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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2103, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Closed fitness centers during the Covid-19 pandemic may negatively impact health and wellbeing. We assessed whether training at fitness centers increases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. METHODS: In a two-group parallel randomized controlled trial, fitness center members aged 18 to 64 without Covid-19-relevant comorbidities, were randomized to access to training at a fitness center or no-access. Fitness centers applied physical distancing (1 m for floor exercise, 2 m for high-intensity classes) and enhanced hand and surface hygiene. Primary outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 RNA status by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after 14 days, hospital admission after 21 days. The secondary endpoint was SARS-CoV-2 antibody status after 1 month. RESULTS: 3764 individuals were randomized; 1896 to the training arm and 1868 to the no-training arm. In the training arm, 81.8% trained at least once, and 38.5% trained ≥six times. Of 3016 individuals who returned the SARS-CoV-2 RNA tests (80.5%), there was one positive test in the training arm, and none in the no-training arm (risk difference 0.053%; 95% CI - 0.050 to 0.156%; p = 0.32). Eleven individuals in the training arm (0.8% of tested) and 27 in the no-training arm (2.4% of tested) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (risk difference - 0.87%; 95%CI - 1.52% to - 0.23%; p = 0.001). No outpatient visits or hospital admissions due to Covid-19 occurred in either arm. CONCLUSION: Provided good hygiene and physical distancing measures and low population prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, there was no increased infection risk of SARS-CoV-2 in fitness centers in Oslo, Norway for individuals without Covid-19-relevant comorbidities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was prospectively registered in ClinicalTrials.gov on May 13, 2020. Due to administrative issues it was first posted on the register website on May 29, 2020: NCT04406909 .


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Academias de Ginástica , Humanos , Pandemias , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769597

RESUMO

High testing rates limit COVID-19 transmission. Attempting to increase testing rates, Stovner District in Oslo, Norway, combined door-to-door campaigns with easy access testing facilities. We studied the intervention's impact on COVID-19 testing rates. The Stovner District administration executed three door-to-door campaigns promoting COVID-19 testing accompanied by drop-in mobile COVID-19 testing facilities in different areas at 2-week intervals. We calculated testing rates pre- and post-campaigns using data from the Norwegian emergency preparedness register for COVID-19 (Beredt C19). We applied a difference-in-difference approach using ordinary least square regression models and robust standard errors to estimate changes in COVID-19 testing rates. Door-to-door visits reached around one of three households. Intervention and comparison areas had identical testing rates before the intervention, and we observed an increase in intervention areas after the campaigns. We estimate a 43% increase in testing rates over the first three days following the door-to-door campaigns (p = 0.28), corresponding to an additional 79 (95% confidence interval, -54 to 175) people tested. Considering the shape of the time series curves and the large effect estimate, we find it highly likely that the campaigns had a substantial positive impact on COVID-19 testing rates, despite a p-value above the conventional levels for statistical significance. The results and the feasibility of the intervention suggest that it may be worth implementing in similar settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Noruega , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMJ ; 375: n2729, 2021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789507
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501561

RESUMO

Face masks are recommended as a means of reducing the spread of COVID-19, but there are practically no studies of interventions to increase face mask use. Over three weeks, nine grocery stores in the Stovner District of Oslo were randomly selected each day to have distribution of free face masks outside their entrance. Free face mask distribution increased the proportion of customers wearing a mask by 6.0 percentage points (adjusted, 95% CI 3.5-8.5). Mean mask usage was 91.7% in the control group and 97.1% in the treatment group (pooled SD 5.3%). Practically all those who wore masks had both nose and mouth covered. We conclude that free distribution of face masks increased their use. Similar trials can be conducted within a short period of time.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Máscaras , Humanos , Noruega , Nariz , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 2: 100187, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467258

