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1.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol ; 34(1): 101256, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762110

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy targeting CD19 (CART19) has shown remarkable results in patients with relapsed/refractory (r/r) B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In patients 25 years of age or younger CART19 therapy is an accepted standard of care, while the treatment of older adults is less straight forward and possible only in the context of a clinical trial. Treatment of older patients with CAR T cells requires careful consideration of overall treatment goals, suitability of a consolidative hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), alternative treatment options, patient risk profile, and anticipated responses and toxicities of the specific CAR T cell products available. Here we use patient guided examples to inform approaches to care.

3.
JACC CardioOncol ; 2(2): 193-203, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776016

RESUMO

Background: Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell (CART19) therapy holds great promise in the treatment of hematological malignancies. A high occurrence of cardiac dysfunction has been noted in children treated with CART19 therapy. Objectives: We aimed to define the occurrence of major cardiovascular events (MACE) in adult patients treated with CART19 cells and assess the relationships between clinical factors, echocardiographic parameters, laboratory values, and cardiovascular outcomes. Methods: Baseline clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic parameters were collected in 145 adult patients undergoing CART19 cell therapy. MACE included cardiovascular death, symptomatic heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke and de novo cardiac arrhythmia. Baseline parameters associated with MACE were identified using Cox proportional cause-specific hazards regression analysis. Results: Thirty-one patients had MACE (41 events) at a median time of 11 days (Q1-Q3:6-151 days) after CART19 cell infusion. The median follow-up period was 456 days (Q1-Q3: 128-1214 days). Sixty-one patients died. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) occurred 176 times in 104 patients; the median time to CRS was 6 days (Q1-Q3: 1-8 days). The Kaplan-Meier estimates for MACE and CRS at 30 days were 17% and 53% respectively. The KM estimates for survival at 1 year was 71%. Multivariable Cox proportional cause-specific hazards regression analysis determined that baseline creatinine and Grade 3 or 4 CRS were independently associated with MACE. Conclusion: Patients treated with CART19 are at an increased risk of MACE and may benefit from cardiovascular surveillance. Further large prospective studies are needed to confirm the incidence and risk factors predictive of MACE.

4.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; : 1078155220951241, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819196

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Crystalline arthritis (CA), characterized by acute joint pain and erythema secondary to calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD, or pseudogout) or monosodium urate crystals (gout), is a potentially underreported complication following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (alloHCT). Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) causes hypomagnesemia and hyperuricemia, resulting in CA. CA related to tacrolimus has yet to be characterized following alloHCT. CASE REPORT: We retrospectively reviewed records of 450 consecutive patients undergoing alloHCT and identified 15 (3.3% incidence) who developed CA on tacrolimus. Large joints were involved in 10 (66.7%) patients, all patients had recent hypomagnesemia, and no patient had hyperuricemia, suggesting CPPD was the most likely etiology.Management and outcome: Eleven (73.3%) patients received systemic corticosteroids; 6 as initial therapy and 5 added to or substituted for colchicine in the setting of slow or inadequate response. The median duration of corticosteroid therapy was 6 days, however 2 patients (13.3%) required prolonged maintenance due to recurrence. Eleven (73.3%) patients received colchicine; 9 as initial therapy and 2 added to or substituted for corticosteroids in the setting of slow or inadequate response. The median duration of colchicine therapy was 18 days. The median time to symptom resolution was 21 days. DISCUSSION: Patients on tacrolimus following alloHCT presenting with acute joint pain and erythema should be evaluated for CPPD. Hypomagnesemia secondary to CNIs is likely the precipitating factor for CPPD in this population. Patients can effectively be managed with systemic corticosteroids and/or colchicine, however prolonged duration of treatment and even maintenance may be necessary. Based on the Naranjo Algorithm, CPPD secondary to tacrolimus induced hypomagnesemia is a possible adverse drug event, with a score of 3-4.

5.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 61(9): 2200-2207, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482107

RESUMO

Pegaspargase (PEG) increases venous thromboembolism (VTE) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) potentially due to depletion of anticoagulation factors, including antithrombin (AT). The benefit and cost of AT supplementation in adults is unclear. We aimed to characterize VTE incidence and risk factors following AT and determine the characteristics and costs of supplementation. Fifty-three adults received PEG and AT. VTE occurred in 21% (grade ≥3 8%). T cell ALL and patients receiving prednisone during induction were at highest risk. Repeat AT levels post supplementation were subtherapeutic forty-four percent of the time. A median of 18 days elapsed between PEG and two sequential therapeutic AT levels despite supplementation. Patients received a median of 2 AT doses per PEG dose at a median cost of $11,145. VTE remains common in adults despite AT supplementation. More aggressive AT supplementation may reduce VTE but warrant prospective evaluation given the significant cost.

