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1.
Menopause ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: BRCA-mutation carriers are offered risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) at age 35 to 40 years, leading to major life-quality and health-related issues associated with early menopause. Hormone therapy (HT) may significantly alleviate menopausal symptoms without increasing breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA carriers. We investigated attitudes of Israeli healthcare providers to HT post-RRBSO in BRCA carriers, before and after a brief educational intervention. METHODS: In this pre-post survey of gynecologic departments in Israel, healthcare providers were given questionnaires (based on scores of 1-4) assessing attitudes to prescribing HT in different clinical scenarios, before and after an educational intervention on current knowledge about HT in BRCA-mutation carriers. Higher scores indicated higher tendency to prescribe HT. Mean and median scores were calculated for each scenario, and the association between scores and various healthcare providers' characteristics were assessed. The change in attitude pre versus postintervention was evaluated, and the Cohen's d effect size was calculated. RESULTS: Of the 200 healthcare providers who were offered participation, 162 responded. Of them, 25.3% were obstetricians, 13.6% gynecologists, 5.55% gynecologic-oncologists, 8% medical oncologists, 38.9% obstetrics-gynecology residents, and 8.6% were nurses. Median age was 44 (interquartile range 36-58); 42.6% were males. Higher score correlated weakly with older age, but did not correlate with gender or personal HT/menopause experience. Significantly higher mean and median preintervention scores were obtained by gynecologists (3.2±0.96; 4 [2.25-4]) and gynecologic-oncologists (3.6 ±â€Š0.78; 4 [3.6-4.0]) than by medical oncologists (2.6 ±â€Š1.06; 2.13 [1.88-3.81]), obstetricians (2.7 ±â€Š1.09; 2.25 [1.88-4.0]), residents (2.48 ±â€Š0.99; 2 [1.69-3.56]) or nurses (2.2 ±â€Š0.92; 2 [1.5-2.69]). Overall scores were higher postintervention (P < 0.001, effect size d = 0.901). The change in scores postintervention was most prominent among younger participants and nurses. CONCLUSIONS: In Israel, it is acceptable to offer HT post-RRBSO to healthy BRCA-mutation carriers. Younger healthcare workers and nurses tend to be more hesitant, yet they are more likely to adopt a pro-HT attitude after an educational intervention. Such intervention is likely to improve overall care for BRCA-mutation carriers.

2.
Breast ; 49: 81-86, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Annual MRI screening is associated with a significant reduction in advanced-stage breast cancer diagnosis in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. The impact that early detection has on subsequent oncological treatment is less frequently reported. In this study we compared disease stage and therapeutic approaches in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who developed breast cancer while adhering to the recommended surveillance scheme ("known carriers"), with women who became aware of their BRCA mutation status after breast cancer diagnosis ("latent carriers"). METHODS: Data on tumor characteristics, disease stage, and therapeutic decisions were collected on BRCA1/2 mutation carriers treated for breast cancer at the Chaim Sheba Medical Center. RESULTS: Data were available for 298 BRCA1/2 carriers. Median follow-up was 77.4 months (range, 3.5-520). Age at diagnosis was not statistically different between known carriers (n = 96; median age at diagnosis 44.7 years) and latent carriers (n = 202; 43.7 years); p = 0.8284. Of known carriers, 19.8% were diagnosed with carcinoma in situ vs. 5% of latent carriers (p = 0.0012). Stage T1N0 disease was diagnosed in 54/96 (56.3%) of known carriers vs. 59/202 (29.2%) of latent carriers (p < 0.00001). Neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 46/96 (47.9%) of known carriers compared with 162/202 (80.2%) of latent carriers (p < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS: While early stage breast cancer was diagnosed frequently among known BRCA1/2 carriers under tight surveillance, almost half of these women were treated with chemotherapy. Healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers should be informed about these rates while discussing risk-reducing surgical options.

