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1.
Cancer ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians are the standard source for adverse event (AE) reporting in oncology trials, despite the subjective nature of symptomatic AEs. The authors designed a pediatric patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument for symptomatic AEs to support the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) (the Pediatric PRO-CTCAE). The current study developed a standardized algorithm that maps all possible Pediatric PRO-CTCAE response patterns to recommended CTCAE grades to improve the accuracy of AE reporting in pediatric oncology trials. METHODS: Two rounds of surveys were administered to experienced cancer clinicians across 9 pediatric hospitals. In round 1, pediatric oncologists assigned CTCAE grades to all 101 possible Pediatric PRO-CTCAE response patterns. The authors evaluated clinician agreement of CTCAE grades across response patterns and categorized each response pattern as having high or low agreement. In round 2, a survey was sent to a larger clinician group to examine clinician agreement among a select set of Pediatric PRO-CTCAE response patterns, and the authors examined how clinical context influenced grade assignment. RESULTS: A total of 10 pediatric oncologists participated in round 1. Of the 101 possible patterns, 89 (88%) had high agreement. The Light weighted kappa was averaged across the 10 oncologists (Light kappa = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.66-0.81). A total of 139 clinicians participated in round 2. High clinician agreement remained for the majority of generic response patterns and the clinical context did not typically change grades but rather improved agreement. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides a framework for integrating child self-reported symptom data directly into mandated AE reporting in oncology trials. Translating Pediatric PRO-CTCAE responses into clinically meaningful metrics will guide future cancer care and toxicity grading.

2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(10): e27931, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322817

RESUMO

Adolescents and young adults (AYAs, 15-39 years old) are an ideal population to benefit from the ever-expanding number and variety of cancer information and health resources available via the Internet and other digital platforms. However, the ability of individual AYAs to fully utilize such resources depends on their degree of health literacy. Across the trajectory of cancer care, an important role for the oncology clinician is assisting AYAs and caregivers in accessing quality health information consistent with their level of health literacy. Working from the premise that all AYAs with cancer and their caregivers deserve to be empowered with maximal knowledge about their condition, this review provides information to assist oncology clinicians in (1) understanding the variety of contemporary online resources that are currently available, including their strengths and limitations; (2) evaluating the quality of health information; and (3) recommending specific health information resources to their AYA patients.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(10): 1612-1620, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a known modifiable risk factor associated with adverse outcomes in children with cancer. We sought to determine whether obesity during childhood cancer treatment increases risk for second malignant neoplasms (SMN). METHODS: In this case-control study, cases (with SMN) and controls (with a single-primary cancer) were selected from the California Cancer Registry who had primary cancer diagnosed <21 years treated at Children's Hospital Los Angeles between 1988 and 2014. Controls were matched 3:1 to cases at the registry level by clinical factors. Medical records were abstracted for cancer treatment exposures, cancer predisposition syndrome, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, and BMI category at diagnosis and end of therapy (EOT). RESULTS: A total of 59 cases and 130 controls were included. Median age at primary cancer diagnosis was 6 years, 64.5% were male, median time from primary cancer to SMN was 7.5 years, and 31.7% were obese or overweight. In matched multivariable analyses, there were elevated but nonsignificant associations between SMN and higher BMI Z-score at diagnosis [OR 1.27 (0.99-1.63)] and higher BMI categories at diagnosis [adjusted OR (aOR) overweight, 1.25 (0.55-2.52); aOR obese, 2.51 (1.00-6.29)]. There was a significantly increased risk for SMN among patients who were obese at both diagnosis and EOT [aOR, 4.44 (1.37-14.34)]. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that obesity during childhood cancer treatment may be associated with increased risk for SMNs, particularly among those obese throughout therapy. IMPACT: Additional studies to confirm these findings and to develop interventions have the potential to impact SMN development in children with cancer.

4.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(8): 578-584, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160205

RESUMO

The identification of preventive interventions that are safe and effective for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is important, especially in children because hearing loss can impair speech-language acquisition development. Previous randomised trials assessed systemic drugs such as amifostine, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate or disulfiram, and sodium thiosulfate. Amifostine, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, and disulfiram did not show hearing preservation. Paediatric trials assessing sodium thiosulfate showed efficacy in terms of hearing protection. The SIOPEL 6 trial consisted solely of patients with localised hepatoblastoma and no effects on survival were shown. In the ACCL0431 trial, which included heterogeneous patients, a post-hoc analysis showed significantly worse overall survival among patients who had disseminated disease receiving sodium thiosulfate than among controls, but not among those with localised disease. Intratympanically administered drugs have mainly been assessed in adults and include N-acetylcysteine and dexamethasone. Inconsistent effects of these drugs were identified but these studies were limited by design, small sample size, and statistical approach. Future studies of systemic drugs will need to consider the measurement of disease outcomes through study design and sample size, and ototoxicity endpoints should be harmonised to enhance comparability between trials.

