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1.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(10): 1258-1266, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310156

RESUMO

Rationale: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) represents a major challenge in systemic sclerosis (SSc), but there are no precise, population-based data on its overall impact, limiting opportunities for screening and management strategies.Objectives: Evaluate impact of ILD in a unique, nationwide, population-based SSc cohort.Methods: ILD was assessed prospectively in the Norwegian SSc (Nor-SSc) cohort, including all 815 patients with SSc resident in the country from 2000 to 2012. Lung high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans were available for fibrosis quantification at baseline (n = 650, 80%) and follow-up. Pulmonary function tests were assessed at baseline (n = 703, 86%) and follow-up. Vital status and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated at study end (2018) in the 630 incident Nor-SSc cases and 15 individually matched control subjects. Cumulative survival rates were computed.Measurements and Main Results: At baseline, 50% of the subjects with SSc (n = 324) had ILD by HRCT and 46% displayed pulmonary function declines consistent with ILD progression. Mortality correlated with extent of lung fibrosis as SMR increased from 2.2 with no fibrosis to 8.0 with greater than 25% fibrosis. SMR was inversely related to baseline FVC% and increased at all FVC levels below 100%. In patients with normal-range baseline FVC (80-100%), the 5- and 10-year survival rates correlated with presence or absence of lung fibrosis, being 83% and 80%, respectively, with no fibrosis and 69% and 56%, respectively, with lung fibrosis (P = 0.03).Conclusions: The mere presence of ILD at baseline appears to affect outcome in SSc, suggesting that all patients with SSc should undergo a baseline pulmonary function test and lung HRCT screening to diagnose ILD early and tailor further management.

2.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(6): 972-982, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) runs a highly variable course, and prediction tools are highly desired. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and prognostic performance of 4 candidate serum biomarkers for SSc-associated ILD. METHODS: Serum samples from a combined cohort of SSc patients (from Paris, France and Oslo, Norway; n = 427) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for concentrations of lung epithelial-derived surfactant protein D (SP-D), Krebs von den Lungen 6 glycoprotein (KL-6), CCL18, and OX40 ligand (OX40L). Lung fibrosis was measured by high-resolution computed tomography and pulmonary function tests. Associations of these candidate biomarkers with baseline disease involvement and prediction of disease progression over time (mean ± SD follow-up 3.2 ± 4.4 years) were investigated. RESULTS: In SSc patients at baseline, serum levels of KL-6 correlated with the forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = -0.317, P < 0.001), diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (r = -0.335, P < 0.001), and extent of lung fibrosis (r = 0.551, P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, serum levels of KL-6 and SP-D, but not CCL18 and OX40L, were associated with lung fibrosis (odds ratio [OR] 2.41, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.43-4.07 [P = 0.001] and OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.81-5.48 [P < 0.001], respectively). In SSc patients with ILD at baseline, longitudinal, multivariate analyses showed that CCL18 serum levels were an independent predictor of a >10% decrease in the FVC (hazard ratio [HR] 2.90, 95% CI 1.25-6.73; P = 0.014) and de novo development of extensive disease (HR 3.71, 95% CI 1.02-13.52; P = 0.048). Matrix-based logistic regression models for the diagnosis and prognosis of SSc-associated ILD were constructed, and these models discriminated 3 groups of risk (mild, moderate, or high) for the diagnosis or worsening of lung fibrosis according to the serum levels of SP-D (for diagnosis) and serum levels of CCL18 (for progression of disease). CONCLUSION: These results show that SP-D is a relevant diagnostic biomarker for SSc-associated ILD, whereas KL-6 could be used to assess the severity of lung fibrosis. CCL18 appears to be a potential predictive marker for progression of ILD in SSc.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(15): 1804-1813, 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary cardiac affection is common and is a major cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc), but there are knowledge gaps regarding the effect of cardiac dysfunction on mortality. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate diastolic function in a large, unselected SSc cohort and assess the effect of diastolic dysfunction (DD) on mortality. METHODS: SSc patients followed prospectively at the Oslo University Hospital from 2003 to 2016 with available echocardiographies and matched control subjects were included. DD was assessed by echocardiography according to the 2016 American Society of Echocardiography/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging guidelines. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was diagnosed by right heart catheterization. Vital status was available for all patients. Cox regression analyses with hazards ratios (HRs) were conducted. RESULTS: Diastolic function was assessed in 275 SSc patients at baseline and in 186 patients at follow-up. At baseline, 46 of the 275 SSc patients (17%) were diagnosed with DD and 195 (71%) had normal diastolic function. After a median follow-up of 3.4 years (interquartile range: 1.6 to 6.2 years), the proportion of DD increased from 17% to 29%. During follow-up, 57% of patients with DD at baseline died, compared with 13% of patients with normal diastolic function. At baseline, 86 patients had performed right heart catheterization, and 43 were diagnosed with PH; of these 60% deceased. In multivariable Cox regression analyses, DD was a stronger predictor of death (HR: 3.7; 95% CI: 1.69 to 8.14; c-index 0.89) than PH (HR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1 to 3.9; c-index 0.84). CONCLUSIONS: DD is frequent in SSc, and the presence of DD is associated with high mortality. DD exceeds PH with respect to predicting mortality.

