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1.
Can J Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically altered the delivery of healthcare services, resulting in significant referral pattern changes, delayed presentations, and procedural delays. Our objective was to determine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on all-cause mortality in patients awaiting commonly performed cardiac procedures. METHODS: Clinical and administrative data sets were linked to identify all adults referred for: (1) percutaneous coronary intervention; (2) coronary artery bypass grafting; (3) valve surgery; and (4) transcatheter aortic valve implantation, from January 2014 to September 2020 in Ontario, Canada. Piece-wise regression models were used to determine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on referrals and procedural volume. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the effect of the pandemic on waitlist mortality for the 4 procedures. RESULTS: We included 584,341 patients who were first-time referrals for 1 of the 4 procedures, of whom 37,718 (6.4%) were referred during the pandemic. The pandemic period was associated with a significant decline in the number of referrals and procedures completed compared with the prepandemic period. Referral during the pandemic period was a significant predictor for increased all-cause mortality for the percutaneous coronary intervention (hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-2.27) and coronary artery bypass grafting (hazard ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-3.01), but not for surgical valve or transcatheter aortic valve implantation referrals. Procedural wait times were shorter during the pandemic period compared with the prepandemic period. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in referrals and procedures completed for cardiac procedures during the pandemic period. Referral during the pandemic was associated with increased all-cause mortality while awaiting coronary revascularization.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate temporal trends in quality of life (QoL) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery in randomized clinical trials, and a quantitative comparison from before surgery to up to five years after surgery. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO from 2010-2020 to identify studies that included the measurement of QoL in patients undergoing CABG. The primary outcome was Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ), and secondary outcomes were the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and EuroQol Questionnaire (EQ-5D). We pooled the means and the weighted mean differences over the follow-up period. RESULTS: 2,586 studies were screened and 18 full-text studies were included in the meta-analysis. There was a significant trend towards higher QoL scores from before surgery to 1 year post-operatively for the SAQ Angina Frequency (AF), SAQ Quality of Life (QoL), SF-36 Physical Component (PC) and EQ-5D; whereas the SF-36 Mental Component (MC) did not improve significantly. The weighted mean differences from before surgery to the one-year after for the SAQ AF was 24 (95% CI: 21.6-26.4), 31 (95% CI: 27.5-34.6) for the SAQ QoL, 9.8 (95% CI: 7.1-12.8) for the SF-36 PC, 7.1 (95% CI: 4.2-10.0) for the SF-36 MC, and 0.1 (95% CI: 0.06-0.14) for the EQ-5D. There was no evidence of publication bias or small study effect. CONCLUSIONS: CABG had both short and long-term improvements on disease-specific QoL and generic QoL, with the largest improvement in angina frequency.

3.
Circulation ; 144(14): 1160-1171, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606302

RESUMO

Transit time flow measurement (TTFM) allows quality control in coronary artery bypass grafting but remains largely underused, probably because of limited information and the lack of standardization. We performed a systematic review of the evidence on TTFM and other methods for quality control in coronary artery bypass grafting following PRISMA standards and elaborated expert recommendations by using a structured process. A panel of 19 experts took part in the consensus process using a 3-step modified Delphi method that consisted of 2 rounds of electronic voting and a final face-to-face virtual meeting. Eighty percent agreement was required for acceptance of the statements. A 2-level scale (strong, moderate) was used to grade the statements based on the perceived likelihood of a clinical benefit. The existing evidence supports an association between TTFM readings and graft patency and postoperative clinical outcomes, although there is high methodological heterogeneity among the published series. The evidence is more robust for arterial, rather than venous, grafts and for grafts to the left anterior descending artery. Although TTFM use increases the duration and the cost of surgery, there are no data to quantify this effect. Based on the systematic review, 10 expert statements for TTFM use in clinical practice were formulated. Six were approved at the first round of voting, 3 at the second round, and 1 at the virtual meeting. In conclusion, although TTFM use may increase the costs and duration of the procedure and requires a learning curve, its cost/benefit ratio seems largely favorable, in view of the potential clinical consequences of graft dysfunction. These consensus statements will help to standardize the use of TTFM in clinical practice and provide guidance in clinical decision-making.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to investigate the impact of multiple arterial grafting on long-term all-cause mortality in women undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed to identify observational studies reporting outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting reported by sex and stratified into multiple arterial grafting versus single arterial grafting strategies. Articles were considered for inclusion if they were written in English and were propensity-matched observational studies. Included studies were then pooled in a meta-analysis performed using the generic inverse variance method. The primary outcome was long-term all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were operative mortality and spontaneous myocardial infarction. Meta-regression was used to explore the effects of preoperative and intraoperative variables on the primary outcome. RESULTS: A total of 6 studies with 32,793 women (25,714 single arterial grafting and 7079 multiple arterial grafting) were included. Women who received multiple arterial grafting had lower long-term mortality (incidence rate ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.96; P = .007) and spontaneous myocardial infarction (incidence rate ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.93; P = .003) compared with women who received single arterial grafting, but the difference in mortality disappeared when including only the 3 largest studies. There was no difference between groups in operative mortality (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.17; P = .91). Meta-regression did not identify any associations with the incidence rate ratio for long-term mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The use of multiple arterial grafting in women undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting is associated with lower long-term mortality, although the difference is mostly driven by small series. Further studies, including randomized trials, are needed to evaluate the efficacy of multiple arterial grafting in women undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338767

