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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393945

RESUMO

X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a common method for probing the local structure of nanocatalysts. One portion of the X-ray absorption spectrum, the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) is a useful alternative to the commonly used extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) for probing three-dimensional geometry around each type of atomic species, especially in those cases when the EXAFS data quality is limited by harsh reaction conditions and low metal loading. A methodology for quantitative determination of bimetallic architectures from their XANES spectra is currently lacking. We have developed a method, based on the artificial neural network, trained on ab initio site-specific XANES calculations, that enables accurate and rapid reconstruction of the structural descriptors (partial coordination numbers) from the experimental XANES data. We demonstrate the utility of this method on the example of a series of PdAu bimetallic nanoalloys. By validating the neural network-yielded metal-metal coordination numbers based on the XANES analysis by previous EXAFS characterization, we obtained new results for in situ restructuring of dilute (2.6 at% Pd in Au) PdAu nanoparticles, driven by their gas and temperature treatments.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249516

RESUMO

Photo-thermo catalysis, which integrates photocatalysis on semiconductors with thermocatalysis on supported nonplasmonic metals, has emerged as an attractive approach to improve catalytic performance. However, an understanding of the mechanisms in operation is missing from both the thermo- and photocatalytic perspectives. Deep insights into photo-thermo catalysis are achieved via the catalytic oxidation of propane (C3 H8 ) over a Pt/TiO2 -WO3 catalyst that severely suffers from oxygen poisoning at high O2 /C3 H8 ratios. After introducing UV/Vis light, the reaction temperature required to achieve 70 % conversion of C3 H8 lowers to a record-breaking 90 °C from 324 °C and the apparent activation energy drops from 130 kJ mol-1 to 11 kJ mol-1 . Furthermore, the reaction order of O2 is -1.4 in dark but reverses to 0.1 under light, thereby suppressing oxygen poisoning of the Pt catalyst. An underlying mechanism is proposed based on direct evidence of the in-situ-captured reaction intermediates.

3.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(7): 1253-1258, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977217

RESUMO

Understanding the factors that control solubility and speciation of metal ions in molten salts is key for their successful use in molten salt reactors and electrorefining. Here, we employ X-ray and optical absorption spectroscopies and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the coordination environment of Ni(II) in molten ZnCl2, where it is poorly soluble, and contrast it with highly soluble Co(II) over a wide temperature range. In solid NiCl2, the Ni ion is octahedrally coordinated, whereas the ZnCl2 host matrix favors tetrahedral coordination. Our experimental and computational results show that the coordination environment of Ni(II) in ZnCl2 is disordered among tetra- and pentacoordinate states. In contrast, the local structure of dissolved Co(II) is tetrahedral and commensurate with the ZnCl2 host's structure. The heterogeneity and concomitant large bond length disorder in the Ni case constitute a plausible explanation for its lower solubility in molten ZnCl2.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994872

RESUMO

The threat of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), assured by their ease of synthesis and effectiveness as a terrorizing weapon, will persist long after the once-tremendous stockpiles in the U.S. and elsewhere are finally destroyed. As such, soldier and civilian protection, battlefield decontamination, and environmental remediation from CWAs remain top national security priorities. New chemical approaches for the fast and complete destruction of CWAs have been an active field of research for many decades, and new technologies have generated immense interest. In particular, our research team and others have shown metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and polyoxometalates (POMs) to be active for sequestering CWAs and even catalyzing the rapid hydrolysis of agents. In this Forum Article, we highlight recent advancements made in the understanding and evaluation of POMs and Zr-based MOFs as CWA decontamination materials. Specifically, our aim is to bridge the gap between controlled, solution-phase laboratory studies and real-world or battlefield-like conditions by examining agent-material interactions at the gas-solid interface utilizing a multimodal experimental and computational approach. Herein, we report our progress in addressing the following research goals: (1) elucidating molecular-level mechanisms of the adsorption, diffusion, and reaction of CWA and CWA simulants within a series of Zr-based MOFs, such as UiO-66, MOF-808, and NU-1000, and POMs, including Cs8Nb6O19 and (Et2NH2)8[(α-PW11O39Zr(µ-OH)(H2O))2]·7H2O, (2) probing the effects that common ambient gases, such as CO2, SO2, and NO2, have on the efficacy of the MOF and POM materials for CWA destruction, and (3) using CWA simulant results to develop hypotheses for live agent chemistry. Key hypotheses are then tested with targeted live agent studies. Overall, our collaborative effort has provided insight into the fundamental aspects of agent-material interactions and revealed strategies for new catalyst development.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(13): 14721-14738, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815428

