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1.
Epilepsy Curr ; : 1535759720905516, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077329

RESUMO

Medicines currently used in the management of epilepsy have been developed to suppress seizures, and they have no known impact on the underlying disease. Using the term "antiepileptic" to describe these compounds is misleading because it suggests an action on the epilepsy itself. Pharmacological agents that have a merely symptomatic effect should be referred to as antiseizure medicines. Using appropriate terminology is especially important at a time innovative treatments targeting the development of epilepsy and its comorbidities are being actively pursued.

3.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 16(3): 133-134, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915370
4.
Epilepsia ; 60(8): 1602-1609, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Treatment options for seizure clusters are limited; the need for easy-to-administer treatments remains. The Staccato system delivers drug deep into the lung via inhalation. In this phase 2a study, we investigated the ability of three different doses of Staccato alprazolam to suppress the electroencephalographic (EEG) photoparoxysmal response (PPR) compared with placebo in participants with photosensitive seizures. METHODS: Adults (18-60 years) with a diagnosis and history of PPR on EEG with or without an epilepsy diagnosis were eligible to participate. Participants received Staccato alprazolam 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg, and Staccato placebo (twice) in random order. Intermittent photic stimulation and clinical assessments were performed at one predose and seven postdose time points. The primary endpoint of the study was the change in standardized photosensitivity range (SPR) in participants receiving each dose of Staccato alprazolam. RESULTS: Fifteen participants with a prior epilepsy diagnosis were screened; five were enrolled, randomized, and completed the study. All participants were white females with a mean (SD) age of 27.2 (6.8) years. All doses of Staccato alprazolam reduced the SPR at 2 minutes; the effect was sustained through 4 hours for the 0.5-mg dose and 6 hours for the 1.0- and 2.0-mg doses. The magnitude and duration of sedation and sleepiness were dose-related. Four participants (80%) experienced ≥1 adverse event (AE); none was severe or serious. Cough, diarrhea, dysgeusia, oral dysesthesia, sedation, and somnolence were experienced by two participants (40%) each. SIGNIFICANCE: This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that Staccato alprazolam 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg rapidly suppressed epileptiform activity in photosensitive participants with epilepsy. The AE profile of Staccato alprazolam was similar to what has been reported for alprazolam for other indications. The results support further development of Staccato alprazolam as a rescue medication for the acute treatment of seizures.

5.
Neurology ; 93(6): e559-e567, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of cenobamate in patients with photoparoxysmal-EEG response (PPR) to intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) as proof of principle of efficacy in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: In this multicenter, single-blind study, adults with photosensitive epilepsy, with/without concomitant antiepileptic drug therapy, underwent IPS under 3 eye conditions after a single dose of placebo (day -1, day 2) or cenobamate (day 1; 100, 250, or 400 mg). Complete suppression was a standardized photosensitivity range reduction to 0 over ≥1 time points for all eye conditions. Partial suppression was a ≥3-point reduction over ≥3 testing times vs the same time points on day -1 in ≥1 eye condition. Pharmacokinetics and safety were assessed. RESULTS: Of 6 evaluable patients, 5 reentered to receive higher doses. Cenobamate 100 mg produced partial suppression in 1 of 3 patients; 250 mg produced complete suppression in 1 of 4 and partial suppression in 4 of 4 patients; and 400 mg produced complete suppression in 1 of 4 and partial suppression in 2 of 4 patients. PPR was consistently reduced on days 1 and 2 (>24 hours after cenobamate) vs day -1 (placebo) with the 250- and 400-mg doses. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve (before dose to last measurable concentration) values between 201 and 400 µg/h/mL resulted in partial suppression in 4 of 6 (66%) patients. Most common adverse events were dizziness and somnolence. CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-principle study demonstrated that cenobamate is a potentially effective product for epilepsy. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00616148. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that, for patients with photosensitive epilepsy, cenobamate suppresses IPS-induced PPR.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Clorofenóis/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia Reflexa/tratamento farmacológico , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Carbamatos/efeitos adversos , Carbamatos/farmacocinética , Clorofenóis/efeitos adversos , Clorofenóis/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Método Simples-Cego , Tetrazóis/efeitos adversos , Tetrazóis/farmacocinética , Adulto Jovem
8.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(5): 504-512, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910443

RESUMO

In the past two decades, there has been an increasing interest in the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for neurological disorders such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, pain, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cannabis-based treatments for pain and spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis have been approved in some countries. Randomised controlled trials of plant-derived cannabidiol for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome, two severe childhood-onset epilepsies, provide evidence of anti-seizure effects. However, small clinical trials of cannabinoids in other neurological disorders such as Huntington's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dementia, have not found any effect. Despite positive results in these two severe epilepsy syndromes, further studies are needed to determine if the anti-seizure effects of cannabidiol extend to other forms of epilepsy, to overcome pharmacokinetic challenges with oral cannabinoids, and to uncover the exact mechanisms by which cannabidiol or other exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids exert their therapeutic effects.