6.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(25): 2862-2871, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298202

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe long-term outcomes of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T (CART) cells in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). METHODS: Between January 2013 and June 2016, 42 patients with relapsed or refractory CLL were enrolled in this study and 38 were infused with anti-CD19 CART cells (CART-19). Of these, 28 patients were initially randomly assigned to receive a low (5 × 107) or high (5 × 108) dose of CART-19, and 24 were evaluable for response assessment. After an interim analysis, 10 additional patients received the selected (high) dose and of these, eight were evaluable for response. Patients were followed for a median 31.5 months (range, 2 to 75 months). RESULTS: At 4 weeks, the complete and overall responses for the 32 evaluable patients were 28% (90% CI, 16% to 44%) and 44% (90% CI, 29% to 60%), respectively. The median overall survival (OS) for all patients was 64 months; there was no statistically significant difference between low- and high-dose groups (P = .84). Regardless of dose, prolonged survival was observed in patients who achieved a CR versus those who did not (P = .035), with median OS not reached in patients with CR versus 64 months in those without CR. The median progression-free survival was 40.2 months in patients with CR and 1 month in those without a CR (P < .0001). Toxicity was comparable in both dose groups. CONCLUSION: In patients with advanced CLL, a 5 × 108 dose of CART-19 may be more effective than 5 × 107 CART-19 at inducing CR without excessive toxicity. Attainment of a CR after CART-19 infusion, regardless of cell dose, is associated with longer OS and progression-free survival in patients with relapsed CLL.

7.
Am J Hematol ; 95(7): 792-798, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242967

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Given the heterogeneity of the population receiving hypomethylating agents (HMA), it is difficult for clinicians to accurately assess their patients' risk of infection. Literature on the incidence of IFI following HMA is limited to several studies of azacitidine. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to establish the incidence of IFI in HMA treated AML/MDS patients at a large U.S. comprehensive cancer center. Secondary objectives included comparing incidence of IFI among pre-specified subgroups to identify potential risk factors for IFI. Two hundred three patients with AML, intermediate to very high risk MDS or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia who received at least two cycles of HMA were included. The incidence of IFI, as defined by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer / Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group criteria, was 9.6%, with 20 IFI diagnosed following HMA (three proven, four probable, 13 possible). Among the proven cases of IFI, molds included Scedosporium and Fusarium spp. Eleven patients who developed IFIs were neutropenic upon initiating HMA. The majority (17/20) of infections occurred during the first four cycles. Given this incidence, mold-active prophylaxis can be considered in patients who are neutropenic at the start of therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Fusariose , Fusarium , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Scedosporium , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fusariose/induzido quimicamente , Fusariose/epidemiologia , Fusariose/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/induzido quimicamente , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/prevenção & controle , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Cancer Discov ; 10(4): 552-567, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001516

RESUMO

Primary resistance to CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CART19) occurs in 10% to 20% of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); however, the mechanisms of this resistance remain elusive. Using a genome-wide loss-of-function screen, we identified that impaired death receptor signaling in ALL led to rapidly progressive disease despite CART19 treatment. This was mediated by an inherent resistance to T-cell cytotoxicity that permitted antigen persistence and was subsequently magnified by the induction of CAR T-cell functional impairment. These findings were validated using samples from two CAR T-cell clinical trials in ALL, where we found that reduced expression of death receptor genes was associated with worse overall survival and reduced T-cell fitness. Our findings suggest that inherent dysregulation of death receptor signaling in ALL directly leads to CAR T-cell failure by impairing T-cell cytotoxicity and promoting progressive CAR T-cell dysfunction. SIGNIFICANCE: Resistance to CART19 is a significant barrier to efficacy in the treatment of B-cell malignancies. This work demonstrates that impaired death receptor signaling in tumor cells causes failed CART19 cytotoxicity and drives CART19 dysfunction, identifying a novel mechanism of antigen-independent resistance to CAR therapy.See related commentary by Green and Neelapu, p. 492.