RESUMO

This Review summarizes the recent progress made in the field of chemical threat reduction by utilizing new in situ analytical techniques and combinations thereof to study multifunctional materials designed for capture and decomposition of nerve gases and their simulants. The emphasis is on the use of in situ experiments that simulate realistic operating conditions (solid-gas interface, ambient pressures and temperatures, time-resolved measurements) and advanced synchrotron methods, such as in situ X-ray absorption and scattering methods, a combination thereof with other complementary measurements (e.g., XPS, Raman, DRIFTS, NMR), and theoretical modeling. The examples presented in this Review range from studies of the adsorption and decomposition of nerve agents and their simulants on Zr-based metal organic frameworks to Nb and Zr-based polyoxometalates and metal (hydro)oxide materials. The approaches employed in these studies ultimately demonstrate how advanced synchrotron-based in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and diffraction can be exploited to develop an atomic- level understanding of interfacial binding and reaction of chemical warfare agents, which impacts the development of novel filtration media and other protective materials.

6.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(2): 554-592, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872840

RESUMO

Ceria and its solid solutions play a vital role in several industrial processes and devices. These include solar energy-to-fuel conversion, solid oxide fuel and electrolyzer cells, memristors, chemical looping combustion, automotive 3-way catalysts, catalytic surface coatings, supercapacitors and recently, electrostrictive devices. An attractive feature of ceria is the possibility of tuning defect-chemistry to increase the effectiveness of the materials in application areas. Years of study have revealed many features of the long-range, macroscopic characteristics of ceria and its derivatives. In this review we focus on an area of ceria defect chemistry which has received comparatively little attention - defect-induced local distortions and short-range associates. These features are non-periodic in nature and hence not readily detected by conventional X-ray powder diffraction. We compile the relevant literature data obtained by thermodynamic analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Each of these techniques provides insight into material behavior without reliance on long-range periodic symmetry. From thermodynamic analyses, association of defects is inferred. From XAFS, an element-specific probe, local structure around selected atomic species is obtained, whereas from Raman spectroscopy, local symmetry breaking and vibrational changes in bonding patterns is detected. We note that, for undoped ceria and its solid solutions, the relationship between short range order and cation-oxygen-vacancy coordination remains a subject of active debate. Beyond collating the sometimes contradictory data in the literature, we strengthen this review by reporting new spectroscopy results and analysis. We contribute to this debate by introducing additional data and analysis, with the expectation that increasing our fundamental understanding of this relationship will lead to an ability to predict and tailor the defect-chemistry of ceria-based materials for practical applications.

7.
J Chem Phys ; 151(16): 164201, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675887

RESUMO

Understanding the origins of enhanced reactivity of supported, subnanometer in size, metal oxide clusters is challenging due to the scarcity of methods capable to extract atomic-level information from the experimental data. Due to both the sensitivity of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to the local geometry around metal ions and reliability of theoretical spectroscopy codes for modeling XANES spectra, supervised machine learning approach has become a powerful tool for extracting structural information from the experimental spectra. Here, we present the application of this method to grazing incidence XANES spectra of size-selective Cu oxide clusters on flat support, measured in operando conditions of the methanation reaction. We demonstrate that the convolution neural network can be trained on theoretical spectra and utilized to "invert" experimental XANES data to obtain structural descriptors-the Cu-Cu coordination numbers. As a result, we were able to distinguish between different structural motifs (Cu2O-like and CuO-like) of Cu oxide clusters, transforming in reaction conditions, and reliably evaluate average cluster sizes, with important implications for the understanding of structure, composition, and function relationships in catalysis.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(46): 16533-16537, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529667