4.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(9): 1326-1332, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875097

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the predictive clinical characteristics and establish a prediction model for the progression of mild interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Patients with SSc from two independent prospective cohorts were included in this observational study. All patients fulfilled the 2013 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria, had mild ILD at baseline diagnosed by High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT), available baseline and ≥1 annual follow-up pulmonary function tests and no concomitant pulmonary hypertension or airflow obstruction. ILD progression was defined as a relative decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC)%≥15%, or FVC%≥10% combined with diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide %≥15% at 1-year follow-up. Candidate predictors for multivariate logistic regression were selected by expert opinion based on clinical significance. A prediction model for ILD progression was established in the derivation cohort and validated in the multinational validation cohort. RESULTS: A total of 25/98 and 25/117 patients with SSc showed ILD progression in the derivation cohort and the validation cohort, respectively. Lower SpO2 after 6 min walk test (6MWT) and arthritis ever were identified as independent predictors for ILD progression in both cohorts. The optimal cut-off value of SpO2 after 6MWT for predicting ILD progression was determined as 94% by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The derived SPAR model combining both predictors (SPO2 and ARthritis) increased the prediction rate from 25.5% to 91.7% with an area under the curve (95% CI) of 0.83 (0.73 to 0.93). CONCLUSIONS: The evidence-based SPAR prediction model developed in our study might be helpful for the risk stratification of patients with mild SSc-ILD in clinical practice and cohort enrichment for future clinical trial design.

5.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(10): 1644-1653, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a major cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Murine models indicate key roles for chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and their receptor CCR7 in lung inflammation leading to PAH. The objective of this study was to assess the chemokine CCL19-CCL21 axis in patients with SSc-related PAH. METHODS: Serum samples obtained from 2 independent prospective SSc cohorts (n = 326), patients with idiopathic PAH (n = 12), and healthy control subjects (n = 100) were analyzed for CCL19/CCL21 levels, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels were defined as either high or low, using the mean + 2 SD value in controls as the cutoff value. Risk stratification at the time of PAH diagnosis and PAH-related events were performed. Descriptive and Cox regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: CCL21 levels were higher in patients with SSc compared with controls and were elevated prior to the diagnosis of PAH. PAH was more frequent in patients with high CCL21 levels (≥0.4 ng/ml) than in those with low CCL21 levels (33.3% versus 5.3% [P < 0.001]). In multivariate analyses, CCL21 was associated with PAH (hazard ratio [HR] 5.1, 95% CI 2.39-10.76 [P < 0.001]) and occurrence of PAH-related events (HR 4.7, 95% CI 2.12-10.46, P < 0.001). Risk stratification at the time of PAH diagnosis alone did not predict PAH-related events. However, when risk at diagnosis was combined with high or low CCL21 level, there was a significant predictive effect (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.03-1.60 [P = 0.027]). A high CCL21 level was associated with decreased survival (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: CCL21 appears to be a promising marker for predicting the risk of SSc-related PAH and PAH progression. CCL21 may be part of a dysregulated immune pathway linked to the development of lung vascular damage in SSc.

6.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(3): 480-487, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237073

RESUMO

Objective: The DETECT algorithm was developed for screening patients with SSc at high risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We evaluated the impact of this algorithm in a SSc population. Methods: Patients from the unselected, prospective Oslo University Hospital SSc study were divided into the Early and DETECT cohorts, respectively, depending on whether an incident right heart catheterization (RHC) was performed before (2009-13) or after (2014-17) the DETECT algorithm was instituted. A PAH diagnosis and patient risk stratification (low, intermediate and high risk) were performed according to 2015 European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Results: At the time of the incident RHC, PAH frequency was similar between the DETECT (15/84 with PAH; 18%) and Early (16/77; 21%) cohorts, but more patients had borderline pulmonary hypertension (PH) in the DETECT (31%) than in the Early (17%) cohort. PAH risk levels were distributed differently. In the DETECT cohort, 27% and 27% were at low and high risk, respectively, at the time of PAH diagnosis. In the Early cohort, 19 and 44% were at low and high risk, respectively. A follow-up RHC, performed after [mean (SD)] 2.4 (1.8) years, showed that 39% of patients with borderline PH in the Early cohort had developed PAH. Conclusion: The DETECT algorithm did not alter PAH incidence in this unselected SSc population. However, it appeared to affect the risk distribution at the time of PAH diagnosis and increased the frequency of borderline PH cases. These findings may translate into novel opportunities for earlier PAH treatment and, possibly, prevention.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26557243

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) as an add-on modality to medical treatment has been recommended in national guidelines for patients acutely admitted with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) exacerbation and hypercapnic respiratory failure. To address concerns regarding whether NIV is used appropriately, we conducted an audit of COPD patients admitted to a university hospital in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from medical records were retrieved for two cohorts in 2010: 1) all patients admitted to the Medical Emergency Ward with the diagnosis of COPD, and 2) all patients receiving NIV regardless of their diagnosis at the Respiratory Ward. Demographic data and outcome of treatment were registered. RESULTS: Cohort 1 comprised 804 admissions fulfilling criteria for COPD at evaluation, and of the 804 admissions, NIV was initiated in 151 (18.7%) admissions. In 42 additional cases (5.2%), initial mild respiratory acidosis was registered at admission, fulfilling criteria for NIV treatment; and, in 36 cases, the clinical status was reported as improved or not reported at all; no deaths were observed. In cohort 2, 124 admissions were registered that comprised 110 admissions with COPD and 14 without a diagnosis of COPD (of which half had a 'not-to-intubate' order). The indication for NIV treatment was met in 92.7% of the COPD admissions. CONCLUSION: NIV was initiated in 18.8% of the COPD admissions, and in an additional 5.2%, NIV criteria were met without initiation. In 82.3% of the admissions receiving NIV, a COPD diagnosis and correct criteria for NIV treatment were met.

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