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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802896

RESUMO

Pregnancy-associated cancer-that is diagnosed in pregnancy or within 365 days after delivery-is increasingly common as cancer therapy evolves and survivorship increases. This study assessed the incidence and temporal trends of pregnancy-associated cancer in Alberta and Ontario-together accounting for 50% of Canada's entire population. Linked data from the two provincial cancer registries and health administrative data were used to ascertain new diagnoses of cancer, livebirths, stillbirths and induced abortions among women aged 18-50 years, from 2003 to 2015. The annual crude incidence rate (IR) was calculated as the number of women with a pregnancy-associated cancer per 100,000 deliveries. A nonparametric test for trend assessed for any temporal trends. In Alberta, the crude IR of pregnancy-associated cancer was 156.2 per 100,000 deliveries (95% CI 145.8-166.7), and in Ontario, the IR was 149.4 per 100,000 deliveries (95% CI 143.3-155.4). While no statistically significant temporal trend in the IR of pregnancy-associated cancer was seen in Alberta, there was a rise in Ontario (p = 0.01). Pregnancy-associated cancer is common enough to warrant more detailed research on maternal, pregnancy and child outcomes, especially as cancer therapies continue to evolve.

2.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754246

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The first aim is to examine adherence to a lower versus higher intensity physical activity (PA) prescription in breast cancer survivors in the Breast Cancer & Physical Activity Level (BC-PAL) Trial. The second aim is to assess associations between baseline characteristics with mean PA adherence in both intervention groups combined. METHODS: Forty-five participants were randomized to a 12-week, home-based lower (300 min/week, 40-59% heart rate reserve (HRR)) or higher (150 min/week, 60-80% HRR) intensity PA intervention, or no intervention/control. Both intervention groups received Polar A360® trackers and were included in this analysis (n=30). Study outcomes assessed on a weekly basis with the Polar A360® activity tracker throughout the intervention included relative adherence to the prescribed PA interventions (% of PA prescription goal met), and the absolute amount of PA time ≥40% of HRR. Baseline predictors of adherence included demographic characteristics, cardiorespiratory fitness, habitual PA and sedentary time, quality of life measures, and motivational variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior. For our primary aim, a linear mixed model was used to assess the effects of randomization group, time (intervention weeks 1-12), and the interaction of these factors on the natural logarithm of PA adherence. For our secondary aim, the association between each baseline predictor with the natural logarithm of mean weekly PA adherence was assessed, with randomization group added as a covariate. RESULTS: Higher relative time within the prescribed HRR zone was noted in the lower versus higher intensity PA groups (eß=3.12, 95% CI=1.97, 4.95). No differences in adherence across time were noted. Social support was inversely associated with relative PA time within the prescribed HRR zone (eß=0.83, 95% CI=0.72, 0.97) and absolute PA time ≥40% of HRR (eß= 0.82, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.93). Baseline VO2max was inversely associated with relative PA adherence (eß=0.98, 95% CI=0.95, 0.99). No other baseline measures were associated with PA adherence. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant changes in absolute PA time ≥40% of HRR across time or between groups. However, the lower intensity PA group averaged over 3 times the relative amount of PA within the prescribed HRR zone compared to the higher intensity PA group. Finally, lower peer support and cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline were associated with higher PA adherence. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: The recent rise in popularity of commercially available activity trackers provides new opportunities to promote PA participation remotely, and these devices can be used to continuously and objectively measure PA levels as an indicator of intervention adherence. Future studies are needed to explore baseline predictors, facilitators, and barriers to sustained activity tracker use to promote PA behavior change and intervention adherence in cancer survivors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (No. NCT03564899) on June 21, 2018.