5.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(8): e27793, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099145

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There are limited reports describing transition of young adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) from pediatric to adult-focused survivorship care. The purpose of this study was to characterize current transitional care practices in the United States. PROJECT DESCRIPTION: An online survey was sent to one preselected respondent at 163 Children's Oncology Group member institutions in the United States. Data were collected about (i) the availability and type of long-term follow-up services for adult CCS and (ii) policies and procedures for transitioning. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors related to care for CCS. RESULTS: The response rate was 60% (97/163). Eighty-one respondents (84%) represented centers with specialized pediatric-focused CCS programs. Thirty-nine percent (38/97) of programs delivered specialized transitional care for adult CCS. Adult-centered care was delivered in both pediatric (39%, 15/38) and adult oncology clinics (39%, 15/38). The most common perceived transition barriers were lack of available partnering adult providers and adult providers' lack of knowledge regarding CCS. The larger the program in terms of new diagnoses, the more likely they were to offer formal transitional care (<50 vs >200: odds ratios [OR] 20.0; 95% CI 3.2, 100.0, P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: A variety of models are utilized for delivering care to adult CCS. Our results suggest that interventions to establish effective partnerships with adult providers on appropriate care of CCS may facilitate expanded availability of these services.

6.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(7): e27660, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756484

RESUMO

The financial impact of cancer treatment among adolescents and young adults (AYAs, 15-39 years) is deep and long lasting. Compared with other age groups, because of their life stage, AYAs are particularly vulnerable to the adverse economic effects of cancer treatment, also known as financial toxicity. Clinical manifestations of cancer-related financial toxicity include interrupted work and income loss, accumulated debt, treatment nonadherence, avoidance of medical care, and social isolation. Effective clinical interventions should include efforts to increase financial self-efficacy as well as direct support. Measures that are valid, reliable, multidimensional, and age-appropriate are needed to study and address financial toxicity in the AYA population.

8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321398

RESUMO

Background: Cancer survival among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) was previously reported as showing little or no improvement compared to younger or older counterparts. The role of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the AYA survival deficit has not been evaluated. Methods: Using cancer registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (SEER 9), we examined sex-specific 5-year relative survival trends for children (0-14 years old), AYAs (15-39 years old), and older adults (40 years and older) diagnosed with cancer during 1973-2009 and followed through the end of 2014. The analysis was conducted with and without Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and lymphomas, and by two time periods: 1973-1977 (before the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [HIV/AIDS] epidemic) and 2005-2009 (after the HIV/AIDS epidemic waned). Results: A total of 3 209 721 invasive cancer cases were included in the study (27 646 children, 213 930 AYAs, and 2 968 145 older adults; 24 803 children, 178 741 AYAs, and 2 844 062 older adults when KS and lymphoma cases were excluded). We found that 5-year relative survival for AYAs exceeded that of children and older adults before the onset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic (eg, during 1973-1979, 0.58-0.67 among male AYAs as compared with 0.47-0.61 for male children and 0.36-0.42 for male older adults; among female AYAs, the numbers were 0.73-0.77 as compared with 0.51-0.65 for female children and 0.52-0.55 for female older adults); substantially declined during 1983-1997 when HIV/AIDS lacked effective treatment among male AYAs; and returned to be higher than most age groups by the late 1990s after HIV/AIDS was controlled. Nonetheless, comparison of survival improvement between 1973-1977 and 2005-2009 demonstrated less progress in AYAs than other age groups, which was due to AYAs' better baseline survival and larger survival gains among children and older adults in recent years. Conclusions: Apart from the temporary impact of HIV/AIDS, survival among AYA cancer patients has shown sustained improvement and superiority relative to other age groups. However, these encouraging findings do not negate the distinctive challenges in cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship faced by AYAs.

