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1.
Gastroenterology ; 158(5): 1346-1358.e4, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with the highest incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) of any cancer type. However, little is known about risk factors for VTE or its outcomes in patients with PDAC. METHODS: We collected data from a prospective, observational study performed at multiple centers in France from May 2014 through November 2018 (the Base Clinico-Biologique de l'Adénocarcinome Pancréatique [BACAP] study) linked to a database of patients with a new diagnosis of PDAC of any stage. Data were collected from 731 patients at baseline and during clinical follow-up or in the event of symptoms. The primary endpoint was the onset of VTE during follow-up. The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) times. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 19.3 months, 152 patients (20.79%) developed a VTE. The median time from PDAC diagnosis to the onset of VTE was 4.49 months. Cumulative incidence values of VTE were 8.07% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.31-10.29) at 3 months and 19.21% (95% CI, 16.27-22.62) at 12 months. In multivariate analysis, PDAC primary tumor location (isthmus vs head: hazard ratio [HR], 2.06; 95% CI, 1.09-3.91; P = .027) and stage (locally advanced vs resectable or borderline: HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10-2.51, P = .016; metastatic vs resectable or borderline: HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.64-3.79; P < .001) were independent risk factors for the onset of VTE. Patients who developed VTE during follow-up had shorter times of PFS (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.19-2.54; P = .004) and OS (HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.57-2.60; P < .001). CONCLUSION: In an analysis of data from the BACAP study, we found that frequent and early onsets of VTE after diagnoses of PDAC are associated with significant decreases in times of PFS and OS. Studies are needed to determine whether primary prophylaxis of VTE in patients with PDAC will improve morbidity and mortality related to VTE. (ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: clinicaltrials.gov as number NCT02818829).

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653027

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, aspirin has emerged as a promising chemoprotective agent to prevent colorectal cancer (CRC). In 2016, the mounting evidence supporting its chemoprotective effect, from both basic science and clinical research, led the US Preventive Services Task Force to recommend regular use of low-dose aspirin in some subgroups of patients for whom the benefits are deemed to outweigh the risks. In contrast, data on the chemoprotective effect of aspirin against other cancers are less clear and remain controversial. Most data come from secondary analyses of cardiovascular prevention trials, with only a limited number reporting cancer outcomes as a prespecified endpoint, and overall unclear findings. Moreover, the potential chemoprotective effect of aspirin against other cancers has been recently questioned with the publication of 3 long-awaited trials of aspirin in the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases reporting no benefit of aspirin on overall cancer incidence and cancer-related mortality. Data on the chemoprotective effects of other antiplatelet agents remain scarce and inconclusive, and further research to examine their benefit are warranted. In this narrative review, we summarize current clinical evidence and continuing controversies on the potential chemoprotective properties of antiplatelet agents against cancer.

4.
Thromb Res ; 181 Suppl 1: S47-S53, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477228

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major common complication in cancer patients. Risk-adapted thromboprophylaxis and antithrombotic therapy for patients diagnosed with VTE can reduce the recurrence of VTE events. Thrombotic risk varies according to cancer type, stage, and comorbidities. The current review analyzes most recent data and provides clinical guidance for the management of women with cancer-associated thrombosis.

5.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(10): e566-e581, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492632

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the second leading cause of death in patients with cancer. These patients are at a high risk of VTE recurrence and bleeding during anticoagulant therapy. The International Initiative on Thrombosis and Cancer is an independent academic working group aimed at establishing a global consensus for the treatment and prophylaxis of VTE in patients with cancer. The International Initiative on Thrombosis and Cancer last updated its evidence-based clinical practice guidelines in 2016 with a free, web-based mobile phone application, which was subsequently endorsed by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. The 2019 International Initiative on Thrombosis and Cancer clinical practice guidelines, which are based on a systematic review of the literature published up to December, 2018, are presented along with a Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation scale methods, with the support of the French National Cancer Institute. These guidelines were reviewed by an expanded international advisory committee and endorsed by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Results from head-to-head clinical trials that compared direct oral anticoagulant with low-molecular-weight heparin are also summarised, along with new evidence for the treatment and prophylaxis of VTE in patients with cancer.

6.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297188

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication in patients with cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are the standard of care for the treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis. Primary VTE prophylaxis with LMWH is recommended after cancer surgery and in hospitalized patients with reduced mobility. However, owing to wide variations in VTE and bleeding risk, based on disease stage, anti-cancer treatments, and individual patient characteristics, routine primary prophylaxis is not recommended in ambulatory cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Efforts are under way to validate risk assessment models that will help identify those patients in whom the benefits of primary prophylaxis will outweigh the risks. In recent months, long-awaited dedicated clinical trials assessing the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with cancer have reported promising results. In comparison with the LMWHs, the DOACs were reported to be non-inferior to prevent VTE recurrence. However, there was an increased risk of bleeding, particularly in gastrointestinal cancers. Safe and optimal treatment with the DOACs in the patient with cancer will require vigilant patient selection based on patient characteristics, co-morbidities, and the potential for drug-drug interactions.