RESUMO

We report the first study of a gas-phase reaction catalyzed by highly dispersed sites at the metal nodes of a crystalline metal-organic framework (MOF). Specifically, CuRhBTC (BTC3- =benzenetricarboxylate) exhibited hydrogenation activity, while other isostructural monometallic and bimetallic MOFs did not. Our multi-technique characterization identifies the oxidation state of Rh in CuRhBTC as +2, which is a Rh oxidation state that has not previously been observed for crystalline MOF metal nodes. These Rh2+ sites are active for the catalytic hydrogenation of propylene to propane at room temperature, and the MOF structure stabilizes the Rh2+ oxidation state under reaction conditions. Density functional theory calculations suggest a mechanism in which hydrogen dissociation and propylene adsorption occur at the Rh2+ sites. The ability to tailor the geometry and ensemble size of the metal nodes in MOFs allows for unprecedented control of the active sites and could lead to significant advances in rational catalyst design.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(36): 32879-32886, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414789

RESUMO

Amorphous molybdenum sulfides (a-MoSx) are known to be active electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), but the role stoichiometry of the sulfur atoms plays in the HER activity remains unclear. In this work, we deposited thin films of a-MoSx from two thiomolybdate deposition baths with different sulfur ratios (MoS42- and Mo2S122-) and showed that the sulfur stoichiometry, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, is controlled by the precursor of choice and the electrochemical method used to deposit the thin films. Using the Mo2S122- precursor allows access to a MoS6 thin film, with a higher S/Mo ratio compared with that of any previously reported electrodeposited films. We also examined the effect of electrochemistry on the resulting S/Mo ratio in the as-prepared a-MoSx thin films. Samples with S/Mo ratios ranging from 2 to 6 were electrodeposited on glassy carbon (GC) substrates by using anodic, cathodic, or cyclic voltammetry deposition. The a-MoSx thin films deposited on GC substrates were tested as HER catalysts in acidic electrolytes. The overpotentials needed to drive current densities of 10 mA/cm2 ranged from 160 mV for MoS6 samples to 216 mV for MoS2 samples, signifying the important role sulfur content plays in HER activity of the prepared films. Furthermore, we characterized the deactivation of the a-MoSx films and found that the sulfur content is gradually depleted over time, leading to a slow deactivation of the a-MoSx thin-film catalysts. We showed a facile procedure that affords a-MoSx films with high sulfur content by using S-rich precursors and highlighted the role of sulfur in the prepared films for HER.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 58(11): 7527-7536, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091085

RESUMO

Ceria doped with trivalent dopants exhibits nonclassical electrostriction, strong anelasticity, and room-temperature (RT) mechanical creep. These phenomena, unexpected for a ceramic material with a large Young's modulus, have been attributed to the generation of local strain in the vicinity of the host Ce cations due to symmetry-breaking point defects, including oxygen vacancies. However, understanding why strain is generated at the host rather than at the dopant site, as well as predicting these effects as a function of dopant size and concentration, remains a challenge. We have used the evolutionary-algorithm-based reverse Monte Carlo modeling to reconcile the experimental data of extended X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction in a combined model structure. By extracting the details of the radial distribution function (RDF) around the host (Ce) and trivalent dopants (Sm or Y), we find that RDF of the first-nearest neighbor (1NN) of host and dopant cations as well as the second-nearest neighbor (2NN) of the dopant are each best modeled with two separate populations corresponding to short and long interatomic distances. This heterogeneity indicates that fluorite symmetry is not preserved locally, especially for the dopant first-and second-NN sites, appearing at surprisingly low doping fractions (5 mol % Sm and 10 mol % Y). Given that Ce rather than dopant sites act as the source of local strain for electrostriction and RT creep, we conclude that the environment around the dopant does not respond to electrical and mechanical excitations, likely because of its similarity to the double fluorite structure which has poor electrostrictive and anelastic properties. The trends we observe in the RDFs around the Ce sites as a function of dopant size and concentration suggest that the response of these sites can be controlled by the extent of doping: Increasing dopant size to increase strain magnitude at the 1NN shell of Ce and decreasing dopant fraction to decrease strain propagation to the 2NN shell of Ce should produce stronger electrostrictive response and RT creep.