RESUMO

Objectives: Higher education institutions all over the world struggled to balance the need for infection control and educational requirements, as they prepared to reopen after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A particularly difficult choice was whether to offer for in-person or online teaching. Norwegian universities and university colleges opted for a hybrid model when they reopened for the autumn semester, with some students being offered more in-person teaching than others. We seized this opportunity to study the association between different teaching modalities and COVID-19 risk, quality of life (subjective well-being), and teaching satisfaction. Study design: Prospective, observational cohort study. Methods: We recruited students in higher education institutions in Norway who we surveyed biweekly from September to December in 2020. Results: 26 754 students from 14 higher education institutions provided data to our analyses. We found that two weeks of in-person teaching was negatively associated with COVID-19 risk compared to online teaching, but the difference was very uncertain (-22% relative difference; 95% CI -77%-33%). Quality of life was positively associated with in-person teaching (3%; 95% CI 2%-4%), as was teaching satisfaction (10%; 95% CI 8%-11%). Conclusion: The association between COVID-19 infection and teaching modality was highly uncertain. Shifting from in-person to online teaching seems to have a negative impact on the well-being of students in higher education.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360225

RESUMO

Understanding the underlying determinants of maternal knowledge and attitude towards breastfeeding guides the development of context-specific interventions to improve breastfeeding practices. This study aimed to assess the level and determinants of breastfeeding knowledge and attitude using validated instruments in pregnant women in rural Ethiopia. In total, 468 pregnant women were interviewed using the Afan Oromo versions of the Breastfeeding Knowledge Questionnaire (BFKQ-AO) and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS-AO). We standardized the breastfeeding knowledge and attitude scores and fitted multiple linear regression models to identify the determinants of knowledge and attitude. 52.4% of the women had adequate knowledge, while 60.9% of the women had a neutral attitude towards breastfeeding. In a multiple linear regression model, maternal occupation was the only predictor of the BFKQ-AO score (0.56SD; 95%CI, 1.28, 4.59SD; p = 0.009). Age (0.57SD; 95%CI, 0.24, 0.90SD; p = 0.001), parity (-0.24SD; 95%CI, -0.47, -0.02SD; p = 0.034), antenatal care visits (0.41SD; 95%CI, 0.07, 0.74SD; p = 0.017) and the BFKQ-AO score (0.08SD; 95% CI, 0.06, 0.09SD; p < 0.000) were predictors of the IIFAS-AO score. Nearly half of the respondents had inadequate knowledge and most women had a neutral attitude towards breastfeeding. Policymakers and managers could address these factors when planning educational interventions to improve breastfeeding practices.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Gestantes , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Mães , Gravidez , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD007899, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in paying for performance (P4P) as a means to align the incentives of healthcare providers with public health goals. Rigorous evidence on the effectiveness of these strategies in improving health care and health in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is lacking; this is an update of the 2012 review on this topic. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of paying for performance on the provision of health care and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and 10 other databases between April and June 2018. We also searched two trial registries, websites, online resources of international agencies, organizations and universities, and contacted experts in the field. Studies identified from rerunning searches in 2020 are under 'Studies awaiting classification.' SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized or non-randomized trials, controlled before-after studies, or interrupted time series studies conducted in LMICs (as defined by the World Bank in 2018). P4P refers to the transfer of money or material goods conditional on taking a measurable action or achieving a predetermined performance target. To be included, a study had to report at least one of the following outcomes: patient health outcomes, changes in targeted measures of provider performance (such as the delivery of healthcare services), unintended effects, or changes in resource use. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data as per original review protocol and narratively synthesised findings. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Given diversity and variability in intervention types, patient populations, analyses and outcome reporting, we deemed meta-analysis inappropriate. We noted the range of effects associated with P4P against each outcome of interest. Based on intervention descriptions provided in documents, we classified design schemes and explored variation in effect by scheme design. MAIN RESULTS: We included 59 studies: controlled before-after studies (19), non-randomized (16) or cluster randomized trials (14);  and interrupted time-series studies (9). One study included both an interrupted time series and a controlled before-after study. Studies focused on a wide range of P4P interventions, including target payments and payment for outputs as modified by quality (or quality and equity assessments). Only one study assessed results-based aid. Many schemes were funded by national governments (23 studies) with the World Bank funding most externally funded schemes (11 studies). Targeted services varied; however, most interventions focused on reproductive, maternal and child health indicators. Participants were predominantly located in public or in a mix of public, non-governmental and faith-based facilities (54 studies). P4P was assessed predominantly at health facility level, though districts and other levels were also involved. Most studies assessed the effects of P4P against a status quo control (49 studies); however, some studies assessed effects against comparator interventions (predominantly enhanced financing intended to match P4P funds (17 studies)). Four studies reported intervention effects against both comparator and status quo. Controlled before-after studies were at higher risk of bias than other study designs. However, some randomised trials were also downgraded due to risk of bias. The interrupted time-series studies provided insufficient information on other concurrent changes in the study context. P4P compared to a status quo control For health services that are specifically targeted, P4P may slightly improve health outcomes (low certainty evidence), but few studies assessed this. P4P may also improve service quality overall (low certainty evidence); and probably increases the availability of health workers, medicines and well-functioning infrastructure and equipment (moderate certainty evidence). P4P may have mixed effects on the delivery and use of services (low certainty evidence) and may have few or no distorting unintended effects on outcomes that were not targeted (low-certainty evidence), but few studies assessed these. For secondary outcomes, P4P may make little or no difference to provider absenteeism, motivation or satisfaction (low certainty evidence); but may improve patient satisfaction and acceptability (low certainty evidence); and may positively affect facility managerial autonomy (low certainty evidence). P4P probably makes little to no difference to management quality or facility governance (low certainty evidence). Impacts on equity were mixed (low certainty evidence). For health services that are untargeted, P4P probably improves some health outcomes (moderate certainty evidence); may improve the delivery, use and quality of some health services but may make little or no difference to others (low certainty evidence); and may have few or no distorting unintended effects (low certainty evidence). The effects of P4P on the availability of medicines and other resources are uncertain (very low certainty evidence). P4P compared to other strategies For health outcomes and services that are specifically targeted, P4P may make little or no difference to health outcomes (low certainty evidence), but few studies assessed this. P4P may improve service quality (low certainty evidence); and may have mixed effects on the delivery and use of health services and on the availability of equipment and medicines (low certainty evidence). For health outcomes and services that are untargeted, P4P may make little or no difference to health outcomes and to the delivery and use of health services (low certainty evidence). The effects of P4P on service quality, resource availability and unintended effects are uncertain (very low certainty evidence). Findings of subgroup analyses Results-based aid, and schemes using payment per output adjusted for service quality, appeared to yield the greatest positive effects on outcomes. However, only one study evaluated results-based aid, so the effects may be spurious. Overall, schemes adjusting both for quality of service and rewarding equitable delivery of services appeared to perform best in relation to service utilization outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence base on the impacts of P4P schemes has grown considerably, with study quality gradually increasing. P4P schemes may have mixed effects on outcomes of interest, and there is high heterogeneity in the types of schemes implemented and evaluations conducted. P4P is not a uniform intervention, but rather a range of approaches. Its effects depend on the interaction of several variables, including the design of the intervention (e.g., who receives payments ), the amount of additional funding,  ancillary components (such as technical support) and contextual factors (including organizational context).