3.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 178(1): 231-237, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368036

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While the spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1/2 genes in the Israeli Jewish population has been extensively studied, there is a paucity of data pertaining to Israeli Arab high-risk cases. METHODS: Consecutive Israeli Arab breast and/or ovarian cancer patients were recruited using an ethically approved protocol from January 2012 to February 2019. All ovarian cancer cases were referred for BRCA genotyping. Breast cancer patients were offered BRCA sequencing and deletion/duplication analysis after genetic counseling, if the calculated risk for carrying a BRCA mutation by risk prediction algorithms was ≥10%. RESULTS: Overall, 188 patients participated; 150 breast cancer cases (median age at diagnosis: 40 years, range 22-67) and 38 had ovarian cancer (median age at diagnosis: 52.5 years, range 26-79). Of genotyped cases, 18 (10%) carried one of 12 pathogenic or likely-pathogenic variants, 12 in BRCA1, 6 in BRCA2. Only one was a rearrangement. Three variants recurred in more than one case; one was detected in five seemingly unrelated families. The detection rate for all breast cancer cases was 4%, 5% in bilateral breast cancer cases and 3% if breast cancer was diagnosed < 40 years. Of patients with ovarian cancer, 12/38 (32%) were carriers; the detection rate reached 75% (3/4) among patients diagnosed with both breast and ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The overall yield of comprehensive BRCA1/2 testing in high-risk Israeli Arab individuals is low in breast cancer patients, and much higher in ovarian cancer patients. These results may guide optimal cancer susceptibility testing strategy in the Arab-Israeli population.

4.
Mov Disord ; 34(9): 1392-1398, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased cancer risk has been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients carrying the leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) G2019S mutation (LRRK2-PD) in comparison with idiopathic PD (IPD). It is unclear whether the elevated risk would be maintained when compared with unaffected controls. METHODS: Cancer outcomes were compared among 257 LRRK2-PD patients, 712 IPD patients, and 218 controls recruited from 7 LRRK2 consortium centers using mixed-effects logistic regression. Data were then pooled with a previous study to examine cancer risk between 401 LRRK2-PD and 1946 IPD patients. RESULTS: Although cancer prevalence was similar among LRRK2-PD patients (32.3%), IPD patients (27.5%), and controls (27.5%; P = 0.33), LRRK2-PD had increased risks of leukemia (odds ratio [OR] = 4.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-10.61) and skin cancer (OR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.09-2.37). In the pooled analysis, LRRK2-PD patients had also elevated risks of leukemia (OR = 9.84; 95% CI, 2.15-44.94) and colon cancer (OR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.15-4.74) when compared with IPD patients. CONCLUSIONS: The increased risks of leukemia as well as skin and colon cancers among LRRK2-PD patients suggest that LRRK2 mutations heighten risks of certain cancers. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 40(11): e1-e23, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209999

RESUMO

BRCA1 BRCA2 mutational spectrum in the Middle East, North Africa, and Southern Europe is not well characterized. The unique history and cultural practices characterizing these regions, often involving consanguinity and inbreeding, plausibly led to the accumulation of population-specific founder pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs). To determine recurring BRCA PSVs in these locales, a search in PUBMED, EMBASE, BIC, and CIMBA was carried out combined with outreach to researchers from the relevant countries for unpublished data. We identified 232 PSVs in BRCA1 and 239 in BRCA2 in 25 of 33 countries surveyed. Common PSVs that were detected in four or more countries were c.5266dup (p.Gln1756Profs), c.181T>G (p.Cys61Gly), c.68_69del (p.Glu23Valfs), c.5030_5033del (p.Thr1677Ilefs), c.4327C>T (p.Arg1443Ter), c.5251C>T (p.Arg1751Ter), c.1016dup (p.Val340Glyfs), c.3700_3704del (p.Val1234Glnfs), c.4065_4068del (p.Asn1355Lysfs), c.1504_1508del (p.Leu502Alafs), c.843_846del (p.Ser282Tyrfs), c.798_799del (p.Ser267Lysfs), and c.3607C>T (p.Arg1203Ter) in BRCA1 and c.2808_2811del (p.Ala938Profs), c.5722_5723del (p.Leu1908Argfs), c.9097dup (p.Thr3033Asnfs), c.1310_1313del (p. p.Lys437Ilefs), and c.5946del (p.Ser1982Argfs) for BRCA2. Notably, some mutations (e.g., p.Asn257Lysfs (c.771_775del)) were observed in unrelated populations. Thus, seemingly genotyping recurring BRCA PSVs in specific populations may provide first pass BRCA genotyping platform.