9.
Cancer ; 124(20): 4064-4071, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low cancer clinical trial (CCT) enrollment may contribute to survival disparities affecting adolescents and young adults (AYAs) (ages 15-39 years). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether differences in CCT availability related to treatment site could explain the low CCT enrollment. METHODS: This prospective, observational cohort study was conducted at an academic children's hospital and its affiliated but geographically separated adult cancer hospital within a National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center. For consecutive, newly diagnosed AYA patients, it was determined whether an appropriate CCT existed nationally, was available at the treatment site, and was used for enrollment. Proportions of AYAs in these categories were compared between sites using the chi-square test. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two consecutive AYA patients were included from the children's hospital (n = 68; ages 15-20 years) and the adult cancer hospital (n = 84; ages 18-39 years). Although there was no difference in CCT existence for individual AYA patients by site (children's hospital [36 of 68 patients; 52.9%] vs adult cancer hospital [45 of 84 patients; 53.6%]; P = .938), CCT availability was significantly lower at the adult cancer hospital (14 of 84 patients [16.7%] vs 30 of 68 [44.1%] at the children's hospital; P < .001). The proportion of AYAs enrolled was low at both sites (8 of 68 patients [11.8%] vs 6 of 84 patients [7.1%], respectively; P = .327). Fewer existing CCTs were available at the adult cancer hospital (4 of 27 patients [14.8%] vs 8 of 14 patients [57.1%], respectively), and those were directed toward solid tumors and new agents. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to improve low CCT enrollment among AYAs should be differentiated by treatment site. In the adult setting, these efforts should be aimed at improving CCT availability by overcoming site-level barriers to opening existing CCTs.

11.
J Neurooncol ; 140(3): 575-582, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For several types of cancer, biological differences and outcome disparities have been documented in adolescents/young adults (AYAs, 15-39 years old) versus children. This study compared clinicopathological features and survival between younger AYAs and children with low-grade glioma (LGG), a common brain tumor among AYAs. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of Children's Oncology Group legacy study CCG-9891/POG-9130, which enrolled participants 0-21 years of age with newly-diagnosed LGG treated with surgery alone. For analysis, participants were categorized as children (0-14 years old) or early AYAs (eAYAs, 15-21 years old) and compared on demographics, clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, surgical outcomes, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Among 468 children and 50 eAYAs, more eAYAs presented with seizures (34.0% vs. 19.2%; p = 0.015), without other significant differences in clinicopathological features. 5-year PFS rates for children and eAYA were 80.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 76.1-83.7) and 83.0% (95% CI 68.8-91.1), respectively; 5-year OS rates were 97.3% (95% CI 95.2-98.5) and 95.4% (95% CI 82.7-98.8), respectively. Multivariable analysis including all participants showed presence of residual tumor to be an independent predictor of PFS (< 1.5 cm3, hazard ratio [HR] 5.93 [95% CI 3.45-10.18]) and (≥ 1.5 cm3, HR 8.38 [95% CI 4.75-14.79]) (p < 0.001), while midline-chiasmatic location (HR 9.69 [95% CI 3.05-30.75], p < 0.001) and non-pilocytic astrocytoma histology (HR 6.77 [95% CI 2.35-19.49], p < 0.001) were independent predictors of OS. CONCLUSION: Unlike several other cancers, LGG has similar presenting features and survival for both eAYAs and children. This support continuing a unified treatment approach and enrollment of eAYAs in pediatric clinical trials for LGGs.

12.
J Adolesc Health ; 63(1): 115-117, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060847

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This case-control study compared substance use behaviors between Hispanic adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancers (cases) and a community sample of participants without cancer (controls). METHODS: A total of 100 cases were matched to controls (200 participants) one to one by ethnicity, age, and sex (mean age at survey 19.27, standard deviation = 1.92). Differences in self-reported previous 30-day use of tobacco, alcohol, binge drinking of alcohol, and marijuana were examined using conditional multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The odds of tobacco, alcohol, binge drinking, and marijuana use were significantly lower for cases than for controls (all p's <.05). When stratified by age, cases (vs. controls) under 21 years of age reported lower levels of substance use (all p's <.05), whereas differences over the age of 21 were nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Lower levels of substance use among Hispanic adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancers (vs. controls) are most apparent at younger ages. Future work needs to examine a potential delay in initiation of use among survivors.