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Melhoria de Qualidade/economia , Reembolso de Incentivo , Viés , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/economia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas
9.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917366

RESUMO

Although peer-led education and support may improve breastfeeding practices, there is a paucity of evidence on the effectiveness of such interventions in the Ethiopian context. We designed a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of a breastfeeding education and support intervention (BFESI) on infant growth, early initiation (EI), and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practices. We randomly assigned 36 clusters into either an intervention group (n = 249) receiving BFESI by trained Women's Development Army (WDA) leaders or a control group (n = 219) receiving routine care. The intervention was provided from the third trimester of pregnancy until five months postpartum. Primary study outcomes were EI, EBF, and infant growth; secondary outcomes included maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitude, and child morbidity. The intervention effect was analysed using linear regression models for the continuous outcomes, and linear probability or logistic regression models for the categorical outcomes. Compared to the control, BFESI significantly increased EI by 25.9% (95% CI: 14.5, 37.3%; p = 0.001) and EBF by 14.6% (95% CI: 3.77, 25.5%; p = 0.010). Similarly, the intervention gave higher breastfeeding attitude scores (Effect size (ES): 0.85SD; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.99SD; p < 0.001), but not higher knowledge scores (ES: 0.15SD; 95% CI: -0.10, 0.41SD; p = 0.173). From the several growth and morbidity outcomes evaluated, the only outcomes with significant intervention effect were a higher mid-upper arm circumference (ES: 0.25cm; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.49cm; p = 0.041) and a lower prevalence of respiratory infection (ES: -6.90%; 95% CI: -13.3, -0.61%; p = 0.033). Training WDA leaders to provide BFESI substantially improves EI and EBF practices and attitude towards breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Mães/educação , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Grupo Associado , Assistência Perinatal/organização & administração , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , População Rural , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Trials ; 22(1): 234, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781304