9.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 8(5): 412-420, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564495

RESUMO

Background: EXamining everolimus In a Study of Tuberous sclerosis 3 (EXIST-3) demonstrated significantly reduced seizure frequency (SF) with everolimus vs placebo. In this study, we evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of everolimus for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-associated treatment-refractory seizures. Methods: After completion of the core phase, patients could enter an open-label extension phase and receive everolimus (target exposure, 3-15 ng/mL) for ≥48 weeks. Efficacy end points included change from baseline in average weekly SF expressed as response rate (RR, ≥50% reduction) and median percentage reduction (PR). Results: Of 366 patients, 361 received everolimus in core/extension phases. The RR was 31% (95% CI, 26.2-36.1; N = 352) at week 18, 46.6% (95% CI, 40.9-52.5; N = 298) at 1 year, and 57.7% (95% CI, 49.7-65.4; N = 163) at 2 years. Median PR in SF was 31.7% (95% CI, 28.5-36.1) at week 18, 46.7% (95% CI, 40.2-54) at 1 year, and 56.9% (95% CI, 50-68.4) at 2 years. Ninety-five patients (26.3%) discontinued everolimus before 2 years; 103 (28.5%) had <2 years of follow-up at study cutoff, and 40% were exposed to everolimus for ≥2 years. An analysis classifying discontinued patients as nonresponders showed an RR of 30.2% (95% CI, 25.5-35.2; N = 361) at week 18, 38.8% (95% CI, 33.7-44.1; N = 358) at 1 year, and 41% (95% CI, 34.6-47.7; N = 229) at 2 years, suggesting sustained benefit over time. The incidence of grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs) (any cause) was 40.2%, and 13% discontinued because of AEs (pneumonia [1.7%] and stomatitis [1.4%]). Two deaths were suspected to be treatment-related (pneumonia and septic shock). Conclusions: Sustained reductions in TSC-associated treatment-refractory seizures over time were achieved with adjunctive everolimus. The safety profile was consistent with the core phase with no new safety concerns. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that long-term everolimus therapy reduces SF in patients with TSC-associated treatment-refractory seizures.

11.
Epilepsia Open ; 3(Suppl Suppl 1): 13-23, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450483

RESUMO

Common data elements (CDEs) are becoming more common as more areas of preclinical research have generated CDEs. Herein we provide an overview of the progress to date in generating CDEs for preclinical epilepsy research. Currently there are CDEs that have been developed for Physiology (in vivo), Behavior, Pharmacology, and Electroencephalography (EEG). Together the CDEs and methodologic considerations associated with these CDEs are laid out in consecutive manuscripts published in Epilepsia Open, each describing CDEs for their respective topic area. In addition to the overview of progress for the 4 subjects, core characteristics (Core CDEs) are described and explained. Data collection using a case report form (CRF) is described, and considerations that are involved in using the CDEs and CRFs are discussed.

