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1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031780

RESUMO

Wafer-scale monocrystalline two-dimensional (2D) materials can theoretically be grown by seamless coalescence of individual domains into a large single crystal. Here we present a concise study of the coalescence behavior of crystalline 2D films using a combination of complementary in situ methods. Direct observation of overlayer growth from the atomic to the millimeter scale and under model- and industrially relevant growth conditions reveals the influence of the film-substrate interaction on the crystallinity of the 2D film. In the case of weakly interacting substrates, the coalescence behavior is dictated by the inherent growth kinetics of the 2D film. It is shown that the merging of coaligned domains leads to a distinct modification of the growth dynamics through the formation of fast-growing high-energy edges. The latter can be traced down to a reduced kink-creation energy at the interface between well-aligned domains. In the case of strongly interacting substrates, the lattice mismatch between film and substrate induces a pronounced moiré corrugation that determines the growth and coalescence behavior. It furthermore imposes additional criteria for seamless coalescence and determines the structure of grain boundaries. The experimental findings, obtained here for the case of graphene, are confirmed by theory-based growth simulations and can be generalized to other 2D materials that show 3- or 6-fold symmetry. Based on the gained understanding of the relation between film-substrate interaction, shape evolution, and coalescence behavior, conditions for seamless coalescence and, thus, for the optimization of large-scale production of monocrystalline 2D materials are established.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2546, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186420

RESUMO

The hydrodesulfurization process is one of the cornerstones of the chemical industry, removing harmful sulfur from oil to produce clean hydrocarbons. The reaction is catalyzed by the edges of MoS2 nanoislands and is operated in hydrogen-oil mixtures at 5-160 bar and 260-380 °C. Until now, it has remained unclear how these harsh conditions affect the structure of the catalyst. Using a special-purpose high-pressure scanning tunneling microscope, we provide direct observations of an active MoS2 model catalyst under reaction conditions. We show that the active edge sites adapt their sulfur, hydrogen, and hydrocarbon coverages depending on the gas environment. By comparing these observations to density functional theory calculations, we propose that the dominant edge structure during the desulfurization of CH3SH contains a mixture of adsorbed sulfur and CH3SH.

3.
Tribol Lett ; 67(1): 15, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880879

RESUMO

Friction between two surfaces is due to nano- and micro-asperities at the interface that establish true contact and are responsible for the energy dissipation. To understand the friction mechanism, often single-asperity model experiments are conducted in atomic-force microscopes. Here, we show that the conventional interpretation of the typical results of such experiments, based on a simple mass-spring model, hides a fundamental contradiction. Via an estimate of the order of magnitude of the dissipative forces required to produce atomic-scale patterns in the stick-slip motion of a frictional nano-contact, we find that the energy dissipation must be dominated by a very small, highly dynamic mass at the very end of the asperity. Our conclusion casts new light on the behavior of sliding surfaces and invites us to speculate about new ways to control friction by manipulation of the contact geometry.

4.
J Phys Chem B ; 122(2): 788-793, 2018 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29039663

RESUMO

While continuum descriptions of oxide film growth are well established, the local structural dynamics during oxide growth are largely unexplored. Here, we investigate this using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the example of alumina film growth on NiAl(110) following NO2 exposure. To maintain a well-defined system, we have adopted a cyclic growth approach of NO2 adsorption and annealing. NO2 adsorption at 693 K results in the formation of a vacancy island pattern in the NiAl(110) substrate, which is filled with AlOx by diffusion of O through the alumina film. The patches of AlOx coalesce to form smooth terraces upon annealing to 1200 K. By repeated cycling, we have grown films of up to 0.9 nm thick. While peak shifts in the XPS spectra indicate that the film maintains its insulating character upon thickening, our STM data show that there is a finite density of states within the band gap. The thickening of the alumina film is accompanied by the formation of trenches in the surface, which we interpret to be the result of film stress relief.