9.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(5): 415-422, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815579

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy tisagenlecleucel (CTL019) has an 81% response rate in children with relapsed or chemotherapy refractory (r/r) B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a life-threatening treatment-related toxicity that limits the full therapeutic potential in adults. We report outcomes for adults with r/r ALL treated with an optimized CTL019 dosing and CRS management strategy. METHODS: Adults with r/r B-cell ALL received CTL019 in 1 of 2 trials. Patients received lymphodepletion followed by CTL019 as either a one-time infusion or fractionated infusions split over 3 days (day 1, 10%; day 2, 30%; day 3, 60%), which allowed for day 2 and day 3 doses to be held for early CRS. Total planned CTL019 dose varied with adaptive protocol modifications in response to efficacy and CRS toxicity. RESULTS: Thirty-five adults with r/r ALL received CTL019 in 1 of 3 dosing cohorts. The low-dose cohort (n = 9) received single or fractionated dosing and had manageable toxicity with a 33% complete remission (CR) rate. In the high-dose single infusion cohort, 3 of 6 patients with refractory CRS concurrent with culture-positive sepsis died, and 3 achieved CR. The 20 patients in the high-dose fractionated (HDF) cohort had a 90% CR rate and manageable CRS. The HDF cohort had the highest survival, with a 2-year overall survival of 73% (95% CI, 46% to 88%) and event-free survival of 49.5% (95% CI, 21% to 73%). CONCLUSION: Fractionated dosing of CTL019 with intrapatient dose modification optimizes safety without compromising efficacy in adults with r/r ALL.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
12.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(11): 1868-1880, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092900

RESUMO

On August 30, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) approved tisagenlecleucel (KYMRIAH, Novartis, Basel, Switzerland), a synthetic bioimmune product of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR-T), for the treatment of children and young adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). With this new era of personalized cancer immunotherapy, multiple challenges are present ranging from implementation of a CAR-T program to safe delivery of the drug, long-term toxicity monitoring and disease assessments. To address these issues, experts representing the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant (ASBMT), the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), the International Society of Cell and Gene Therapy (ISCT), and the Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT), formed a global CAR-T task force to identify and address key questions pertinent for hematologists and transplant physicians regarding the clinical use of anti CD19 CAR-T therapy in patients with B-ALL. This article presents an initial roadmap for navigating common clinical practice scenarios that will become more prevalent now that the first commercially available CAR-T product for B-ALL has been approved.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215021, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951562

RESUMO

Idiopathic acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare lymphocyte-mediated bone marrow aplasia. No specific mechanisms or triggers of AA have been identified. We recently observed several patients who developed AA after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We hypothesized that the co-occurrence of HL and AA is not random and may be etiologically significant. To test this hypothesis, we determined the incidence of AA in HL patients at our institution. We identified four patients with co-occurring HL and AA, with the incidence of AA in HL patients >20-fold higher compared to the general population. We identified 12 additional patients with AA and HL through a systematic literature review. Of the 16 total patients,15 (93.8%) developed AA after or concurrent with a HL diagnosis. None of the patients had marrow involvement by HL. Five of 15 patients were in complete remission from HL at the time of AA diagnosis, and six had a concurrent presentation with no prior cytotoxic therapy, with diagnostic timeframe information unavailable for four patients. The median interval between HL diagnosis and AA onset was 16 months, ranging from concurrent to 14 years after a HL diagnosis. The median survival after AA diagnosis was 14 months (range: 1 month to 20 years). Our results show that patients with HL have a higher incidence of AA compared to the general population and suggest that HL-related immune dysregulation may be a risk factor for AA. Better recognition and management of AA in HL patients is needed to improve outcomes in this population.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/epidemiologia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anemia Aplástica/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Am J Hematol ; 94(S1): S24-S27, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784101

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells targeted to CD19 have resulted in unprecedented remission rates for adult and pediatric patients with relapsed and refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). With regulatory approval for tisagenlecleucel and many other agents under active investigation, the use of CAR T cells for ALL continues to expand. While some remissions from anti-CD19 CAR T cells are durable without a consolidative allogeneic stem cell transplantation, CD19 positive and negative relapses remain a significant concern fueling investigations into the biology of CAR T cell persistence and the development of CARTs that target more than 1 antigen. The treatment related toxicities of cytokine release syndrome and neurologic events are potentially life threatening but recent advances have improved understanding and management strategies. This review summarizes outcomes for patients with ALL treated with CD19-CAR T cells while exploring the field's challenges and future directions.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Antígenos CD19/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(2): 212-217, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795429