3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e25208, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective and efficient participant recruitment is a key determinant of the success of a research program. Previously reported recruitment strategies have displayed variable success rates in studies on women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and cost per participant of the recruitment strategies that we used in a prospective randomized controlled trial to examine the effects of exercise training among inactive women with PCOS, who are aged 18-40 years. METHODS: The 4 recruitment methods we used were as follows: (1) referral by health care providers or by word of mouth, (2) media (eg, local newspaper stories and radio interviews), (3) Facebook advertisements, and (4) unpaid advertisements including posters and websites. The proportions of potential, eligible, and enrolled participants recruited with each method were determined and compared using tests of proportion. The time investment and cost per participant enrolled were calculated for each recruitment strategy. RESULTS: Of 200 potential participants screened, 98 (49%) were recruited from unpaid advertisements (posters and websites), 70 (35%) from Facebook advertisements, 16 (8%) by referral, and 16 (8%) from traditional media (newspaper and radio). Every potential participant was recruited from separate means (ie, no participant was approached through more than one recruitment method). A total of 109 (54.5%) women were deemed eligible for participation in the trial, and 60 (30.0%) were enrolled. The proportion of potential participants who completed the trial was higher for those recruited from traditional media than from Facebook advertisements (n=7/16, 44% vs n=13/70, 19%, respectively; P=.03) or unpaid advertisements (n=7/16, 44% vs n=13/98, 13%, respectively; P=.002). The cost per participant was Can $18.21 (US $14.46) for Facebook advertisements and Can $43.88 (US $34.85) for unpaid advertisements. There were no direct trial costs for referrals or traditional media. CONCLUSIONS: For this trial, each method was important for recruiting inactive women with PCOS because no participant reported learning about the trial through more than one method. Unpaid advertisements and Facebook advertisements helped recruit the largest number of participants in the trial, the former resulting in a higher cost per participant than the latter. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03362918; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03362918.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779887

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Achieving a higher chemotherapy completion rate is associated with better outcomes in breast cancer patients. We examined the role of exercise and health-related fitness variables in predicting chemotherapy completion in early stage breast cancer patients. METHODS: We pooled data from two large, multicenter, exercise trials that obtained baseline (pre-chemotherapy) measures of exercise and health-related fitness in 543 breast cancer patients initiating adjuvant chemotherapy. Assessments included body composition, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, patient-reported physical functioning, and self-reported exercise behavior. Chemotherapy completion was assessed as the average relative dose intensity (RDI) for the originally planned regimen. We used logistic regression analyses with a two-sided p value of < 0.05 to estimate the associations between the predictors and an RDI of ≥ 85%. RESULTS: Overall, 432 of 543 (79.6%) breast cancer patients received an RDI of ≥ 85%. In logistic regression analyses adjusted for significant covariates, patients in the highest 20% vs. lowest 80% of absolute VO2peak were significantly more likely to complete ≥ 85% RDI (89.0% vs. 77.2%; ORadj 2.06, 95% CI 1.07-3.96, p = 0.031). Moreover, patients in the highest 80% vs. lowest 20% of absolute chest strength were significantly more likely to complete ≥ 85% RDI (81.5% vs. 71.4%; ORadj 1.80, 95% CI 1.09-2.98, p = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: In these exploratory analyses, higher baseline (pre-chemotherapy) cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength were associated with higher rates of chemotherapy completion in early stage breast cancer patients. Aerobic and/or strength training interventions that increase cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength prior to chemotherapy for breast cancer may improve treatment tolerability and outcomes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: START: NCT00115713, June 24, 2005; CARE: NCT00249015, November 7, 2005 ( http://clinicaltrials.gov ).

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have reported associations between weight fluctuations and postmenopausal breast cancer risk, however, the biological markers involved in this association are unknown. This study aimed to explore the associations between breast cancer-related biomarkers and weight regain following exercise-induced weight loss. METHODS: From the 400 participants included in the Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta, a total of 214 lost weight during the intervention and had follow-up blood samples, body composition and covariate measurements. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 12-months (end of the study) and 24-months (follow-up). RESULTS: During follow-up, weight regain was 1.80 kg (95% CI: -0.40, 3.90), and was significantly associated with increases in estradiol (treatment effect ratio (TER) = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.04), estrone (TER = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03), free estradiol (TER = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.05), the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (TER = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.05), insulin (TER = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.04), and decreases in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) (TER= 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97, 0.99) levels. Non-statistically significant associations were found for glucose and CRP. Furthermore, a statistically significant linear trend of increasing levels for all biomarkers, and decreasing SHBG, across weight regain categories was found. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that weight regain following exercise-induced weight loss is associated with breast cancer-related biomarker changes. IMPACT: These findings provide evidence to support the importance of developing effective strategies to prevent weight regain and consequently, decrease postmenopausal breast cancer risk via changes in adiposity-related biomarkers.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e213587, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783516