11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(9): 2295-2299, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002759

RESUMO

Development of technologies for protection against chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is critically important. Recently, polyoxometalates have attracted attention as potential catalysts for nerve-agent decomposition. Improvement of their effectiveness in real operating conditions requires an atomic-level understanding of CWA decomposition at the gas-solid interface. We investigated decomposition of the nerve agent Sarin and its simulant, dimethyl chlorophosphate (DMCP), by zirconium polytungstate. Using a multimodal approach, we showed that upon DMCP and Sarin exposure the dimeric tungstate undergoes monomerization, making coordinatively unsaturated Zr(IV) centers available, which activate nucleophilic hydrolysis. Further, DMCP is shown to be a good model system of reduced toxicity for studies of CWA deactivation at the gas-solid interface.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(1): 451-462, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525555

RESUMO

In recent years magic angle spinning-dynamic nuclear polarization (MAS-DNP) has developed as an excellent approach for boosting the sensitivity of solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy, thereby enabling the characterization of challenging systems in biology and chemistry. Most commonly, MAS-DNP is based on the use of nitroxide biradicals as polarizing agents. In materials science, since the use of nitroxides often limits the signal enhancement to the materials' surface and subsurface layers, there is need for hyperpolarization approaches which will provide sensitivity in the bulk of micron sized particles. Recently, an alternative in the form of paramagnetic metal ions has emerged. Here we demonstrate the remarkable efficacy of Mn(II) dopants, used as endogenous polarization agents for MAS-DNP, in enabling the detection of 17O at a natural abundance of only 0.038%. Distinct oxygen sites are identified in the bulk of micron-sized crystals, including battery anode materials Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and Li2ZnTi3O8, as well as the phosphor materials NaCaPO4 and MgAl2O4, all doped with Mn(II) ions. Density functional theory calculations are used to assign the resonances to specific oxygen environments in these phases. Depending on the Mn(II) dopant concentration, we obtain significant signal enhancement factors, 142 and 24, for 6Li and 7Li nuclei in LTO, respectively. We furthermore follow the changes in the 6,7Li LTO resonances and determine their enhancement factors as a function of Mn(II) concentration. The results presented show that MAS-DNP from paramagnetic metal ion dopants provides an efficient approach for probing informative nuclei such as 17O, despite their low gyromagnetic ratio and negligible abundance, without isotope enrichment.

13.
Nano Lett ; 19(1): 520-529, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501196

RESUMO

Properties of mono- and bimetallic metal nanoparticles (NPs) may depend strongly on their compositional, structural (or geometrical) attributes, and their atomic dynamics, all of which can be efficiently described by a partial radial distribution function (PRDF) of metal atoms. For NPs that are several nanometers in size, finite size effects may play a role in determining crystalline order, interatomic distances, and particle shape. Bimetallic NPs may also have different compositional distributions than bulk materials. These factors all render the determination of PRDFs challenging. Here extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, molecular dynamics simulations, and supervised machine learning (artificial neural-network) method are combined to extract PRDFs directly from experimental data. By applying this method to several systems of Pt and PdAu NPs, we demonstrate the finite size effects on the nearest neighbor distributions, bond dynamics, and alloying motifs in mono- and bimetallic particles and establish the generality of this approach.