12.
Ann Neurol ; 84(4): 556-563, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine how early lamotrigine clearance (LTG-CL/F) increases during early pregnancy in women with epilepsy and to quantify the relationship of LTG-CL/F to estradiol concentrations and gestational week. METHODS: This was a multicenter, observational study of pregnant women with epilepsy on lamotrigine and no interacting concomitant medications, employing frequent blood sampling prior to and early in pregnancy. A population mixed-effects modeling approach was used to describe the relationship between LTG-CL/F and gestational week and between LTG-CL/F and estradiol. Akaike information criterion (AIC) compared goodness of fit between final models and a generalized estimating equation to compare differences between low and high percentage LTG-CL/F change groups (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Twenty-five pregnancies (22 participants) were available. Increases in LTG-CL/F were present at 5 weeks gestational age. Both estradiol and gestational week were highly correlated with LTG-CL/F changes; LTG-CL/F increased at the rate of 0.115l/h for every gestational week and 0.844l/h for every 1ng/ml of estradiol, with women in the high LTG-CL/F percentage change group changing at a faster rate (p < 0.001). Models using gestational week performed better than models using estradiol. INTERPRETATION: Gestational week was a better predictor of changes in LTG-CL/F than estradiol concentration and may reflect additional factors, although neither was robust enough to use clinically due to substantial interpatient variability. Changes in LTG-CL/F begin as early as the 5th gestational week, often before women know they are pregnant, emphasizing the importance of planning and early detection of pregnancy and consideration of early implementation of therapeutic drug monitoring. Ann Neurol 2018;84:556-563.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/sangue , Epilepsia/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Idade Gestacional , Lamotrigina/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lamotrigina/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica/fisiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 2(7): 495-504, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy occurs in 70-90% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of adjunctive everolimus for treatment-refractory seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex in paediatric patients enrolled in the EXIST-3 trial, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, phase 3 study. METHODS: This post-hoc analysis focused on paediatric patients (age <18 years) in the EXIST-3 trial, which consisted of baseline (8 weeks), core (18 weeks), and extension phases (≥48 weeks) and was done at 99 centres in 25 countries worldwide. Briefly, patients with tuberous sclerosis complex-associated treatment-refractory seizures, who were receiving a stable dose of one to three antiepileptic drugs, were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive placebo, low-exposure everolimus (3-7 ng/mL), or high-exposure everolimus (9-15 ng/mL). Following the core phase, patients could enter the extension phase to receive everolimus at a targeted exposure range of 3-15 ng/mL up to 48 weeks after the last patient had completed the core phase. Efficacy endpoints were response rate (≥50% of reduction from baseline in average weekly seizure frequency) and median percentage reduction in seizure frequency during the 12-week maintenance period of the core phase, and at 12-week intervals throughout the extension phase. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01713946. FINDINGS: Between July 3, 2013, and May 29, 2015, 299 paediatric patients enrolled in the trial. In the younger subgroup (<6 years; n=104), 34 received placebo, 33 low-exposure everolimus, and 37 high-exposure everolimus; in the older subgroup (≥6 years to <18 years; n=195), 62 received placebo, 63 low-exposure everolimus, and 70 high-exposure everolimus. At the end of the core phase, response rate was higher in the treatment groups than placebo in both the younger subgroup (17·6% [6·8-34·5] for placebo vs 30·3% [95% CI 15·6-48·7; p=0·2245] for low-exposure everolimus vs 59·5% [42·1-75·2; p=0·0003] for high-exposure everolimus) and the older subgroup (12·9% [5·7-23·9] vs 27·0% [16·6-39·7; p=0·0491] vs 30·0% [19·6-42·1; p=0·0179]), as were median reduction in seizure frequency (12·3% [95% CI -10·1 to 24·8] vs 29·3% [95% CI 13·4 to 46·3; p=0·0474] vs 54·7% [43·5 to 73·1; p<0·0001] in younger patients; 13·5% [-3·0 to 26·8] vs 31·0% [16·1 to 42·9; p=0·0128] vs 34·8% [26·7 to 41·3; p=0·0006] in older patients). The efficacy persisted, with sustained seizure reduction after 1 year of treatment across both paediatric subgroups (response rate 48·9% [95% CI 38·1-59·8] for the younger subgroup vs 47·2% [39·3-55·2] for the older subgroup; median percentage reduction in seizure frequency 48·4% [95% CI 34·3-73·6] vs 48·0% [38·2-57·5]). At the cutoff date for the extension phase, grade 3 or 4 adverse events were reported in 45 (45%) younger patients (commonly pneumonia [n=16]) and 74 (38%) older patients (commonly pneumonia [n=8] and stomatitis [n=6]). Two deaths (pneumonia, which was suspected to be treatment-related, and sudden unexplained death due to epilepsy) were reported. INTERPRETATION: Adjunctive everolimus resulted in sustained reductions in seizure frequency after 1 year and was well tolerated in paediatric patients with treatment-refractory seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. FUNDING: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/complicações , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Tuberosa/complicações , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(8): 962-969, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710218