5.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 429, 2017 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28874734

RESUMO

Despite its importance in oxidation catalysis, the active phase of Pt remains uncertain, even for the Pt(111) single-crystal surface. Here, using a ReactorSTM, the catalytically relevant structures are identified as two surface oxides, different from bulk α-PtO2, previously observed. They are constructed from expanded oxide rows with a lattice constant close to that of α-PtO2, either assembling into spoked wheels, 1-5 bar O2, or closely packed in parallel lines, above 2.2 bar. Both are only ordered at elevated temperatures (400-500 K). The triangular oxide can also form on the square lattice of Pt(100). Under NO and CO oxidation conditions, similar features are observed. Furthermore, both oxides are unstable outside the O2 atmosphere, indicating the presence of active O atoms, crucial for oxidation catalysts.Improving platinum as an oxidation catalyst requires understanding its structure under catalytic conditions. Here, the authors discover that catalytically important surface oxides form only when Pt is exposed to high pressure and temperature, highlighting the need to study catalysts in realistic environments.

6.
Ultramicroscopy ; 182: 233-242, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28734230

RESUMO

A combined X-ray and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) instrument is presented that enables the local detection of X-ray absorption on surfaces in a gas environment. To suppress the collection of ion currents generated in the gas phase, coaxially shielded STM tips were used. The conductive outer shield of the coaxial tips can be biased to deflect ions away from the tip core. When tunneling, the X-ray-induced current is separated from the regular, 'topographic' tunneling current using a novel high-speed separation scheme. We demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument by measuring the local X-ray-induced current on Au(1 1 1) in 800 mbar Ar.

7.
Chem Soc Rev ; 46(14): 4347-4374, 2017 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28589194

RESUMO

Platinum and palladium are frequently used as catalytic materials, for example for the oxidation of CO. This is one of the most widely studied reactions in the field of surface science. Although seemingly uncomplicated, it remains an active and interesting topic, which is partially explained by the push to conduct experiments on model systems under relevant reaction conditions. Recent developments in the surface-science methodology have allowed obtaining chemical and structural information on the active phase of model catalysts. Tools of the trade include near-ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy, high-pressure surface X-ray diffraction, and high-pressure vibrational spectroscopy. Interpretation is often aided by density functional theory in combination with thermodynamic and kinetic modeling. In this review, results for the catalytic oxidation of CO obtained by these techniques are compared. On several of the Pt and Pd surfaces, new structures develop in excess O2. For Pt, this requires a much larger excess of O2 than for Pd. Most of these structures also develop in pure O2 and are identified as (surface) oxides. A large body of evidence supports the conjecture that these oxides are more reactive than the corresponding O-covered metallic surfaces under similar conditions, although still debated in the literature. An outlook on this developing field, including directions that move away from CO oxidation towards more complex chemistry, concludes this review.

8.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 121(21): 11407-11415, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28603579

RESUMO

Using a home-built reflectometer, we have investigated the changes in the optical reflectivity of a Pd(100) model catalyst during CO oxidation under high-pressure, high-temperature conditions. We observe changes in optical contrast when exposing the surface to CO oxidation conditions at 200 mbar from room temperature up to 400 °C. These changes in reflectivity are a result both of the formation of a surface oxide layer and of a change in surface roughness because of gas exposure. However, the reflectivity is more sensitive to the presence of a thin, flat oxide layer than to surface roughness. CO oxidation plays an important role in the decrease of the reflectivity. Since adding a reducing agent to the gas mixture renders it unlikely that the oxide thickness increases, we conclude that the observed decrease in reflectivity is dominated by increased surface roughness because of the catalytic reaction. We contribute this observed surface roughening to a Mars-van Krevelen-type reaction mechanism.

9.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 88(2): 023704, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28249468

RESUMO

We have developed an experimental setup for optically monitoring a catalytically active surface under reaction conditions. A flow reactor with optical access allows us to image the behavior of an active catalyst surface down to the millimeter length scale. We use reflectance difference measurements with 625 nm light to investigate CO oxidation on Pd(100) at 300 mbar and 320 °C. We conclude that the changes in visible contrast result from the formation of an oxide layer after surface oxidation.