RESUMO

AIMS: Data suggest that women have worse outcomes than men after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), but results have been inconsistent across studies. Due to the large differences in baseline characteristics between sexes, suboptimal risk adjustment due to low-quality data may be the reason for the observed differences. To overcome this limitation, we undertook a systematic review and pooled analysis of high-quality individual patient data from large CABG trials to compare the adjusted outcomes of women and men. METHODS AND RESULTS: The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and repeat revascularization (major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, MACCE). The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality. Multivariable mixed-effect Cox regression was used. Four trials involving 13 193 patients (10 479 males; 2714 females) were included. Over 5 years of follow-up, women had a significantly higher risk of MACCE [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.21; P = 0.004] but similar mortality (adjusted HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.94-1.14; P = 0.51) compared to men. Women had higher incidence of MI (adjusted HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.52) and repeat revascularization (adjusted HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43) but not stroke (adjusted HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.90-1.52). The difference in MACCE between sexes was not significant in patients 75 years and older. The use of off-pump surgery and multiple arterial grafting did not modify the difference between sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Women have worse outcomes than men in the first 5 years after CABG. This difference is not significant in patients aged over 75 years and is not affected by the surgical technique.

10.
Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng ; 37(10): e3516, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337877

RESUMO

The choice of appropriate boundary conditions is a fundamental step in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the cardiovascular system. Boundary conditions, in fact, highly affect the computed pressure and flow rates, and consequently haemodynamic indicators such as wall shear stress (WSS), which are of clinical interest. Devising automated procedures for the selection of boundary conditions is vital to achieve repeatable simulations. However, the most common techniques do not automatically assimilate patient-specific data, relying instead on expensive and time-consuming manual tuning procedures. In this work, we propose a technique for the automated estimation of outlet boundary conditions based on optimal control. The values of resistive boundary conditions are set as control variables and optimized to match available patient-specific data. Experimental results on four aortic arches demonstrate that the proposed framework can assimilate 4D-Flow MRI data more accurately than two other common techniques based on Murray's law and Ohm's law.

11.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 139: 199-209, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The fragility index is a clinically interpretable metric increasingly used to interpret the robustness of clinical trials results that is generally not incorporated in sample size calculation and applied post-hoc. In this manuscript, we propose to base the sample size calculation on the fragility index in a way that supplements the classical prefixed alpha and power cutoffs and we provide a dedicated R software package for the design and analysis tools. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: This approach follows from a novel hypothesis testing framework that is based on the fragility index and builds on the classical testing approach. As case studies, we re-analyse the design of two important trials in cardiovascular medicine, the FAME and FAMOUS-NSTEMI trials. RESULTS: The analyses show that approach returns sample sizes which results in a higher power for the P value based test and most importantly a lower and context dependent Type I error rate for the fragility index based test compared to standard tests. CONCLUSION: Our method allows clinicians to control for the fragility index during clinical trial design.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e020513, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350777