RESUMO

Steroid-refractory (SR) acute gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is associated with significant mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of tocilizumab for the treatment of SR biopsy-proven acute lower GI GVHD in 16 consecutive adult transplant recipients between October 2015 and July 2016. Tocilizumab 8 mg/kg was administered every 2 weeks until achievement of complete response, defined as resolution of all manifestations of GI GVHD, or until patients had progression or initiation of other therapy. Ten of 16 patients (62.5%; 95% CI, 0.39-82) achieved a complete response after a median time of 11 days (range, 2-28 days) from tocilizumab initiation. The median time to response onset (improvement in stage by at least 1) was 1 day (range, 1-4 days). Tocilizumab was administered at a median of 9 days (range, 3-75 days) from GVHD diagnosis and 10 days (range, 3-75 days) from initiation of high-dose steroids. At a median follow-up of 7.6 months (range, 0.8-27.7 months) from initiation of tocilizumab, 6/16 (37.5%) patients are alive and free of their underlying hematologic malignancy. Tocilizumab appears to be a highly active agent for the treatment of severe SR lower GI acute GVHD.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/mortalidade , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Trato Gastrointestinal Inferior , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(3): e76-e85, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576834

RESUMO

On August 30, 2017 the US Food and Drug Administration approved tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah; Novartis, Basel, Switzerland), a synthetic bioimmune product of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T), for the treatment of children and young adults with relapsed/refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). With this new era of personalized cancer immunotherapy, multiple challenges are present, ranging from implementation of a CAR-T program to safe delivery of the drug, long-term toxicity monitoring, and disease assessments. To address these issues experts representing the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant, the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, the International Society of Cell and Gene Therapy, and the Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy formed a global CAR-T task force to identify and address key questions pertinent for hematologists and transplant physicians regarding the clinical use of anti CD19 CAR-T therapy in patients with B-ALL. This article presents an initial roadmap for navigating common clinical practice scenarios that will become more prevalent now that the first commercially available CAR-T product for B-ALL has been approved.


Assuntos
Prova Pericial , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Criança , Procedimentos Clínicos , Aprovação de Drogas , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(3): 515-521, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315941

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the most common treatment-related complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Lymphocyte migration plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of GVHD. A previous phase I/II trial demonstrated that CCR5 blockade with maraviroc in the first 30days after allo-HCT resulted in a low incidence of early acute GVHD, primarily in visceral organs, but with no impact on late acute or chronic GVHD. We conducted a phase II trial to examine the efficacy of an extended course of maraviroc, administered through post-transplantation day +90 in addition to standard prophylaxis in 37 recipients of reduced-intensity-conditioned unrelated donor allo-HCT performed to treat hematologic malignancies. Extended maraviroc treatment was safe and feasible. The primary study endpoint, day +180 rate of grade II-IV acute GVHD, was 22 ± 7%, liver GVHD was not observed, and gut GVHD was uncommon. The day +180 rate of grade III-IV acute GVHD was 5 ± 4%. The 1-year rate of moderate to severe chronic GVHD was 8 ± 5% and that of disease relapse was 30 ± 8%. Overall survival at 1 year was 70 ± 8%. Compared with the previously studied short course of maraviroc, the extended course resulted in a significantly higher GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], .45; 95% confidence interval [CI], .25 to .82; P = .009) and overall survival (adjusted HR, .48; 95% CI, .24 to .96; P = .037). A combined analysis of both trials showed that high maraviroc trough concentrations on the day of hematopoietic cell infusion were associated with lower rates of acute GVHD. An extended course of maraviroc after reduced-intensity-conditioned unrelated donor allo-HCT is safe and effective in preventing acute and chronic GVHD and is associated with favorable survival.