RESUMO

Importance: Several real-world oncology studies have produced findings that contradict those from randomized clinical trials. Such disparities may be associated with methodological shortcomings. Objective: To examine the association between a shortened duration of adjuvant chemotherapy among individuals with stage III colon cancer using real-world data. Design, Setting, and Participants: This comparative effectiveness study included individuals diagnosed with stage III colon cancer between January 2004 and December 2015 who initiated adjuvant chemotherapy at oncology clinics within the province of Alberta, Canada. Patients were identified through record linkage of various administrative databases and were followed up until September 2017. Eligibility criteria were modeled after those used in the International Duration Evaluation of Adjuvant (IDEA) trial. A target trial emulation and naive observational analysis were conducted. Results from both cohorts were benchmarked against findings from the IDEA trial. Data analysis was conducted from March to December 2020. Exposure: A shortened duration of adjuvant 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin plus oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (CAPOX) chemotherapy, defined as 3 to 5 months of treatment vs 6 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival assessed via vital statistics. The per-protocol hazard ratio (HR) was estimated using a weighted pooled logistic regression model. Subgroup analyses were conducted by treatment regimen (ie, FOLFOX vs CAPOX) and cancer stage (ie, T1-3 and N1 vs T4 or N2). Results: From an initial cohort of 3086 patients, 485 (16%) were eligible for inclusion in the target trial analysis. The median age was 59 years (range, 19-81 years), and 230 (47%) were women. The maximum follow-up was 11.6 years. Median overall survival was not reached. A total of 90 patients (19%) died. The 5-year Kaplan Meier overall survival estimate was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.75-0.84). Estimates from the trial emulation were similar to those from the IDEA trial. For example, a shortened duration of adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with overall survival among patients prescribed CAPOX in the IDEA trial (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.85-1.08) or in the trial emulation (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.43-2.14). In contrast, the naive observational analysis suggested that a shortened duration of CAPOX was significantly associated with worse survival (HR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.04-10.65). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the explicit emulation of a target trial better approximated results from an analogous well-conducted randomized clinical trial.

7.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Exercise may reduce the risk of breast cancer through adiposity changes, but the dose-response effects of exercise volume on adiposity markers are unknown in postmenopausal women. We aimed to compare the dose-response effects of prescribed aerobic exercise volume on adiposity outcomes. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: Data from the Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention (ALPHA) and Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta (BETA) were pooled for this analysis (N = 720). These were 12-month randomized controlled trials, where participants were randomized to 225 min/week (mid-volume) of aerobic exercise versus usual inactive lifestyle (ALPHA), or 150 min/week (low-volume) versus 300 min/week (high-volume) (BETA). Fat mass and fat-free mass were measured using DXA and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat area were assessed with computed tomography. RESULTS: After 12 months of aerobic exercise, increasing exercise volumes from no exercise/control to 300 min/week resulted in statistically significant reductions in BMI, weight, fat mass, fat percentage, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat area (P < 0.001). Compared with controls, fat mass loss was -1.13, -1.98 and -2.09 kg in the low-, mid- and high-volume groups, respectively. Similarly, weight loss was -1.47, -1.83, -2.21 kg in the low-, mid- and high-volume groups, respectively, compared to controls, and intra-abdominal fat area loss was -7.44, -15.56 and -8.76 cm2 in the low-, mid- and high-volume groups, respectively, compared to controls. No evidence for a dose-response effect on fat-free mass was noted. CONCLUSION: A dose-response effect of exercise volume on adiposity markers was noted, however, the differences in adiposity markers were smaller when comparing 225 min/week to 300 min/week of exercise. Given the strong positive associations between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer risk, this study provides evidence on the importance of exercise volume as part of the exercise prescription to reduce adiposity and, ultimately, postmenopausal breast cancer risk.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exercise is recommended for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the most effective exercise prescription is unclear. This trial compared effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), continuous aerobic exercise training (CAET), and no-exercise control on reproductive, anthropometric and cardiometabolic outcomes in PCOS. DESIGN: Pilot randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Previously-inactive women aged 18-40 years with PCOS. MEASUREMENTS: Feasibility outcomes included recruitment, retention, adherence to exercise and daily ovulation prediction kit (OPK) testing. Preliminary efficacy outcomes included reproductive, anthropometric and cardiometabolic health markers. RESULTS: 47 women were randomized to no-exercise control (n=17), HIIT (n=16), or CAET (n=14). Forty (85%) participants completed the trial. Median exercise adherence was 68% (IQR 53%, 86%). Median daily OPK-testing adherence in the first half of the intervention was 87% (IQR 61%, 97%) compared with 65% (IQR 0%, 96%) in the second half. Body mass index decreased significantly in CAET compared with control (-1.0 kg/m2 , p=0.01) and HIIT (-0.9 kg/m2 , p=0.04). Mean waist circumference decreased in all groups (-7.3 cm, -6.9 cm, -4.5 cm in HIIT, CAET and control) with no significant between-group differences. Mean LDL-C was significantly reduced for HIIT compared to CAET (-0.33 mmol/L, p=0.03). HDL-C increased in HIIT compared with control (0.18 mmol/L, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: There were feasibility challenges with adherence daily ovulation assessment limiting the ability to analyze the effect of the exercise interventions on ovulation. CAET and HIIT were both effective at improving anthropometrics and some cardiometabolic health markers. Further studies need to determine optimal and acceptable exercise prescriptions for this population.

