10.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 24(3): 441-5, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26467132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis is mentioned among the etiologic factors for urinary tract infections. Chlamydias are parasites inside a cell. A very significant problem of C. trachomatis infections is their asymptomatic character. The most frequent infections caused by these bacteria are inflammations of the urethra and bladder; of the vagina, cervix, vaginal cavity and adnexa in women; and of the epididymis, testicles and prostate in men. In the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infections, the following methods are used: immunofluorescent techniques, immunoenzymatic assays, serological examinations and genetic techniques (for example PCR). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to detect C. trachomatis among patients with symptoms of non-gonorrheal urethritis using diagnostic serologic methods and direct immunofluorescence. The purpose was to assess the connection between the incidence of urinary tract infections caused by C. trachomatis and symptoms that patients report as well as other data from interviews. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood serum and urethral smears were taken from each of 57 patients. The ELISA method was used to mark specific IgG and IgGcHSP60 anti-chlamydia antibodies in the blood serum. In the urethral smear, antigens were marked using the direct immunofluorescence method. RESULTS: Evidence for urinary tract infection caused by C. trachomatis was found in 15.79% of the examined patients using the immunofluorescence method. In the blood serum, positive results for IgGcHSP60 were obtained in 17.54% of the patients and for IgG in 8.77%. CONCLUSIONS: The studies carried out so far suggest that C. trachomatis has a significant role in the etiology of urethritis in adults and children. Other serological tests should be conducted in all the patients in order to study the immune responses in infected individuals and to confirm C. trachomatis infection using genetic methods such as PCR.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Uretra/microbiologia , Uretrite/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Chaperonina 60/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Testes Sorológicos , Uretrite/sangue , Uretrite/epidemiologia , Uretrite/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/sangue , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
11.
Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) ; 69: 612-23, 2015 May 11.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25983299

RESUMO

Chlamydophila pneumoniae was taxonomically separated from strain TWAR - an abbreviation of the strain isolated from humans TW-183 (material from the eye of a child in Taiwan in 1965) and AR-39 (material from a student's throat swab with acute changes within airways in Seattle in 1983). The basis of separation of the C. pneumoniae species was the unique structure of the elementary bodies. Infection caused by C. pneumoniae is often asymptomatic (60-80% of all infections). Symptomatic infections of the upper respiratory tract relate to pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis and the lower respiratory tract: bronchitis and pneumonia. C. pneumoniae infection often transforms into a chronic, clinically oligo- or asymptomatic form. The chronic inflammatory process is associated by many authors with the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, endocarditis, atherosclerosis, hypertension, vasculitis, multiple sclerosis, sarcoidosis, and asthma. C. pneumoniae has a specific tropism and exhibits cytotoxic activity towards the airway epithelium, in which it proliferates and destroys infected cells by lysis. Entry of these bacteria to the human body leads to activation of first non-specific and then specific resistance mechanisms and the development of a local inflammatory process. Diagnosis of C. pneumoniae should be confirmed only after the exclusion of typical micro-organisms causing respiratory infections. It is important to pay attention to the fact that the epidemiological data on the incidence of C. pneumoniae infections in different age groups of patients are variable depending on the type of diagnostic methods used in the research. Chlamydia are resistant to most antibiotics that are routinely used in respiratory tract infections. These bacteria are susceptible to antibiotics that disrupt the synthesis of DNA and proteins, such as macrolides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Chlamydia/patologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/metabolismo , Asma/etiologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocardite Bacteriana/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/etiologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sarcoidose/etiologia , Vasculite/etiologia
12.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 23(3): 411-4, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24979513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections are asymptomatic. Symptomatic infections due to C. pneumoniae are associated with upper and lower respiratory tract infections. OBJECTIVES: Analysis of the frequency of C. pneumoniae antigens detection in children in the Lower Silesia Region in 2011. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 303 throat swabs obtained from 130 girls and 173 boys, aged 20 months to 18 years, were tested. The patients who were entered into the study were treated due to various respiratory disorders. Examinations were performed by IFA technique, using the Chlamydia Cell PN testing kits (Cellabs Pty Ltd., Sydney, Australia). RESULTS: The presence of C. pneumoniae antigen was detected in 95/303 (31.4%) of all examined children (in 48/130 (36.9%) of girls and in 47/173 (27.2%) of boys). In the group of patients with dry cough, as the most common presenting clinical symptom of respiratory infection, the positive IFA test results for C. pneumoniae occurred in 32 out of 94 (34.0%) of girls and in 34 out of 117 (29.1%) of boys. In the case of the examined children with other prevailing clinical symptom, which included a cough with discharge and a runny nose, the positive tests for C. pneumoniae were shown in 13 out of 27 (48.1%) of girls and in 9 out of 42 (21.4%) of boys. In the group of children without symptoms of infection, who had direct contact with C. pneumoniae infected person, there were 3 out of 9 (33.3%) of girls and 4 out of 14 (28.6%) of boys positively tested cases. CONCLUSIONS: Results of IFA studies for C. pneumoniae in throat swabs in children varies according to clinical symptoms and seasonality. There were no clear gender and age-related differences. C. pneumoniae test should be considered only after the presence of microorganisms typical of respiratory infections has been excluded.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/imunologia , Faringe/imunologia , Faringe/microbiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/imunologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Adolescente , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Polônia
13.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 23(1): 123-6, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24596014