10.
Faraday Discuss ; 197: 337-351, 2017 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28181624

RESUMO

Using a MEMS nanoreactor in combination with a specially designed in situ Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) holder and gas supply system, we imaged the formation of multiple layers of graphene encapsulating a cobalt nanoparticle, at 1 bar CO : N2 (1 : 1) and 500 °C. The cobalt nanoparticle was imaged live in a TEM during the Boudouard reaction. The in situ/operando TEM studies give insight into the behaviour of the catalyst at the nanometer-scale, under industrially relevant conditions. When switching from Fischer-Tropsch syngas conditions (CO : H2 : N2 1 : 2 : 3 at 1 bar) to CO-rich conditions (CO : N2 1 : 1 at 1 bar), we observed the formation of multi-layered graphene on Co nanoparticles at 500 °C. Due to the high temperature, the surface of the Co nanoparticles facilitated the Boudouard reaction, causing CO dissociation and the formation of layers of graphene. After the formation of the first patches of graphene at the surface of the nanoparticle, more and more layers grew over the course of about 40 minutes. In its final state, around 10 layers of carbon capped the nanoparticle. During this process, the carbon shell caused mechanical stress in the nanoparticle, inducing permanent deformation.

11.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(11): 113705, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27910601

RESUMO

We have developed a new instrument combining a scanning probe microscope (SPM) and an X-ray scattering platform for ambient-pressure catalysis studies. The two instruments are integrated with a flow reactor and an ultra-high vacuum system that can be mounted easily on the diffractometer at a synchrotron end station. This makes it possible to perform SPM and X-ray scattering experiments in the same instrument under identical conditions that are relevant for catalysis.

12.
Nat Chem ; 8(10): 929-34, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27657868

RESUMO

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a heterogeneous catalytic reaction that creates approximately 2% of the world's fuel. It involves the synthesis of linear hydrocarbon molecules from a gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at high pressures (from a few to tens of bars) and high temperatures (200-350 °C). To gain further insight into the fundamental mechanisms of this industrial process, we have used a purpose-built scanning tunnelling microscope to monitor a cobalt model catalyst under reaction conditions. We show that, after 30 minutes of reaction, the terraces of the cobalt catalyst are covered by parallel arrays of stripes. We propose that the stripes are formed by the self-assembly of linear hydrocarbon product molecules. Surprisingly, the width of the stripes corresponds to molecules that are 14 or 15 carbon atoms long. We introduce a simple model that explains the accumulation of such long molecules by describing their monomer-by-monomer synthesis and explicitly accounting for their thermal desorption.

13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(11): 1996-2001, 2016 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27176712

RESUMO

Cobalt-based catalysts undergo a massive and spontaneous reconstruction to form uniform triangular nanoislands under Fischer-Tropsch (FT) conditions. This reconstruction is driven by the unusual and synergistic adsorption of square-planar carbon and CO at the 4-fold edge sites of the nanoislands, driving the formation of triangular islands. The size of the nanoislands is determined by the balance between energy gain from creating C/CO-covered edges and energy penalty to create C/CO-covered corners. For carbon chemical potentials corresponding to FT conditions, triangular Co islands with 45 Co atoms (about 2 nm) are the most stable surface structure. Decreasing the carbon chemical potential and hence the stability of square-planar carbon favors the formation of larger islands, until reconstruction becomes unfavorable and CO-covered terraces are thermodynamically the most stable. The predicted structure of the islands is consistent with in situ scanning tunneling microscopy images obtained for the first time under realistic FT reaction conditions on a Co(0001) surface.