9.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(3): 279-290, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394206

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an established cause of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)-basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The aim of this study was to estimate the current burden of BCC and SCC associated with UVR and modifiable UVR behaviours (sunburn, sunbathing, and indoor tanning) in Canada in 2015. METHODS: The current burden of BCC and SCC associated with UVR was estimated by comparing 2015 incidence rates with rates of less exposed body sites (trunk and lower limbs) after adjusting for estimated surface areas. The burden associated with modifiable UVR behaviours was estimated by using prevalence estimates among Caucasians from the Second National Sun Survey, and relative risks that are generalizable to Canadians from conducting meta-analyses of relevant studies. RESULTS: We estimated that 80.5% of BCCs and 83.0% of SCCs were attributable to UVR. Adult sunburn was associated with relative risks of 1.85 (95% CI 1.15-3.00) for BCC and 1.41 (95% CI 0.91-2.18) for SCC, while adult sunbathing was associated with relative risks of 1.82 (95% CI 1.52-2.17) for BCC and 1.14 (95% CI 0.53-2.46) for SCC. We estimated that 18.6% of BCCs and 9.9% of SCCs were attributable to adult sunburn, while 28.1% of BCCs were attributable to adult sunbathing. We estimated that 46.2% of BCCs and 17.3% of SCCs were attributable to modifiable UVR behaviours combined. CONCLUSION: Our results provide quantifiable estimates of the potentially avoidable burden of NMSCs among Canadians. These estimates can be used to motivate prevention efforts in Canada.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Queimadura Solar/complicações , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Banho de Sol
10.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 307-319, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851660

RESUMO

Blood lipids have been associated with the development of a range of cancers, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer. For endometrial cancer, observational studies have reported inconsistent associations between blood lipids and cancer risk. To reduce biases from unmeasured confounding, we performed a bidirectional, two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the relationship between levels of three blood lipids (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and triglycerides) and endometrial cancer risk. Genetic variants associated with each of these blood lipid levels (P < 5 × 10-8 ) were identified as instrumental variables, and assessed using genome-wide association study data from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (12 906 cases and 108 979 controls) and the Global Lipids Genetic Consortium (n = 188 578). Mendelian randomization analyses found genetically raised LDL cholesterol levels to be associated with lower risks of endometrial cancer of all histologies combined, and of endometrioid and non-endometrioid subtypes. Conversely, higher genetically predicted HDL cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. After accounting for the potential confounding role of obesity (as measured by genetic variants associated with body mass index), the association between genetically predicted increased LDL cholesterol levels and lower endometrial cancer risk remained significant, especially for non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. There was no evidence to support a role for triglycerides in endometrial cancer development. Our study supports a role for LDL and HDL cholesterol in the development of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings.