RESUMO

Importance: Prior studies report lower birth rates for women with epilepsy (WWE) but have been unable to differentiate between biological and social contributions. To our knowledge, we do not have data to inform WWE seeking pregnancy if their likelihood of achieving pregnancy is biologically reduced compared with their peers. Objective: To determine if WWE without a prior diagnosis of infertility or related disorders are as likely to achieve pregnancy within 12 months as their peers without epilepsy. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Women With Epilepsy: Pregnancy Outcomes and Deliveries study is an observational cohort study comparing fertility in WWE with fertility in control women (CW) without epilepsy. Participants were enrolled at 4 academic medical centers and observed up to 21 months from November 2010 to May 2015. Women seeking pregnancy aged 18 to 40 years were enrolled within 6 months of discontinuing contraception. Exclusion criteria included tobacco use and a prior diagnosis of infertility or disorders that lower fertility. Eighteen WWE and 47 CW declined the study, and 40 WWE and 170 CW did not meet study criteria. The Women With Epilepsy: Pregnancy Outcomes and Deliveries electronic diary app was used to capture data on medications, seizures, sexual activity, and menses. Data were analyzed from November 2015 to June 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was proportion of women who achieved pregnancy within 12 months after enrollment. Secondary outcomes were time to pregnancy using a proportional hazard model, pregnancy outcomes, sexual activity, ovulatory rates, and analysis of epilepsy factors in WWE. All outcomes were planned prior to data collection except for time to pregnancy. Results: Of the 197 women included in the study, 142 (72.1%) were white, and the mean (SD) age was 31.9 (3.5) years among the 89 WWE and 31.1 (4.2) among the 108 CW. Among 89 WWE, 54 (60.7%) achieved pregnancy vs 65 (60.2%) among 108 CW. Median time to pregnancy was no different between the groups after controlling for key covariates (WWE: median, 6.0 months; 95% CI, 3.8-10.1; CW: median, 9.0 months; 95% CI, 6.5-11.2; P = .30). Sexual activity and ovulatory rates were similar in WWE and CW. Forty-four of 54 pregnancies (81.5%) in WWE and 53 of 65 pregnancies (81.5%) in CW resulted in live births. No epilepsy factors were significant. Conclusions and Relevance: Women with epilepsy seeking pregnancy without prior known infertility or related disorders have similar likelihood of achieving pregnancy, time to pregnancy, and live birth rates compared with their peers without epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Nascimento Vivo , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Taxa de Gravidez , Tempo para Engravidar , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Coito , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Aplicativos Móveis , Ovulação , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Adulto Jovem
15.
Epilepsia ; 59(6): 1188-1197, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present analysis examined the exposure-response relationship by means of the predose everolimus concentration (Cmin ) and the seizure response in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex-associated seizures in the EXIST-3 study. Recommendations have been made for the target Cmin range of everolimus for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and the doses necessary to achieve this target Cmin . METHODS: A model-based approach was used to predict patients' daily Cmin . Time-normalized Cmin (TN-Cmin ) was calculated as the average predicted Cmin in a time interval. TN-Cmin was used to link exposure to efficacy and safety end points via model-based approaches. A conditional logistic regression stratified by age subgroup was used to estimate the probability of response in relation to exposure. A multiplicative linear regression model was used to estimate the exposure-response relationship for seizure frequency (SF). An extended Cox regression model was used to link exposure to the time to first adverse event. RESULTS: There was a strong, consistent, and highly significant relationship between everolimus exposure and efficacy, measured by TN-Cmin and SF, regardless of patient's age and concomitant use of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors/inducers. Results of an extended Cox regression analyses indicated that twofold increases in TN-Cmin were not associated with statistically significant increases in the risk of stomatitis or infections. SIGNIFICANCE: The recommended TDM is to target everolimus Cmin within a range of 5-7 ng/mL initially and 5-15 ng/mL in the event of an inadequate clinical response, and safety is consistent with previous reports. Starting doses depend on age and the concomitant use of CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein inducers/inhibitors.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/etiologia , Esclerose Tuberosa/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Indutores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/farmacocinética , Indutores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Everolimo/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Lancet ; 391(10125): 1085-1096, 2018 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a rare, severe form of epileptic encephalopathy, are frequently treatment resistant to available medications. No controlled studies have investigated the use of cannabidiol for patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. We therefore assessed the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol as an add-on anticonvulsant therapy in this population of patients. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done at 24 clinical sites in the USA, the Netherlands, and Poland, we investigated the efficacy of cannabidiol as add-on therapy for drop seizures in patients with treatment-resistant Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Eligible patients (aged 2-55 years) had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, including a history of slow (<3 Hz) spike-and-wave patterns on electroencephalogram, evidence of more than one type of generalised seizure for at least 6 months, at least two drop seizures per week during the 4-week baseline period, and had not responded to treatment with at least two antiepileptic drugs. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using an interactive voice response system, stratified by age group, to receive 20 mg/kg oral cannabidiol daily or matched placebo for 14 weeks. All patients, caregivers, investigators, and individuals assessing data were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was percentage change from baseline in monthly frequency of drop seizures during the treatment period, analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug and had post-baseline efficacy data. All randomly assigned patients were included in the safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02224690. FINDINGS: Between April 28, 2015, and Oct 15, 2015, we randomly assigned 171 patients to receive cannabidiol (n=86) or placebo (n=85). 14 patients in the cannabidiol group and one in the placebo group discontinued study treatment; all randomly assigned patients received at least one dose of study treatment and had post-baseline efficacy data. The median percentage reduction in monthly drop seizure frequency from baseline was 43·9% (IQR -69·6 to -1·9) in the cannibidiol group and 21·8% (IQR -45·7 to 1·7) in the placebo group. The estimated median difference between the treatment groups was -17·21 (95% CI -30·32 to -4·09; p=0·0135) during the 14-week treatment period. Adverse events occurred in 74 (86%) of 86 patients in the cannabidiol group and 59 (69%) of 85 patients in the placebo group; most were mild or moderate. The most common adverse events were diarrhoea, somnolence, pyrexia, decreased appetite, and vomiting. 12 (14%) patients in the cannabidiol group and one (1%) patient in the placebo group withdrew from the study because of adverse events. One patient (1%) died in the cannabidiol group, but this was considered unrelated to treatment. INTERPRETATION: Add-on cannabidiol is efficacious for the treatment of patients with drop seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and is generally well tolerated. The long-term efficacy and safety of cannabidiol is currently being assessed in the open-label extension of this trial. FUNDING: GW Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Lennox Gastaut/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Lennox Gastaut/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Convulsões/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 31(2): 169-175, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278550