13.
Am J Hematol ; 93(10): 1254-1266, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058716

RESUMO

For young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, pediatric-based regimens are likely to provide the following when compared to hyper-CVAD regimens: better disease control, less hospitalization time, diminished acute toxicities, decreased financial cost, more quality-adjusted life years, and fewer adverse late effects, such as infertility, myelodysplasia, and second malignant neoplasms. There are also reasons to expect less cardiac and cognitive dysfunction after pediatric regimens. The improved quality and quantity of life associated with pediatric regimens renders them preferable to hyper-CVAD regimens for the treatment of Philadelphia-negative B-precursor or T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma in young adults.

14.
Blood ; 132(4): 362-368, 2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895667

RESUMO

Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) form a unique group of patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). They differ in terms of disease biology, psychosocial challenges, survival, and in other important respects from children as well as from middle-aged and older adults. AYAs may be treated using pediatric protocols developed in trials composed primarily of younger patients, or using adult protocols developed in trials composed primarily of older patients. After reviewing the distinguishing characteristics of AYAs with AML, we compare and contrast the chemotherapy approaches and argue that neither the pediatric nor adult approaches may be ideally suited for AYAs and the development of AYA-specific approaches merits further consideration. We finish by putting forth ideas for future research to optimize chemotherapy treatment of AYAs with AML.

15.
Cancer Med ; 2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846043

RESUMO

Cisplatin is an essential chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of many pediatric cancers. Unfortunately, cisplatin-induced hearing loss (CIHL) is a common, clinically significant side effect with life-long ramifications, particularly for young children. ACCL05C1 and ACCL0431 are two recently completed Children's Oncology Group studies focused on the measurement and prevention of CIHL. The purpose of this paper was to gain insights from ACCL05C1 and ACCL0431, the first published cooperative group studies dedicated solely to CIHL, to inform the design of future pediatric otoprotection trials. Use of otoprotective agents is an attractive strategy for preventing CIHL, but their successful development must overcome a unique constellation of methodological challenges related to translating preclinical research into clinical trials that are feasible, evaluate practical interventions, and limit risk. Issues particularly important for children include use of appropriate methods for hearing assessment and CIHL severity grading, and use of trial designs that are well-informed by preclinical models and suitable for relatively small sample sizes. Increasing interest has made available new funding opportunities for expanding this urgently needed research.

16.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(5): 725-734, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29450465

RESUMO

Importance: The incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) in adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients (age range, 15-39 years) in the United States is increasing at a greater rate than in younger or older persons. Their optimal treatment has been increasingly debated as pediatric regimens have become more widely used in the age group. This review compares the basic features of pediatric and adult chemotherapy regimens for ALL and LBL, recognizes and describes the challenges of the pediatric regimen, and suggests strategies to facilitate its adoption for AYAs with ALL and LBL. Observations: All but 2 of 25 published comparisons of outcomes with pediatric and adult regimens for ALL and LBL in AYAs and 1 meta-analysis favor the pediatric regimen. After more than a half-century of clinical trials of the pediatric regimens, including at least 160 phase 3 trials in the United States, the pediatric regimens have become far more complex than most adult regimens. Asparaginase, a critical component of the pediatric regimens, is more difficult to administer to AYAs (and older patients) but nonetheless has a favorable benefit to toxicity ratio for AYAs. A dramatic reduction in outcome of ALL and LBL during the AYA years (the "survival cliff") is coincident with similar reductions in proportions of AYAs referred to academic centers and enrolled on clinical trials (the "accrual cliff" and "referral cliff"). Conclusions and Relevance: The accumulating data increasingly support treating AYAs with ALL and LBL with a pediatric-inspired regimen or an approved institutional or national clinical trial tailored for this patient group. A need to develop clinical trials specifically for AYAs and to encourage their participation is paramount, with a goal to improve both the quantity and quality of survival.

17.
Qual Life Res ; 27(2): 291-319, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28879501

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous work in pediatric oncology has found that clinicians and parents tend to under-report the frequency and severity of treatment-related symptoms compared to child self-report. As such, there is a need to identify high-quality self-report instruments to be used in pediatric oncology research studies. This study's objective was to conduct a systematic literature review of existing English language instruments used to measure self-reported symptoms in children and adolescents undergoing cancer treatment. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO to identify relevant articles published through November 10, 2016. Using pre-specified inclusion/exclusion criteria, six trained reviewers carefully screened abstracts and full-text articles for eligibility. RESULTS: There were 7738 non-duplicate articles identified in the literature search. Forty articles met our eligibility criteria, and within these articles, there were 38 self-report English symptom instruments. Most studies evaluated only cross-sectional psychometric properties, such as reliability or validity. Ten studies assessed an instrument's responsiveness or ability to detect changes in symptoms over time. Eight instruments met our criteria for use in future longitudinal pediatric oncology studies. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review aids pediatric oncology researchers in identifying and selecting appropriate symptom measures with strong psychometric evidence for their studies. Enhancing the child's voice in pediatric oncology research studies allows us to better understand the impact of cancer and its treatment on the lives of children.