RESUMO

A recently published trial of face mask use to protect against COVID-19 demonstrated a key barrier to carrying out randomised trials in public health: the need for unattainably large sample sizes. For many public health interventions, the choice is not between sufficiently powered trials and underpowered trials, but between underpowered trials and no trials at all. Underpowered trials should be viewed as contributions to the larger body of evidence, alongside other studies of various sizes and designs, collectively assessed and synthesized in systematic reviews. Overemphasis on sample size calculation is probably more of a hindrance than a help to scientific progress.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Máscaras , SARS-CoV-2 , Tamanho da Amostra
13.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e036348, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To make informed decisions about healthcare, patients and the public, health professionals and policymakers need information about the effects of interventions. People need information that is based on the best available evidence; that is presented in a complete and unbiased way; and that is relevant, trustworthy and easy to use and to understand. The aim of this paper is to provide guidance and a checklist to those producing and communicating evidence-based information about the effects of interventions intended to inform decisions about healthcare. DESIGN: To inform the development of this checklist, we identified research relevant to communicating evidence-based information about the effects of interventions. We used an iterative, informal consensus process to synthesise our recommendations. We began by discussing and agreeing on some initial recommendations, based on our own experience and research over the past 20-30 years. Subsequent revisions were informed by the literature we examined and feedback. We also compared our recommendations to those made by others. We sought structured feedback from people with relevant expertise, including people who prepare and use information about the effects of interventions for the public, health professionals or policymakers. RESULTS: We produced a checklist with 10 recommendations. Three recommendations focus on making it easy to quickly determine the relevance of the information and find the key messages. Five recommendations are about helping the reader understand the size of effects and how sure we are about those estimates. Two recommendations are about helping the reader put information about intervention effects in context and understand if and why the information is trustworthy. CONCLUSIONS: These 10 recommendations summarise lessons we have learnt developing and evaluating ways of helping people to make well-informed decisions by making research evidence more understandable and useful for them. We welcome feedback for how to improve our advice.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Comunicação , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Consenso , Tomada de Decisões , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
14.
Health Policy Plan ; 35(6): 718-734, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538436

RESUMO

Conditional cash transfer (CCT) is a compelling policy alternative for reducing poverty and improving health, and its effectiveness is promising. CCT programmes have been widely deployed across geographical, economic and political contexts, but not without contestation. Critics argue that CCTs may result in infringements on freedom and dignity, gender discrimination and disempowerment and power imbalances between programme providers and beneficiaries. In this analysis, we aim to identify the ethical concepts applicable to CCTs and to contextualize these by mapping the tensions of the debate, allowing us to understand the separate contributions as parts of a larger whole. We searched a range of databases for records on public health CCT. Strategies were last run in January 2017. We included 31 dialectical articles deliberating the ethics of CCTs and applied a meta-ethnographic approach. We identified 22 distinct ethical concepts. By analysing and mapping the tensions in the discourse, the following four strands of debate emerged: (1) responsibility for poverty and health: personal vs public duty, (2) power balance: autonomy vs paternalism, (3) social justice: empowerment vs oppression and (4) marketization of human behaviour and health: 'fair trade' vs moral corruption. The debate shed light on the ethical ideals, principles and doctrines underpinning CCT. These were consistent with a market-oriented liberal welfare regime ideal: privatization of public responsibilities; a selective rather than a universal approach; empowerment by individual entrepreneurship; marketization of health with a conception of human beings as utility maximizing creatures; and limited acknowledgement of the role of structural injustices in poverty and health. Identification of key tensions in the public health ethics debate may expose underpinning ideological logics of health and social programmes that may be at odds with public values and contemporary political priorities. Decisions about CCTs should therefore not be considered a technical exercise, but a context-dependent process requiring transparent, informed and deliberative decision-making.