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the most important issues a clinician must consider whenever selecting and administering antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). There is no available algorithm that identifies how to individualize selection of AEDs. Proper selection and administration can make an enormous difference in both effectiveness and tolerability. RECENT FINDINGS: Many principles of AED selection remain unchanged. Selection of AEDs must be based on understanding of epilepsy syndrome and seizure type, comorbidities, risk of adverse events, as well as on patient characteristics such as age and sex. Recently personalized medicine through genetics has become a reality for a subset of patients, to select optimal drugs, and avoid side effects. Selection of AEDs for women can be performed to avoid teratogenic agents, as safer AEDs have been identified. There is evidence supporting use of controlled release AED formulations, whenever available. Whenever selecting an optimal dose, physicians should attend to the principle of 'start low, go slow.' 'Intelligent use' includes not only appropriate drug selection, but also optimal and individualized dose adjustment. Drug optimization involves appropriate titration, dose schedule, individualization of therapeutic range and rescue planning SUMMARY: Intelligent drug use, individualized to patient characteristics, can guide management for optimal seizure control.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Algoritmos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Teratogênios
19.
Epilepsia ; 58 Suppl 4: 7-9, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105072

RESUMO

Among the priority next steps outlined during the first translational epilepsy research workshop in London, United Kingdom (2012), jointly organized by the American Epilepsy Society (AES) and the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), are the harmonization of research practices used in preclinical studies and the development of infrastructure that facilitates multicenter preclinical studies. The AES/ILAE Translational Task Force of the ILAE has been pursuing initiatives that advance these goals. In this supplement, we present the first reports of the working groups of the Task Force that aim to improve practices of performing rodent video-electroencephalography (vEEG) studies in experimental controls, generate systematic reviews of preclinical research data, and develop preclinical common data elements (CDEs) for epilepsy research in animals.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/terapia , Cooperação Internacional , Sociedades Médicas , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Comitês Consultivos , Animais , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Londres , Gravação em Vídeo
20.
Epilepsia ; 58 Suppl 4: 78-86, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105074

RESUMO

The major objective of preclinical translational epilepsy research is to advance laboratory findings toward clinical application by testing potential treatments in animal models of seizures and epilepsy. Recently there has been a focus on the failure of preclinical discoveries to translate reliably, or even to be reproduced in different laboratories. One potential cause is a lack of standardization in preclinical data collection. The resulting difficulties in comparing data across studies have led to high cost and missed opportunity, which in turn impede clinical trials and advances in medical care. Preclinical epilepsy research has successfully brought numerous antiseizure treatments into the clinical practice, yet the unmet clinical needs have prompted the reconsideration of research strategies to optimize epilepsy therapy development. In the field of clinical epilepsy there have been successful steps to improve such problems, such as generation of common data elements (CDEs) and case report forms (CRFs and standards of data collection and reporting) by a team of leaders in the field. Therefore, the Translational Task Force was appointed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the American Epilepsy Society (AES), in partnership with the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to define CDEs for animal epilepsy research studies and prepare guidelines for data collection and experimental procedures. If adopted, the preclinical CDEs could facilitate collaborative epilepsy research, comparisons of data across different laboratories, and promote rigor, transparency, and impact, particularly in therapy development.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos , Elementos de Dados Comuns/normas , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/terapia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/normas , Animais , Coleta de Dados , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (USA) , Sociedades Científicas/normas , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Estados Unidos
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