14.
Nanoscale ; 10(47): 22520-22532, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480291

RESUMO

A microwave assisted method was used to synthesize RhAu nanoparticles (NPs). Characterization, based upon transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction, provided the evidence of monomodal alloy NPs with a mean size distribution between 3 and 5 nm, depending upon the composition. Extended X-ray adsorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) also showed evidence of alloying, but the coordination numbers of Rh and Au indicated significant segregation between the metals. More problematic were the low coordination numbers for Rh; values of ca. 9 indicate NPs smaller than 2 nm, significantly smaller than those observed with TEM. Additionally, no single-particle structural models were able to reproduce the experimental EXAFS data. Resolution of this discrepancy was achieved with high resolution aberration corrected scanning TEM imaging which showed the presence of ultra-small (<2 nm) pure Rh clusters and larger (∼3-5 nm) segregated particles with Au-rich cores and Rh-decorated shells. A heterogeneous model with a mixture of ultrasmall pure Rh clusters and larger segregated Rh/Au NPs was able to explain the experimental measurements of the NPs over the range of compositions measured. The combination of density functional theory, EXAFS, and TEM allowed us to quantify the heterogeneity in the RhAu NPs. It was only through this combination of theoretical and experimental techniques that resulted in a bimodal distribution of particle sizes that was able to explain all of the experimental characterization data.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(47): 16042-16047, 2018 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415539

RESUMO

Framework nitrogen atoms of carbon nitride (C3N4) can coordinate with and activate metal sites for catalysis. In this study, C3N4 was employed to harvest visible light and activate Co2+ sites, without the use of additional ligands, in photochemical CO2 reduction. Photocatalysts containing single Co2+ sites on C3N4 were prepared by a simple deposition method and demonstrated excellent activity and product selectivity toward CO formation. A turnover number of more than 200 was obtained for CO production using the synthesized photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation. Inactive cobalt oxides formed at relatively high cobalt loadings but did not alter product selectivity. Further studies with X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed the presence of single Co2+ sites on C3N4 and their important role in achieving selective CO2 reduction.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(44): 14627-14637, 2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160101

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanocrystals serve as outstanding model systems for studying quantum confined size and shape effects. Shape control is an important knob for controlling their properties but so far it has been well developed mainly for heavy-metal containing semiconductor nanocrystals, limiting their further widespread utilization. Herein, we report a synthesis of heavy-metal free ZnSe nanocrystals with shape and size control through utilization of well-defined molecular clusters. In this approach, ZnSe nanowires are synthesized and their length and shape control is achieved by introduction of controlled amounts of molecular clusters. As a result of [Zn4(SPh)10](Me4N)2 clusters (Zn4 clusters) addition, short ZnSe nanorods or ZnSe nanodots can be obtained through tuning the ratio of Zn4 clusters to ZnSe. A study using transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of a hybrid inorganic-organic nanowire, whereby the ligands form a template for self-assembly of ZnSe magic size clusters. The hybrid nanowire template becomes shorter and eventually disappears upon increasing amount of Zn4 clusters in the reaction. The generality of the method is demonstrated by using isostructural [Cu4(SPh)6](Me4N)2 clusters, which presented a new approach to Cu doped ZnSe nanocrystals and provided also a unique opportunity to employ X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy for deciphering the changes in the local atomic-scale environment of the clusters and explaining their role in the process of the nanorods formation. Overall, the introduction of molecular clusters presented here opens a path for growth of colloidal semiconductor nanorods, expanding the palette of materials selection with obvious implications for optoelectronic and biomedical applications.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(35): 29608-29621, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30095889