Assuntos
Financiamento Governamental/ética , Promoção da Saúde/ética , Pobreza , Antropologia Cultural , Financiamento Governamental/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , Motivação/ética , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Justiça Social
15.
Euro Surveill ; 25(19)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431291

RESUMO

In response to urgent needs for updated evidence for decision-making on various aspects related to coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the Norwegian Institute of Public Health established a rapid review team. Using simplified processes and shortcuts, this team produces summary reviews on request within 1-3 days that inform advice provided by the institute. All reviews are published with explicit messages about the risk of overlooking key evidence or making misguided judgements by using such rapid processes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus , Tomada de Decisões , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Publicações , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15(1): 24, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Validated instruments to assess breastfeeding knowledge and attitude are non-existent in Africa including Ethiopia. We aimed to adapt and validate the Breastfeeding Knowledge Questionnaire (BFKQ) and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) for use in Afan Oromo (AO), the most widely spoken language in Ethiopia. METHODS: After forward-backward translation into Afan Oromo, the instruments were reviewed for content validity by a panel of a nutritionist and pediatricians, and pretested on a sample of 30 mothers. Then, a cross-sectional study involving 468 pregnant women in their second and third trimester was conducted between May and August 2017 in the Manna district, Southwest Ethiopia, using the final versions of the adapted questionnaires. We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to assess the construct validity, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine the predictive validity and Cronbach's alpha coefficients to assess internal consistency. RESULTS: Using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), nine domains containing 34 items were extracted from the BFKQ-AO. A confirmatory factor analysis of the constructs from EFA confirmed construct validity of the instrument (χ2/df = 2.11, RMSEA = 0.049, CFI = 0.845, TLI = 0.823). In factor analysis of the IIFAS, the first factor explained 19.7% of the total variance and the factor loadings and scree plot test suggested unidimensionality of the tool. Cronbach's alpha was 0.79 for the BFKQ-AO and 0.72 for IIFAS-AO suggesting an acceptable internal consistency of both instruments. For the sensitivity and specificity in predicting intention of breastfeeding for ≥24 months, the area under the curve (AUC) was 82% for IIFAS score and 79% for BFKQ score. CONCLUSIONS: Here we present the first study that reported the use of the BFKQ and the IIFAS in Ethiopia. Our results showed that both BFKQ-AO and IIFAS-AO can be reliable and valid tools for measuring maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitude in the study population, showing the potential for adapting these tools for application in a wider Ethiopian context.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gestantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
17.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 140(5)2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238968

Assuntos
Vacinação , Humanos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055405

RESUMO

Background: People of all ages are flooded with health claims about treatment effects (benefits and harms of treatments). Many of these are not reliable, and many people lack skills to assess their reliability. Primary school is the ideal time to begin to teach these skills, to lay a foundation for continued learning and enable children to make well-informed health choices, as they grow older. However, these skills are rarely being taught and yet there are no rigorously developed and evaluated resources for teaching these skills. Objectives: To develop the Informed Health Choices (IHC) resources (for learning and teaching people to assess claims about the effects of treatments) for primary school children and teachers. Methods: We prototyped, piloted, and user-tested resources in four settings that included Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, and Norway. We employed a user-centred approach to designing IHC resources which entailed multiple iterative cycles of development (determining content scope, generating ideas, prototyping, testing, analysing and refining) based on continuous close collaboration with teachers and children. Results: We identified 24 Key Concepts that are important for children to learn. We developed a comic book and a separate exercise book to introduce and explain the Key Concepts to the children, combining lessons with exercises and classroom activities. We developed a teachers' guide to supplement the resources for children. Conclusion: By employing a user-centred approach to designing resources to teach primary children to think critically about treatment claims and choices, we developed learning resources that end users experienced as useful, easy to use and well-suited to use in diverse classroom settings.