6.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 176(1): 165-170, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies assessing the contribution of non-BRCA1/2 gene mutations to inherited breast cancer (BC) predisposition consistently reported low (up to 4%) yield. The current study aimed at assessing the spectrum of non-BRCA mutations in unselected Israeli BC cases and the utility of BRCAPRO and Penn II models, as tools for prediction of detecting non-BRCA1/2 mutations in Israeli BC patients who tested negative for the predominant Jewish BRCA1/2 mutations. METHODS: All consecutive Jewish Israeli BC patients at the Sheba Medical center who tested negative for the predominant BRCA1/2 mutations and elected to perform multigene panel testing were included. For each patient probability of BRCA mutation detection was calculated by the Penn II algorithm and the BRCAPRO tool. RESULTS: Overall, 144 cases were included (median age at diagnosis was 48, range 20-73 years); 48% were Ashkenazim. One patient harbored a non-founder BRCA1 mutation (c.5434C>G; p.P1812A). Pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) mutations in non-BRCA1/2 genes were detected in additional 14/144 patients, including CHEK2 (n = 5), RAD51D (n = 2), MSH6 (n = 2), and one each in ATM, RET, TP53, NBN, and BAP1. Using a cutoff of 15% probability of BRCA mutation detection, both models accurately predicted the observed carrier rate of non-BRCA mutations. CONCLUSIONS: In unselected Jewish Israeli BC patients, the rate of detecting non-founder BRCA1/2 mutations is low, with CHEK2 mutations detected in 3.4% of cases. BRCA1/2 mutation prediction models may be utilized for selecting patients eligible for further multigene panel testing after exclusion of predominant BRCA1/2 mutations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Testes Genéticos , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
8.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 18(5): 865-875, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760538

RESUMO

High-grade ovarian cancer (HGOC) is the leading cause of mortality from gynecological malignancies, because of diagnosis at a metastatic stage. Current screening options fail to improve mortality because of the absence of early-stage-specific biomarkers. We postulated that a liquid biopsy, such as utero-tubal lavage (UtL), may identify localized lesions better than systemic approaches of serum/plasma analysis. Further, while mutation-based assays are challenged by the rarity of tumor DNA within nonmutated DNA, analyzing the proteomic profile, is expected to enable earlier detection, as it reveals perturbations in both the tumor as well as in its microenvironment. To attain deep proteomic coverage and overcome the high dynamic range of this body fluid, we applied our method for microvesicle proteomics to the UtL samples. Liquid biopsies from HGOC patients (n = 49) and controls (n = 127) were divided into a discovery and validation sets. Data-dependent analysis of the samples on the Q-Exactive mass spectrometer provided depth of 8578 UtL proteins in total, and on average ∼3000 proteins per sample. We used support vector machine algorithms for sample classification, and crossed three feature-selection algorithms, to construct and validate a 9-protein classifier with 70% sensitivity and 76.2% specificity. The signature correctly identified all Stage I lesions. These results demonstrate the potential power of microvesicle-based proteomic biomarkers for early cancer diagnosis.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether breast cancer (BC) should be considered within the spectrum of tumors in Lynch syndrome (LS) is unsettled. Recently, MSH6 and PMS2 germline mutations have reportedly been associated with an increased BC risk and with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) phenotype. We assessed the rates of the recurring Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) mutations in the MSH6 gene (c.3984_3987dupGTCA and c.3959_3962delCAAG) in AJ cases with seemingly sporadic BC or HBOC phenotype, who were negative for the founder AJ BRCA1/2 mutations. METHODS: All AJ individuals, affected with BC ≤ 70 years and/or ovarian cancer at any age who were counseled, genotyped and tested negative for the BRCA1/2 founder mutations between January 2010 and February 2018 at the Oncogenetics unit, Sheba Medical Center, were genotyped for the AJ mutations in MSH6. RESULTS: Of 1016 genotyped participants (815 BC cases, 132 ovarian cancer cases, and 69 with more than one cancer), five carriers (0.49%) of the recurring AJ mutations in MSH6 were identified. All had BC, and two had personal history of additional cancers (pancreatic, endometrial, colorectal). The rate of MSH6 mutations was 0.93% (4/429) when considering only cases with a personal or first-degree relative with LS-related cancer, and 0.17% (1/587) of cases with second-degree relative or no family history of LS-related cancers (p = 0.087). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest the spectrum of genotyped mutations in AJ BC patients with a personal or family history of LS-related cancers should be expanded. These data should be validated in other populations with a similar phenotype.