11.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-10, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) released global guidelines on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior, for the first time providing population-based recommendations for people living with selected chronic conditions. This article briefly presents the guidelines, related processes and evidence, and, importantly, considers how they may be used to support research, practice, and policy. METHODS: A brief overview of the scope, agreed methods, selected chronic conditions (adults living with cancer, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and human immunodeficiency virus), and appraisal of systematic review evidence on PA/sedentary behavior is provided. Methods were consistent with World Health Organization protocols for developing guidelines. RESULTS: Moderate to high certainty evidence (varying by chronic condition and outcome examined) supported that PA can reduce the risk of disease progression or premature mortality and improve physical function and quality of life in adults living with chronic conditions. Direct evidence on sedentary behavior was lacking; however, evidence extrapolated from adult populations was considered applicable, safe, and likely beneficial (low certainty due to indirectness). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and public health professionals and policy makers should promote the World Health Organization 2020 global guidelines and develop and implement services and programs to increase PA and limit sedentary behavior in adults living with chronic conditions.

12.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 151, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018, the World Health Organisation (WHO) commenced a program of work to update the 2010 Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, for the first-time providing population-based guidelines on sedentary behaviour. This paper briefly summarizes and highlights the scientific evidence behind the new sedentary behaviour guidelines for all adults and discusses its strengths and limitations, including evidence gaps/research needs and potential implications for public health practice. METHODS: An overview of the scope and methods used to update the evidence is provided, along with quality assessment and grading methods for the eligible new systematic reviews. The literature search update was conducted for WHO by an external team and reviewers used the AMSTAR 2 (Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews) tool for critical appraisal of the systematic reviews under consideration for inclusion. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method was used to rate the certainty (i.e. very low to high) of the evidence. RESULTS: The updated systematic review identified 22 new reviews published from 2017 up to August 2019, 14 of which were incorporated into the final evidence profiles. Overall, there was moderate certainty evidence that higher amounts of sedentary behaviour increase the risk for all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality, as well as incidence of CVD, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. However, evidence was deemed insufficient at present to set quantified (time-based) recommendations for sedentary time. Moderate certainty evidence also showed that associations between sedentary behaviour and all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality vary by level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), which underpinned additional guidance around MVPA in the context of high sedentary time. Finally, there was insufficient or low-certainty systematic review evidence on the type or domain of sedentary behaviour, or the frequency and/or duration of bouts or breaks in sedentary behaviour, to make specific recommendations for the health outcomes examined. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO 2020 guidelines are based on the latest evidence on sedentary behaviour and health, along with interactions between sedentary behaviour and MVPA, and support implementing public health programmes and policies aimed at increasing MVPA and limiting sedentary behaviour. Important evidence gaps and research opportunities are identified.

13.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 143, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In July, 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) commenced work to update the 2010 Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health and established a Guideline Development Group (GDG) comprising expert public health scientists and practitioners to inform the drafting of the 2020 Guidelines on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior. The overall task of the GDG was to review the scientific evidence and provide expert advice to the WHO on the amount of physical activity and sedentary behavior associated with optimal health in children and adolescents, adults, older adults (> 64 years), and also specifically in pregnant and postpartum women and people living with chronic conditions or disabilities. METHODS: The GDG reviewed the available evidence specific to each sub-population using systematic protocols and in doing so, identified a number of gaps in the existing literature. These proposed research gaps were discussed and verified by expert consensus among the entire GDG. RESULTS: Evidence gaps across population sub-groups included a lack of information on: 1) the precise shape of the dose-response curve between physical activity and/or sedentary behavior and several of the health outcomes studied; 2) the health benefits of light-intensity physical activity and of breaking up sedentary time with light-intensity activity; 3) differences in the health effects of different types and domains of physical activity (leisure-time; occupational; transportation; household; education) and of sedentary behavior (occupational; screen time; television viewing); and 4) the joint association between physical activity and sedentary time with health outcomes across the life course. In addition, we acknowledge the need to conduct more population-based studies in low- and middle-income countries and in people living with disabilities and/or chronic disease, and to identify how various sociodemographic factors (age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status) modify the health effects of physical activity, in order to address global health disparities. CONCLUSIONS: Although the 2020 WHO Guidelines for Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior were informed by the most up-to-date research on the health effects of physical activity and sedentary time, there is still substantial work to be done in advancing the global physical activity agenda.