RESUMO

Background Women have traditionally been underrepresented in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). We performed a systematic evaluation of the inclusion of women in cardiac surgery RCTs published in the past 2 decades. Methods and Results MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched (2000 to July 2020) for RCTs written in English, comparing ≥2 adult cardiac surgical procedures. The percentage of women enrolled and its association with year of publication, sample size, mean age, funding source, geographic location, number of sites involved, and interventions tested were analyzed using a meta-analytic approach. Fifty-one trials were included. Of 25 425 total patients, 5029 were women (20.8%; 95% CI, 17.6-24.4; range, 0.5%-57.9%). The proportion of women dropped significantly during the study period (29.6% in 2000 versus 13.1% in 2019, P<0.001). Women were significantly more represented in European trials (26.2%; 95% CI, 21.2-31.9), and less represented in trials of coronary bypass surgery versus other interventions (16.8%; 95% CI, 12.3-22.7 versus 33.6%; 95% CI, 27.4-40.5; P=0.0002) and in trials enrolling younger patients (P=0.009); the percentage of women was higher in industry-sponsored versus non-industry sponsored trials (31.7%; 95% CI, 27.2-36.6 versus 15.5%; 95% CI, 10.0-23.2; P=0.0004) and was not associated with trial sample size (P=0.52) or study design (multicenter versus monocenter: P=0.22). After exclusion of trials conducted at Veteran Affairs centers, women representation was 24.4% (95% CI, 21.1-28.0; range, 10.4%-57.9%), with no significant changes during the study period. Conclusions The proportion of women in cardiac surgery trials is low and likely inadequate to provide meaningful estimates of the treatment effect.

13.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283955

RESUMO

Left atrial-esophageal fistula (AEF) following radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation is a rare and potentially lethal complication. Although surgical management is associated with improved outcomes, the optimal approach remains to be elucidated. We describe a case of AEF which was treated with a simultaneous repair of the atrium and esophagus via a right thoracotomy with an extra-pericardial off-pump approach.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(15): e019903, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278828

RESUMO

Background Quality of the peer-review process has been tested only in small studies. We describe and summarize the randomized trials that investigated interventions aimed at improving peer-review process of biomedical manuscripts. Methods and Results All randomized trials comparing different peer-review interventions at author-, reviewer-, and/or editor-level were included. Differences between traditional and intervention-modified peer-review processes were pooled as standardized mean difference (SMD) in quality based on the definitions used in the individual studies. Main outcomes assessed were quality and duration of the peer-review process. Five-hundred and seventy-five studies were retrieved, eventually yielding 24 randomized trials. Eight studies evaluated the effect of interventions at author-level, 16 at reviewer-level, and 3 at editor-level. Three studies investigated interventions at multiple levels. The effects of the interventions were reported as mean change in review quality, duration of the peer-review process, acceptance/rejection rate, manuscript quality, and number of errors detected in 13, 11, 5, 4, and 3 studies, respectively. At network meta-analysis, reviewer-level interventions were associated with a significant improvement in review quality (SMD, 0.20 [0.06 to 0.33]), at the cost of increased duration of the review process (SMD, 0.15 [0.01 to 0.29]), except for reviewer blinding. Author- and editor-level interventions did not significantly impact peer-review quality and duration (respectively, SMD, 0.17 [-0.16 to 0.51] and SMD, 0.19 [-0.40 to 0.79] for quality, and SMD, 0.17 [-0.16 to 0.51] and SMD, 0.19 [-0.40 to 0.79] for duration). Conclusions Modifications of the traditional peer-review process at reviewer-level are associated with improved quality, at the price of longer duration. Further studies are needed. Registration URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero; Unique identifier: CRD42020187910.

17.
J Card Surg ; 36(9): 3040-3051, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on health care and cardiac surgery. We report cardiac surgeons' concerns, perceptions, and responses during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A detailed survey was sent to recruit participating adult cardiac surgery centers in North America. Data regarding cardiac surgeons' perceptions and changes in practice were analyzed. RESULTS: Our study comprises 67 institutions with diverse geographic distribution across North America. Nurses were most likely to be redeployed (88%), followed by advanced care practitioners (69%), trainees (28%), and surgeons (25%). Examining surgeon concerns in regard to COVID-19, they were most worried with exposing their family to COVID-19 (81%), followed by contracting COVID-19 (68%), running out of personal protective equipment (PPE) (28%), and hospital resources (28%). In terms of PPE conservation strategies among users of N95 respirators, nearly half were recycling via decontamination with ultraviolet light (49%), followed by sterilization with heat (13%) and at home or with other modalities (13%). Reuse of N95 respirators for 1 day (22%), 1 week (21%) or 1 month (6%) was reported. There were differences in adoption of methods to conserve N95 respirators based on institutional pandemic phase and COVID-19 burden, with higher COVID-19 burden institutions more likely to resort to PPE conservation strategies. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates the impact of COVID-19 on North American cardiac surgeons. Our study should stimulate further discussions to identify optimal solutions to improve workforce preparedness for subsequent surges, as well as facilitate the navigation of future healthcare crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cirurgiões , Adulto , Descontaminação , Humanos , Pandemias , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2
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