Assuntos
Antagonistas dos Receptores CCR5/uso terapêutico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Maraviroc/uso terapêutico , Receptores CCR5/deficiência , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Maraviroc/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Doadores não Relacionados
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(12): 2003-2009, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of infectious complications in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (alloHCT). We sought to evaluate whether prophylactic oral vancomycin reduces the incidence of CDI in alloHCT recipients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine the effectiveness of CDI prophylaxis with oral vancomycin, as compared to no prophylaxis, in 145 consecutive adult alloHCT recipients at the University of Pennsylvania between April 2015 and November 2016. Patients received oral vancomycin 125 mg twice daily, starting on admission and continuing until discharge. The primary outcome of interest was the association between oral vancomycin prophylaxis and CDI diagnosis. Secondary outcomes included graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse. RESULTS: There were no cases of CDI in patients that received prophylaxis (0/90, 0%), whereas 11/55 (20%) patients who did not receive prophylaxis developed CDI (P < .001). Oral vancomycin prophylaxis was not associated with a higher risk of acute, grades 2-4 GVHD (subhazard ratio [sHR] 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-2.89; P = .12), acute, grades 3-4 GVHD (sHR 0.65; 95% CI 0.25-1.66; P = .36), or acute, grades 2-4 gastrointestinal GVHD (sHR 1.95; 95% CI 0.93-4.07; P = .08) at day 180 post-transplant. No associations between oral vancomycin and relapse or survival were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylaxis with oral vancomycin is highly effective in preventing CDI in alloHCT recipients without increasing the risk of graft-versus-host disease or disease relapse. Further evaluation via a prospective study is warranted.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Infecções por Clostridium/etiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade/complicações , Transplantados , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Infecções por Clostridium/mortalidade , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Med ; 24(5): 563-571, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713085

RESUMO

Tolerance to self-antigens prevents the elimination of cancer by the immune system1,2. We used synthetic chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to overcome immunological tolerance and mediate tumor rejection in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Remission was induced in a subset of subjects, but most did not respond. Comprehensive assessment of patient-derived CAR T cells to identify mechanisms of therapeutic success and failure has not been explored. We performed genomic, phenotypic and functional evaluations to identify determinants of response. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that CAR T cells from complete-responding patients with CLL were enriched in memory-related genes, including IL-6/STAT3 signatures, whereas T cells from nonresponders upregulated programs involved in effector differentiation, glycolysis, exhaustion and apoptosis. Sustained remission was associated with an elevated frequency of CD27+CD45RO-CD8+ T cells before CAR T cell generation, and these lymphocytes possessed memory-like characteristics. Highly functional CAR T cells from patients produced STAT3-related cytokines, and serum IL-6 correlated with CAR T cell expansion. IL-6/STAT3 blockade diminished CAR T cell proliferation. Furthermore, a mechanistically relevant population of CD27+PD-1-CD8+ CAR T cells expressing high levels of the IL-6 receptor predicts therapeutic response and is responsible for tumor control. These findings uncover new features of CAR T cell biology and underscore the potential of using pretreatment biomarkers of response to advance immunotherapies.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19/metabolismo , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Invest New Drugs ; 36(4): 657-666, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29607465

RESUMO

Background Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitors enhance chemotherapy response in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells in vitro. However whether inhibiting mTORC1 enhances clinical response to AML chemotherapy remains controversial. We previously optimized measurement of mTORC1's kinase activity in AML blasts during clinical trials using serial phospho-specific flow cytometry of formaldehyde-fixed whole blood or marrow specimens. To validate mTORC1 as a therapeutic target in AML, we performed two clinical trials combining an mTORC1 inhibitor (sirolimus) and MEC (mitoxantrone, etoposide, cytarabine) in patients with relapsed, refractory, or untreated high-risk AML. Methods Flow cytometric measurements of ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation (pS6) were performed before and during sirolimus treatment to determine whether mTORC1 inhibition enriched for chemotherapy response. Results In 51 evaluable subjects, the overall response rate (ORR) to the combination regimen was 47% (95% confidence interval 33-61%, 33% CR, 2% CRi, 12% PR) and similar toxicity to historic experience with MEC alone. 37 subjects had baseline pS6 measured pre-sirolimus, of whom 27 (73%) exhibited mTORC1 activity. ORR was not significantly different between subjects with and without baseline mTORC1 activity (52% vs 40%, respectively, p = 0.20). The ORR among subjects with baseline target activation and mTORC1 inhibition during therapy was 71% (12/17) compared to 20% (2/10) in subjects without target inhibition. Conclusions Fixed, whole blood pS6 by flow cytometry may be a predictive biomarker for clinical response to mTORC1 inhibitor-based regimens. These data provide clinical confirmation that mTORC1 activation mediates chemotherapy resistance in patients with AML.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitoxantrona/uso terapêutico , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Projetos Piloto , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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