RESUMO

Doping LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) cathode material by small amount of Mo6+ ions, around 1 mol %, affects pronouncedly its structure, surface properties, and electronic and electrochemical behavior. Cathodes comprising Mo6+-doped NCM523 exhibited in Li cells higher specific capacities, higher rate capabilities, lower capacity fading, and lower charge-transfer resistance that relates to a more stable electrode/solution interface due to doping. This, in turn, is ascribed to the fact that the Mo6+ ions tend to concentrate more at the surface, as a result of a synthesis that always includes a necessary calcination, high-temperature stage. This phenomenon of the Mo dopant segregation at the surface in NCM523 material was discovered in the present work for the first time. It appears that Mo doping reduces the reactivity of the Ni-rich NCM cathode materials toward the standard electrolyte solutions of Li-ion batteries. Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we showed that Mo6+ ions are preferably incorporated at Ni sites and that the doping increases the amount of Ni2+ ions at the expense of Ni3+ ions, due to charge compensation, in accord with X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy measurements. Furthermore, DFT calculations predicted Ni-O bond length distributions in good agreement with the XAFS results, supporting a model of partial substitution of Ni sites by molybdenum.

18.
Adv Mater ; 30(41): e1707455, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984445

RESUMO

Room-temperature mechanical properties of thin films and ceramics of doped and undoped ceria are reviewed with an emphasis on the anelastic behavior of the material. Notably, the unrelaxed Young's modulus of Gd-doped ceria ceramics measured by ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques is >200 GPa, while the relaxed biaxial modulus, calculated from the stress/strain ratio of thin films, is ≈10 times smaller. Oxygen-deficient ceria exhibits a number of anelastic effects, such as hysteresis of the lattice parameter, strain-dependent Poisson's ratio, room-temperature creep, and nonclassical electrostriction. Methods of measuring these properties are discussed, as well as the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for evaluating strain in thin films of Gd-doped ceria. Special attention is paid to detection of the time dependence of anelastic effects. Both the practical advantages and disadvantages of anelasticity on the design and stability of microscopic devices dependent on ceria thin films are discussed, and methods of mitigating the latter are suggested, with the aim of providing a cautionary note for materials scientists and engineers designing devices containing thin films or bulk ceria, as well as providing data-based constraints for theoreticians who are involved in modeling of the unusual electrical and electromechanical properties of undoped and doped ceria.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(22): 225502, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906159

RESUMO

The knowledge of the coordination environment around various atomic species in many functional materials provides a key for explaining their properties and working mechanisms. Many structural motifs and their transformations are difficult to detect and quantify in the process of work (operando conditions), due to their local nature, small changes, low dimensionality of the material, and/or extreme conditions. Here we use an artificial neural network approach to extract the information on the local structure and its in situ changes directly from the x-ray absorption fine structure spectra. We illustrate this capability by extracting the radial distribution function (RDF) of atoms in ferritic and austenitic phases of bulk iron across the temperature-induced transition. Integration of RDFs allows us to quantify the changes in the iron coordination and material density, and to observe the transition from a body-centered to a face-centered cubic arrangement of iron atoms. This method is attractive for a broad range of materials and experimental conditions.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(20): 6249-6259, 2018 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750512

RESUMO

In this report, we examine the structure of bimetallic nanomaterials prepared by an electrochemical approach known as hydride-terminated (HT) electrodeposition. It has been shown previously that this method can lead to deposition of a single Pt monolayer on bulk-phase Au surfaces. Specifically, under appropriate electrochemical conditions and using a solution containing PtCl42-, a monolayer of Pt atoms electrodeposits onto bulk-phase Au immediately followed by a monolayer of H atoms. The H atom capping layer prevents deposition of Pt multilayers. We applied this method to ∼1.6 nm Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) immobilized on an inert electrode surface. In contrast to the well-defined, segregated Au/Pt structure of the bulk-phase surface, we observe that HT electrodeposition leads to the formation of AuPt quasi-random alloy NPs rather than the core@shell structure anticipated from earlier reports relating to deposition onto bulk phases. The results provide a good example of how the phase behavior of macro materials does not always translate to the nano world. A key component of this study was the structure determination of the AuPt NPs, which required a combination of electrochemical methods, electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and theory (DFT and MD).

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