Assuntos
Oncologia/normas , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Pesquisa Biomédica , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
18.
Support Care Cancer ; 26(4): 1305-1313, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29124416

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) report high unmet information needs. This study examined the prevalence of cancer-related information-seeking among CCS and investigated associations between information-seeking behavior and positive health outcomes such as follow-up care. METHODS: Participants (n = 193) were young adult CCS diagnosed with cancer in Los Angeles County, 54% of Hispanic ethnicity, with a mean age of 19.87, in remission, and at least 2 years from completion of treatment. CCS were asked where they accessed health information related to their cancer with response options categorized into four information domains: hospital resources, social media, other survivors, and family members. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess variables associated with each information domain, including sociodemographics, post-traumatic growth (i.e., reporting positive changes since cancer diagnosis), health care engagement, level of education, and health insurance status. RESULTS: Hospital resources were the most commonly accessed information domain (65.3%), and CCS of Hispanic ethnicity (vs. non-Hispanic) were more likely to access this source. Seeking information from other cancer survivors was positively associated with follow-up care and post-traumatic growth. Hispanic CCS were marginally less likely to seek information from other survivors and family than non-Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: While CCS obtain information from a variety of sources, hospital resources are an important site for access, particularly for individuals of Hispanic ethnicity. Information sharing between survivors may promote positive health care engagement; however, Hispanic CCS may be less likely to utilize this resource and may face barriers in information sharing with other cancer survivors.

19.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 59(1): 138-145, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818609

RESUMO

Obesity as defined by body mass index percentile (BMI%) is strongly associated with relapse and poorer survival in childhood ALL. Whether BMI% accurately reflects body fat percentage (BF%) in this population is unknown. We conducted a prospective study assessing body composition during frontline ALL therapy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured BF% and lean muscle mass (LMM) at diagnosis, end of Induction, and end of Delayed Intensification. Sarcopenic obesity (gain in BF% with loss of LMM) was surprisingly common during ALL treatment, resulting in poor correlation between changes in BMI% (expressed as Z-score) and BF% overall (r = -0.05) and within patients (r = -0.09). BMI Z-score and BF% changed in opposite directions in >50% of interval assessments. While BMI% at diagnosis is a suitable predictor of obesity/BF% for epidemiological studies, change in BMI% (as expressed as Z-score) does not reflect body composition. Studies evaluating obesity in leukemia should consider using direct measures of body composition.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Leucemia/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia/terapia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer ; 124(5): 983-990, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor enrollment of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) (ages 15-39 years) onto cancer clinical trials (CCTs) may contribute to inferior survival gains compared with children. In this study, the authors assessed whether differences in CCT availability would explain lower CCT enrollment for early AYAs (eAYAs) (ages 15-21 years). METHODS: This prospective, observational cohort study was conducted at a single academic children's hospital. For consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with cancer over a 13-month period, it was determined whether an appropriate CCT existed nationally or was available locally and whether enrollment on that CCT occurred. The proportions of eAYAs versus children in each category were compared using the chi-square test. The impact of age and other factors on enrollment status was assessed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 216 patients, 58 were eAYAs, and 158 were children. There was no difference in the proportion of eAYAs versus children who had an existing CCT (28 of 58 eAYAs [48.3%] vs 85 of 158 children [53.8%]; P = .47) or an available CCT (23 of 58 eAYAs [39.7%] vs 75 of 158 children [47.5%]; P = .31). However, significantly fewer eAYAs were enrolled when a CCT was available (7 of 23 eAYAs [30.4%] vs 50 of 75 children [67.7%]; P = .002). In multivariable analysis, eAYAs were significantly less likely than children to be enrolled in an available CCT (adjusted odds ratio, 0.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.62). CONCLUSIONS: Equal proportions of children and eAYAs had CCTs available, but significantly fewer eAYAs were enrolled. These findings suggest that, for eAYAs, factors other than CCT availability are important enrollment barriers and should be addressed. Cancer 2018;124:983-90. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

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