7.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(12): 2188-2195, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticagrelor induces more potent platelet reactivity (PR) inhibition with reduced interindividual variability compared to clopidogrel. Although on-clopidogrel PR was shown to correlate with ischemia and bleeding events, no study has investigated the relationship between on-ticagrelor PR and outcome. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between on-ticagrelor PR, assessed by the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein index (VASP), and thrombotic and bleeding events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: We performed a prospective, multicenter observational study on patients treated with PCI for ACS. The VASP index was used to assess PR after ticagrelor loading dose (LD). The primary endpoint was the link between major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and PR. RESULTS: Among the 530 patients with ACS included, 183 (34.5%) were admitted for ST elevation myocardial infarction. We observed high potency and limited interindividual variability after the ticagrelor LD (VASP 19.1% ± 16.6%). At 1 month, 21 (3.8%) MACE and 29 (5.5%) bleedings ≥ 2 according to the Bleedings Academic Research Consortium (BARC) scale were recorded. Neither MACE nor bleeding was associated with PR (P = .34 and P = .78, respectively). However, there was a strong association between PR and the occurrence of definite acute stent thrombosis (P = .03). Platelet reactivity was the only factor associated with acute definite stent thrombosis. CONCLUSION: In patients receiving a ticagrelor LD while undergoing PCI for ACS, PR using the VASP did not predict MACE or bleeding, but it was significantly associated with the occurrence of definite acute stent thrombosis.

8.
Bioanalysis ; 11(9): 875-886, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070047

RESUMO

Aim: Novel bifunctional VEGF-A neutralizing therapies are being developed for the treatment of retinal vascular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. In developing new therapeutic drugs, only small aqueous humor sample volumes are available for analyzing several parameters. Highly sensitive detection methods must be applied in analyzing VEGF-A levels in ocular fluids in order to demonstrate VEGF-A suppression following drug administration. Experimental: A highly sensitive immunoassay for VEGF-A was developed on the single molecule array (Simoa) platform, and validated before being used for the analysis of clinical aqueous humor samples from patients treated with anti-VEGF-A therapeutics. Results: This highly sensitive immunoassay allows the detection of baseline VEGF-A levels and suppression effects after drug administration, even in sample volumes as low as 12 µl. Conclusion: The Simoa VEGF-A assay is a valuable tool for the reliable monitoring of VEGF-A suppression after intravitreal administration of anti-VEGF-A drugs.


Assuntos
Humor Aquoso/química , Imunoensaio/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise , Calibragem , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores
10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(1)2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634638

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients and leads to a significant increase in health care costs. Cancer patients often suffer from multiple co-morbidities and have both a greater risk of VTE recurrence and bleeding compared to non-cancer patients. Anticoagulation is therefore challenging. For many years, long-term therapy with Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin (LMWH) was the standard of care for the management of cancer-associated VTE. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC), which offer the convenience of an oral administration and have a rapid onset of action, have recently been proposed as a new option in this setting. Head-to-head comparisons between DOAC and LMWHs for the treatment of established VTE are now available, and data on the efficacy and safety of these drugs for primary prophylaxis of VTE in ambulatory cancer patients receiving systemic anticancer therapy are emerging. This narrative review aims to summarize the main recent advances in the prevention and treatment of cancer-associated VTE, including recent data on the use of individualized factors to stratify the risk of VTE in each individual patient, quality-of-life in patients treated with LMWH, and the place that DOACs will likely take in the cancer-associated VTE management landscape.