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Adsorção , Carbono/química , Monóxido de Carbono/química , Catálise , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Termodinâmica
14.
ACS Nano ; 7(8): 7028-33, 2013 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23829447

RESUMO

In situ scanning tunneling microscopy observations of graphene formation on Rh(111) show that the moiré pattern between the lattices of the overlayer and substrate has a decisive influence on the growth. The process is modulated in the large unit cells of the moiré pattern. We distinguish two steps: the addition of a unit cell that introduces one or more new kinks and the addition of further unit cells that merely advance the position of an existing kink. Kink creation is the rate-limiting step, with kink creation at small-angle, concave corners in the graphene overlayer exhibiting the lower barrier.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 14(14): 4796-801, 2012 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22361687

RESUMO

The structure and chemical composition of Pd nanoparticles exposed to pure CO and mixtures of CO and O(2) at elevated temperatures have been studied in situ by a combination of X-ray Diffraction and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy in pressures ranging from ultra high vacuum to 10 mbar and from room temperature to a few hundred degrees celsius. Our investigation shows that under CO exposure, above a certain temperature, carbon dissolves into the Pd particles forming a carbide phase. Upon exposure to CO and O(2) mixtures, the carbide phase forms and disappears reversibly, switching at the stoichiometric ratio for CO oxidation. This finding opens new scenarios for the understanding of catalytic oxidation of C-based molecules.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(35): 16095-103, 2011 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21811734

RESUMO

Bis(3-sulfopropyl)disulfide (SPS) is a common additive in commercial copper electroplating baths. We have studied the influence of SPS on Cu underpotential deposition (UPD) on a Au(111) single crystal surface by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM). By combining our results with the results from the literature we propose a model that describes different stages of Cu UPD in the presence of SPS. Further analysis shows that our model is also applicable to a more general case of UPD of different metals, e.g. Cu and Ag, on a thiol-modified single-crystal surface, where the bond between the substrate and the thiol is adatom mediated. In addition, we have verified our model by in situ observation of the lifting of the Herringbone reconstruction on the Au(111) surface by Cu UPD.

17.
Nat Chem ; 2(9): 730-4, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20729891

RESUMO

Atomic steps at the surface of a catalyst play an important role in heterogeneous catalysis, for example as special sites with increased catalytic activity. Exposure to reactants can cause entirely new structures to form at the catalyst surface, and these may dramatically influence the reaction by 'poisoning' it or by acting as the catalytically active phase. For example, thin metal oxide films have been identified as highly active structures that form spontaneously on metal surfaces during the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide. Here, we present operando X-ray diffraction experiments on a palladium surface during this reaction. They reveal that a high density of steps strongly alters the stability of the thin, catalytically active palladium oxide film. We show that stabilization of the metal, caused by the steps and consequent destabilization of the oxide, is at the heart of the well-known reaction rate oscillations exhibited during CO oxidation at atmospheric pressure.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/química , Paládio/química , Catálise , Cinética , Análise Numérica Assistida por Computador , Propriedades de Superfície , Difração de Raios X
18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(9): 096102, 2010 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20366997

RESUMO

Boron nitride forms nearly perfectly regular films with a thickness of precisely one atom on various metal surfaces. Here, we follow the formation of boron nitride layers on Rh(111) with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) under realistic growth conditions, up to 1200 K. Our STM movies demonstrate in detail how the structure grows and how defects are introduced. Based on these observations we arrive at the optimal recipe for a high-quality overlayer.

20.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 1: 163-71, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21977407

RESUMO

We have replaced the periodic Prandtl-Tomlinson model with an atomic-scale friction model with a random roughness term describing the surface roughness of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices with sliding surfaces. This new model is shown to exhibit the same features as previously reported experimental MEMS friction loop data. The correlation function of the surface roughness is shown to play a critical role in the modelling. It is experimentally obtained by probing the sidewall surfaces of a MEMS device flipped upright in on-chip hinges with an AFM (atomic force microscope). The addition of a modulation term to the model allows us to also simulate the effect of vibration-induced friction reduction (normal-force modulation), as a function of both vibration amplitude and frequency. The results obtained agree very well with measurement data reported previously.

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