14.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(24): 1451-1462, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe new WHO 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. METHODS: The guidelines were developed in accordance with WHO protocols. An expert Guideline Development Group reviewed evidence to assess associations between physical activity and sedentary behaviour for an agreed set of health outcomes and population groups. The assessment used and systematically updated recent relevant systematic reviews; new primary reviews addressed additional health outcomes or subpopulations. RESULTS: The new guidelines address children, adolescents, adults, older adults and include new specific recommendations for pregnant and postpartum women and people living with chronic conditions or disability. All adults should undertake 150-300 min of moderate-intensity, or 75-150 min of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or some equivalent combination of moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, per week. Among children and adolescents, an average of 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity across the week provides health benefits. The guidelines recommend regular muscle-strengthening activity for all age groups. Additionally, reducing sedentary behaviours is recommended across all age groups and abilities, although evidence was insufficient to quantify a sedentary behaviour threshold. CONCLUSION: These 2020 WHO guidelines update previous WHO recommendations released in 2010. They reaffirm messages that some physical activity is better than none, that more physical activity is better for optimal health outcomes and provide a new recommendation on reducing sedentary behaviours. These guidelines highlight the importance of regularly undertaking both aerobic and muscle strengthening activities and for the first time, there are specific recommendations for specific populations including for pregnant and postpartum women and people living with chronic conditions or disability. These guidelines should be used to inform national health policies aligned with the WHO Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018-2030 and to strengthen surveillance systems that track progress towards national and global targets.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer have identified 16 and 27 risk regions, respectively, four of which overlap between the two cancers. We aimed to identify joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci by performing a meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from these two cancers. METHODS: Using LDScore regression, we explored the genetic correlation between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. To identify loci associated with the risk of both cancers, we implemented a pipeline of statistical genetic analyses (i.e. inverse-variance meta-analysis, co-localization, and M-values), and performed analyses stratified by subtype. Candidate target genes were then prioritized using functional genomic data. RESULTS: Genetic correlation analysis revealed significant genetic correlation between the two cancers (rG = 0.43, P = 2.66 × 10-5). We found seven loci associated with risk for both cancers (PBonferroni < 2.4 × 10-9). In addition, four novel sub-genome wide regions at 7p22.2, 7q22.1, 9p12 and 11q13.3 were identified (P < 5 × 10-7). Promoter-associated HiChIP chromatin loops from immortalized endometrium and ovarian cell lines, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data highlighted candidate target genes for further investigation. CONCLUSION: Using cross-cancer GWAS meta-analysis, we have identified several joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci and candidate target genes for future functional analysis. IMPACT: Our research highlights the shared genetic relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Further studies in larger sample sets are required to confirm our findings.

16.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(34): 4107-4117, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026939

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between pre- and postdiagnosis physical activity and survival in survivors of endometrial cancer by physical activity domain, intensity, dose (metabolic-equivalent task [MET]-hours/week/year), and change from pre- to postdiagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in Alberta, Canada, of 425 women who were diagnosed with histologically confirmed invasive endometrial cancer between 2002 and 2006 and observed to 2019. The interviewer-administered Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire recorded prediagnosis (assessed at a median of 4.4 months after diagnosis) and postdiagnosis physical activity (assessed at a median of 3.4 years after diagnosis). Associations between physical activity and overall and disease-free survival were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, stage, grade, treatments, body mass index, menopausal status, hormone therapy use, family history of cancer, and comorbidities. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 14.5 years, there were 60 deaths, including 18 endometrial cancer deaths, and 80 disease-free survival events. Higher prediagnosis recreational physical activity was statistically significantly associated with improved disease-free survival (> 14 v ≤ 8 MET-hours/week/year; hazard ratio [HR], 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.96; Ptrend = .04), but not overall survival (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.07; Ptrend = .06). Higher postdiagnosis recreational physical activity (> 13 v ≤ 5 MET-hours/week/year) was strongly associated with both improved disease-free survival (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.64; Ptrend = .001) and overall survival (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.75; Ptrend = .007). Participants who maintained high recreational physical activity levels from pre- to postdiagnosis also had improved disease-free survival (HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.69) and overall survival (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.94) compared with those who maintained low physical activity levels. CONCLUSION: Recreational physical activity, especially postdiagnosis, is associated with improved survival in survivors of endometrial cancer.