RESUMO

High affinity to the epithelial lining of the airways makes Chlamydophila pneumoniae a common etiological agent of respiratory tract infections (RTI). It causes among others: pharyngitis, tracheitis, sinusitis, otitis media, bronchitis and bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. It is estimated that Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection is responsible for about 20% of lower respiratory tract infections. Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection may play an important role in the pathogenesis and course of bronchial asthma. The recent results indicate that Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection may be a factor responsible for 4-16% of COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) exacerbations. A relationship of chlamydial infection with atherosclerosis raises huge interest. A connection of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection with other non-communicable diseases such as lung cancer, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, sarcoidosis and erythema nodosum is also recognized, although the role of these bacteria has not been fully understood in any of the listed diseases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydophila/complicações , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia
14.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 22(5): 759-66, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24285463

RESUMO

The cause of many gastrointestinal diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome, chronic inflammatory bowel disease: inflammatory and necrotizing enterocolitis or diarrhea: infectious, traveler's diarrhea, and diarrhea caused by antibiotic treatment is an imbalance of intestinal microflora. Probiotics are live microorganisms, which administered in sufficient quantities, have beneficial health effects. The phenomenon of eating probiotic products started 100 years ago, when the first reports showed beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria on human health. Since then, probiotic preparations have become an essential element in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Currently, probiotics are of the utmost importance in supporting the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and autoimmune disorders. Probiotic microorganisms are primarily lactic acid-producing bacteria of the general Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium. Many studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of probiotics, particularly in the treatment of acute diarrhea. This applies in particular to diarrhea of viral etiology, especially in infants and young children.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Enterocolite Necrosante/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/farmacologia
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 788: 47-50, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23835957

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the rate of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in adults with symptoms of chronic cough. The study was conducted in 83 hospitalized patients aged 18-67 suffering of chronic cough. The control group consisted of 20 healthy age-matched subjects without any respiratory symptoms. Bacteriological tests on the presence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae antigen were performed in throat swabs by indirect immunofluorescence technique using monoclonal antibodies labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate. The rate of Chlamydophila infected patients was examined in relation to age and gender. The Chlamydophila pneumoniae antigen was detected in 15 (18 %) out of the 83 patients; about equally in both genders. Furthermore, we found that the patients aged 28-37 constituted the age group that most frequently tested positive for Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Unraveling the presence of Chlamydia infection in chronic cough patients enables to introduce a timely implementation of effective therapy and thus can prevent distant complications.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydophila/imunologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Tosse , Feminino , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Faringe/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 788: 83-7, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23835963