19.
Trials ; 21(1): 187, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059694

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Earlier, we designed and evaluated an educational mass media intervention for improving people's ability to think more critically and to assess the trustworthiness of claims (assertions) about the benefits and harms (effects) of treatments. The overall aims of this follow-up study were to evaluate the impact of our intervention 1 year after it was administered, and to assess retention of learning and behaviour regarding claims about treatments. METHODS: We randomly allocated consenting parents to listen to either the Informed Health Choices podcast (intervention) or typical public service announcements about health issues (control) over 7-10 weeks. Each intervention episode explained how the trustworthiness of treatment claims can be assessed by using relevant key concepts of evidence-informed decision-making. Participants listened to two episodes per week, delivered by research assistants. We evaluated outcomes immediately, and a year after the intervention. Primary outcomes were mean score and the proportion with a score indicating a basic ability to apply the key concepts (> 11 out of 18 correct answers) on a tool measuring people's ability to critically appraise the trustworthiness of treatment claims. Skills decay/retention was estimated by calculating the relative difference between the follow-up and initial results in the intervention group, adjusting for chance. Statistical analyses were performed using R (R Core Team, Vienna, Austria; version 3.4.3). RESULTS: After 1 year, the mean score for parents in the intervention group was 58.9% correct answers, compared to 52.6% in the control (adjusted mean difference of 6.7% (95% CI 3.3% to 10.1%)). In the intervention group, 47.2% of 267 parents had a score indicating a basic ability to assess treatment claims compared to 39.5% of 256 parents in the control (adjusted difference of 9.8% more parents (95% CI 0.9% to 18.9%). These represent relative reductions of 29% in the mean scores and 33% in the proportion of parents with a score indicating a basic ability to assess the trustworthiness of claims about treatment effects. CONCLUSIONS: Although listening to the Informed Health Choices podcast initially led to a large improvement in the ability of parents to assess claims about the effects of treatments, our findings show that these skills decreased substantially over 1 year. More active practice could address the substantial skills decay observed over 1 year. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trial Registry (www.pactr.org), PACTR201606001676150. Registered on 12 June 2016.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais/educação , Webcasts como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
20.
Trials ; 21(1): 27, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907013

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated an intervention designed to teach 10- to 12-year-old primary school children to assess claims about the effects of treatments (any action intended to maintain or improve health). We report outcomes measured 1 year after the intervention. METHODS: In this cluster-randomised trial, we included primary schools in the central region of Uganda that taught year 5 children (aged 10 to 12 years). We randomly allocated a representative sample of eligible schools to either an intervention or control group. Intervention schools received the Informed Health Choices primary school resources (textbooks, exercise books and a teachers' guide). The primary outcomes, measured at the end of the school term and again after 1 year, were the mean score on a test with two multiple-choice questions for each of the 12 concepts and the proportion of children with passing scores. RESULTS: We assessed 2960 schools for eligibility; 2029 were eligible, and a random sample of 170 were invited to recruitment meetings. After recruitment meetings, 120 eligible schools consented and were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 60 schools; 76 teachers and 6383 children) or the control group (n = 60 schools; 67 teachers and 4430 children). After 1 year, the mean score in the multiple-choice test for the intervention schools was 68.7% compared with 53.0% for the control schools (adjusted mean difference 16.7%; 95% CI, 13.9 to 19.5; P < 0.00001). In the intervention schools, 3160 (80.1%) of 3943 children who completed the test after 1 year achieved a predetermined passing score (≥ 13 of 24 correct answers) compared with 1464 (51.5%) of 2844 children in the control schools (adjusted difference, 39.5%; 95% CI, 29.9 to 47.5). CONCLUSION: Use of the learning resources led to a large improvement in the ability of children to assess claims, which was sustained for at least 1 year. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trial Registry (www.pactr.org), PACTR201606001679337. Registered on 13 June 2016.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Comportamento de Escolha , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda
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