11.
Platelets ; 30(1): 105-111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172822

RESUMO

Bivalirudin is associated with an increased risk of acute stent thrombosis (AST) compared to unfractionated heparin (UFH) in acute coronary syndrome patients (ACS) during short-duration percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The mechanisms involved are unknown. We aimed to investigate the antithrombotic efficacy of bivalirudin compared to UFH during PCI. In a monocenter study, we prospectively enrolled 30 patients undergoing PCI for a non-ST elevation ACS. They were randomly assigned to a single intravenous (IV) bolus of UFH (70 IU/kg) or an IV bolus of bivalirudin 0.75 mg/kg followed by a 1.75 mg/kg/h infusion during PCI. All patients received a loading dose (LD) of 180 mg of ticagrelor at the time of PCI. The VASP index and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were used to assess the course of platelet reactivity (PR) and antithrombotic activity. The two groups were similar regarding baseline, angiographic, and interventional characteristics. There was no difference between the two groups in the course of PR following ticagrelor LD. An optimal PR inhibition was obtained 4 h after the LD of ticagrelor. The level of antithrombotic activity was significantly lower in the bivalirudin group compared to the UFH group (p < 0.001) during PCI but similar at 2 and 4 h post-PCI. We observed that, in ACS undergoing PCI, the antithrombotic efficacy of an IV bolus of bivalirudin is significantly lower than that of a 70-IU/kg UFH bolus. This could contribute to the excess in thrombotic acute events observed during short-duration PCI.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/metabolismo , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Idoso , Coagulação Sanguínea , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Feminino , Hirudinas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco
13.
Thromb Haemost ; 118(10): 1839-1846, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical benefit of anti-platelet agents in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncertain. In addition, the risk-benefit ratio of potent oral P2Y12-adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists (PPAs), namely, prasugrel and ticagrelor, compared with clopidogrel in CKD patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis of all studies comparing the clinical outcomes of PPA and clopidogrel therapy in CKD patients suffering from ACS. METHODS: We searched PubMed, the Cochrane library, Google Scholar, Clinical trial.org and the abstracts of international cardiology congresses from April 2000 to October 2017. Clinical studies comparing PPA with clopidogrel in ACS patients with CKD were selected. Our literature research identified five studies which were included in the meta-analysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) at the latest follow-up available. Secondary endpoint included bleedings. RESULTS: We included data from three sub-group analysis of randomized clinical trials and two prospective observational studies (n = 31,234). Overall, PPAs were associated with lower rates of major cardiovascular events, with a pooled hazard ratio (pHR) of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-0.99; p = 0.03), without increased bleedings (pHR = 1.10) (95% CI: 0.95-1.27; p = 0.18). In a sensitivity analysis restricted to studies enrolling invasively managed patients, the benefit of PPA on MACE was maintained (pHR = 0.85) (95% CI: 0.77-0.93; p < 0.001), including a reduction in mortality (pHR = 0.82) (95% CI: 0.7-0.96; p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Compared with clopidogrel, PPAs were associated with a reduced rate of MACE without increased bleedings in CKD patients with ACS. Among invasively managed patients, this benefit from PPA included a reduction in mortality.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Administração Oral , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/mortalidade , França/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Pharmacol Res ; 131: 211-217, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452290

RESUMO

Severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery (BS) are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). How standard low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) regimen should be adapted to provide both sufficient efficacy and safety in this setting is unclear. We aimed to compare the influence of four body size descriptors (BSD) on peak anti-Xa levels in BS obese patients receiving LMWH fixed doses to identify which one had the greatest impact. One hundred and thirteen BS obese patients [median body mass index (BMI), 43.3 kg/m2 (IQR, 40.6-48.7 kg/m2)] receiving subcutaneous dalteparin 5000 IU twice daily were included in this prospective monocenter study. Peak steady-state anti-Xa levels were measured peri-operatively following thromboprophylaxis initiation. Only 48% of patients achieved target anti-Xa levels (0.2-0.5 IU/ml). In univariate analysis, age, gender, total body-weight (TBW), lean body-weight (LBW), ideal body-weight (IBW), BMI and estimated glomerural filtration rate (eGFR) were associated with anti-Xa levels. The strongest negative association was observed with LBW (r = -0.56, p < .0001). Receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that among BSD, LBW (cut-off >55.8 kg) had the highest sensitivity (73%) and specificity (69%) to predict sub-prophylactic anti-Xa levels. In multivariate analysis, LBW and eGFR remained associated with anti-Xa levels (ß = -0.47 ±â€¯0.08, p < .0001 and ß = -0.19 ±â€¯0.08; p = .02, respectively). In BS morbidly obese patients receiving LMWH for thromboprophylaxis after BS, LBW and eGFR are the main determinants of anti-Xa level, and could be proposed in LMWH-based thromboprophylaxis dosing algorithms. The efficacy of a LBW-scale based dosing algorithm for optimal VTE prevention deserves further prospective randomized trials.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Dalteparina/uso terapêutico , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Peso Corporal Ideal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Perda de Peso
18.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 29(3): 327-329, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474205

RESUMO

: We report herein the successful perioperative management of a 57-year-old man with a type I Glanzmann thrombasthenia undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery and right carotid endarterectomy. The patient suffered from several lesions in the three major coronary arteries and in the right carotid necessitating surgery. Prophylactic human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched platelets transfusions were continuous administrated before, and through the immediate perioperative period. Posttransfusion platelet recovery was monitored using flow cytometry to determine the percentage of circulating platelet expressing CD61 (ß3). No bleeding complications occurred during and following the procedure. The patient did not develop HLA antibodies or αIIbß3 antibodies. Thrombophilia screening revealed a heterozygous G20210A prothrombin gene mutation. The patient also suffered from an atrial fibrillation, necessitating anticoagulation therapy. During the hospital stay, a treatment with vitamin K antagonists for stroke prevention was initiated. The patient was discharged 8 days following surgery, and no further complications occurred during the 6 months follow-up.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Período Perioperatório , Trombastenia/terapia , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transfusão de Plaquetas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Trombofilia/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
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