RESUMO

Chlamydophila pneumoniae is the etiological agent of pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of chlamydial respiratory infections in children in the Lower Silesia Region in Poland in 2007-2010. There were 2,733 throat swabs examined, obtained from hospitalized patients aged from 20 months to 18 years with various clinical symptoms such as dry cough, productive cough, and from asymptomatic ambulatory patients. An indirect immunofluorescence technique, based on monoclonal antibodies labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, was used for detection of Chl. pneumoniae antigen. Overall, there were 1,114, 503, 641, and 475 patients studied in the consecutive 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010 years. There clearly were fewer patients each next year submitted for Chl. pneumoniae detection procedure, which stemmed from the declining severity of respiratory infections noted in children and thus less demanding diagnostic workup commissioned by physicians. The percentage of results positive for Chl. pneumoniae antigen amounted to 53.3, 41.6, 43.1, and 36.4 % in the consecutive years, respectively. Detection of chlamydial infections had thus a decreasing tendency in the period studied. There also were decreases in Chl. pneumoniae detection rate in cases stratified due to the presenting symptom: dry cough, productive cough, or in asymptomatic cases. A milder course of respiratory infections resulting in a decreased number of children examined for Chl. pneumoniae antigen in consecutive years, makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions on the factual incidence rate. Nevertheless, we believe we have shown, from the clinical standpoint, a dropping rate of Chl. pneumoniae detection in children with respiratory infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydophila/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydophila/epidemiologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Adolescente , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Mucosa Respiratória/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia
17.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 21(6): 799-808, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23457138

RESUMO

Chlamydiae are microorganisms exhibiting characteristics intermediate between bacteria and viruses. Chlamydia is widespread in the natural world, intracellular parasites of people and animals. They are capable of independent reproduction, because they do not synthesize ATP, in its development cycle using the host cell metabolic pathways. The life cycle of these microorganisms is original, unique among bacteria and lasts from 24 to 48 hours. Chlamydia antigens consist of 4 groups: group-specific, species-specific, type-specific and subspecies-specific. The group of species-specific antigens consists of MOMP and heat shock proteins. C. trachomatis is a potent immunogen, stimulating the immune processes of microorganisms. In the course of C. trachomatis infection, the response mechanisms involved are: non-specific, specific, humoral and cellular. Chronic infection is characterized by maintenance of microorganisms in the host cell. Inflammation is formed in less time and with increased intensity and has a rapid immune response on the part of previously sensitized lymphocytes. C. trachomatis infections are the most common bacterial sexually-transmitted infections. It represents an important clinical problem for doctors in many areas of medicine such as dermatology, venereology, ophthalmology, gynecology and obstetrics, rheumatology and others. Chlamydial infections are important pathogens in medical practice, not only because they cause disease in various fields of medicine, but also because of the large proportion of the population suffering and exposed to these microbial infections. Chlamydial infections are characterized by multifocality and polymorphism changes. Chlamydia causes inflammation in the adult urethra and cervix with the possibility of serious complications, and can cause perinatal infections in infants.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/patologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/classificação , Chlamydia trachomatis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Otolaryngol Pol ; 60(6): 859-64, 2006.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17357663

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In world literature there is a lack on informations about occurrence frequency of Chlamydia pneumoniae in swabs fromadenoid vegetations. Chlamydia spp. is a group of nontypical pathogenetic bacteria. Initially they were fought a cause of lower respiratory tract. Nowadays they are considered as a pathogenetic factor of upper respiratory tract infections. They can also cause persistant infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During 3,5 months at the end of winter and bigining of spring, 110 children qualified to adenotomy (53 girls and 57 boys) were examinated. The average of age carried out 6,11 years. RESULTS: the positive results of direct immunophluorescence test (IFA) of adenoid vegetations swabs were received in 29 children (26.4%). Received results demonstrate chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. Pneumonia or bronchitis was noted additionally at 3 children (2.7%) in this in one child pneumonia caused by C. pneumoniae was diagnosed, secretory otitis media was diagnosed in 5 children (4,5%), asthma in 3 patients (2,7%). Confirmed infection Chlamydia pneumoniae occurred earlier at 5 children (4.5%). CONCLUSION: Results of direct immunophluorescence test(IFA) of adenoid vegetations swabs do not correlate directly with levels of anty-C. pneumoniae antybodies in blood. But antybody level could be supplementary to clinical symptoms and and swab result or give us information about infection history in patient.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Adenoidectomia , Tonsila Faríngea/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia
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