17.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 4: 972-984, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125264

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a tool that can be used to predict early discontinuation of adjuvant chemotherapy among patients with stage III colon cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Through record linkage of Alberta administrative and tumor registry databases, we identified a cohort of individuals age ≥ 18 years who were diagnosed with stage III colon cancer and who received adjuvant chemotherapy in Alberta between 2004 and 2015. Early discontinuation was defined as receipt of < 5 months of a planned 6-month course of chemotherapy. By a systematic review of the literature and a survey of medical oncologists, the following candidate variables were identified: age (years), number of comorbidities (0, 1, ≥ 2), cancer stage (IIIC v IIIA-B), type of chemotherapy (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin; capecitabine and oxaliplatin; or monotherapy), time from surgery to chemotherapy initiation (weeks), type of treatment facility (academic or community), and distance from home to treatment center (kilometers). Models developed using penalized logistic regression and the random forest algorithm were compared. Model performance was assessed using the C-statistic, Brier score, and a calibration plot. Internal validation was performed using the bootstrap method. RESULTS: From an initial 3,115 patients identified, 1,378 were deemed eligible for inclusion. Of these patients, 474 patients (34.4%) failed to complete at least 5 months of chemotherapy. Although well calibrated, the penalized logistic regression model had poor discrimination (optimism-adjusted C-statistic, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.67). In contrast, the random forest model achieved adequate discrimination (optimism-adjusted C-statistic, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.82). Although the degree of calibration of the random forest was acceptable, it was slightly worse than that of the penalized logistic regression model. CONCLUSION: Internal validation of our random forest model suggests that it may have clinical utility. Additional research regarding its external validation and clinical impact is needed.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

19.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(12): 1057-1068, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959132

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our aim is to examine the associations between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), common biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance, respectively, with breast cancer risk, while adjusting for measures of excess body size. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort (Alberta, Canada) including 197 incident breast cancer cases and 394 matched controls. The sample population included both pre- and postmenopausal women. Serum concentrations of hsCRP and HbA1c were measured from blood samples collected at baseline, along with anthropometric measurements, general health and lifestyle data. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between hsCRP, HbA1c, and breast cancer risk adjusted for excess body size (body fat percentage) and other risk factors for breast cancer. RESULTS: Higher concentrations of hsCRP were associated with elevated breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.27; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.03-1.55). The observed associations were unchanged with adjustment for body fat percentage. Higher HbA1c concentrations were not significantly associated with an increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.22; 95% CI 0.17-8.75). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that hsCRP may be associated with elevated breast cancer risk, independent of excess body size. However, elevated concentrations of HbA1c did not appear to increase breast cancer risk in apparently healthy women.

20.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875536

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Physical activity interventions can improve sleep quality in breast cancer survivors. This paper examines the effects of the ACTIVATE Trial, a wearable-based physical activity intervention (Garmin Vivofit2® coupled with behavioral feedback, goal setting, and health coaching) on sleep outcomes. METHODS: Post-primary treatment, inactive, postmenopausal breast cancer survivors were recruited and randomized to primary intervention or waitlist. Wrist-worn actigraphy (sleep onset latency, SOL; total sleep time, TST; sleep efficiency, SE; wake after sleep onset, WASO; and number of awakenings, NWAKE) and questionnaire-derived sleep measures (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were assessed at baseline (T1), 12 weeks (end of primary intervention and start of waitlist intervention, T2), and at 24 weeks (T3). RESULTS: Eighty-three women (mean age = 62 years) were randomized; trial retention was 94% at T2 and 87% at T3. At T2, primary intervention participants had greater improvements in WASO (- 5.7 min, 95% CI - 11.7 to - 0.2) and NWAKE compared with the waitlist arm (- 2.0, 95% CI - 3.6 to - 0.4). At T3, within-group improvements were observed for SE (both groups), WASO (both groups), NWAKE (primary intervention group only), total PSQI score (primary intervention group), and sleep efficacy (primary intervention group). CONCLUSIONS: The intervention reduced actigraphy-measured sleep disturbances. Within-group analyses suggest that improvements in sleep quality are sustained over a longer duration, and there may be similar benefits from an abridged intervention (wearable device only). Actigraphy-measured effects appeared stronger in participants who were poor sleepers at study entry. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Wearable technology can increase physical activity and improve sleep for breast cancer survivors.

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