10.
Melanoma Res ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480620

RESUMO

Uveal melanoma is a rare form of melanoma and the most frequent primary eye malignancy in adults. The major molecular alterations underlying uveal melanoma pathogenesis affect mainly the GNAQ, GNA11, SF3B1, and BAP1 genes. In this study, we somatically genotyped 31 Brazilian uveal melanomas for BRAF, GNA11, GNAQ, SF3B1, and BAP1 gene mutations and assessed BRCA2 and p53 protein expression. GNAQ and GNA11 mutations were detected in 60%, and SF3B1 mutation rate was 30%. p53 Immunostaining was markedly positive in 5/31, and 3/31 samples showed negative BRCA2 expression. This study supports the importance of these key genes in uveal melanoma tumorigenesis; p53 and BRCA pathways seem to play a role in a subset of patients, possibly heralding unfavorable prognosis.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(11)2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428567

RESUMO

The serotonin 4 receptor, 5-HT4R, represents one of seven different serotonin receptor families and is implicated in a variety of physiological functions and their pathophysiological variants, such as mood and depression or anxiety, food intake and obesity or anorexia, or memory and memory loss in Alzheimer's disease. Its central nervous system expression pattern in the forebrain, in particular in caudate putamen, the hippocampus and to lesser extent in the cortex, predispose it for a role in executive function and reward-related actions. In rodents, regional overexpression or knockdown in the prefrontal cortex or the nucleus accumbens of 5-HT4R was shown to impact mood and depression-like phenotypes, food intake and hypophagia; however, whether expression changes are causally involved in the etiology of such disorders is not clear. In this context, more data are emerging, especially based on PET technology and the use of ligand tracers that demonstrate altered 5-HT4R expression in brain disorders in humans, confirming data stemming from post-mortem tissue and preclinical animal models. In this review, we would like to present the current knowledge of 5-HT4R expression in brain regions relevant to mood/depression, reward and executive function with a focus on 5-HT4R expression changes in brain disorders or caused by drug treatment, at both the transcript and protein levels.

12.
Cancer ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers have an increased risk of developing ovarian cancer, leading to the recommendation of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) at 35-40 years of age. The role, if any, that BRCA mutations play in conferring uterine cancer risk, is unresolved. METHOD: Jewish Israeli women, carriers of one of the predominant Jewish mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2 from 1998 to 2016, were recruited. Cancer diagnoses were determined through the Israeli National Cancer Registry. Uterine cancer risk was assessed by computing the standardized incidence ratio of observed-to-expected number of cases, using the exact 2-sided P value of Poisson count. RESULTS: Overall, 2627 eligible mutation carriers were recruited from 1998 to 2016, 2312 (88%) of whom were Ashkenazi Jews (1463 BRCA1, 1154 BRCA2 mutation carriers, 10 double mutation carriers). Among these participants, 1310 underwent RRSO without hysterectomy at a mean (± standard deviation) age of 43.6 years (± 4.4 years). During 32,774 women-years of follow up, 14 women developed uterine cancer, and the observed-to-expected rate of all histological subtypes was 3.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17-6.67; P < .001). For serous papillary (n = 5), the observed-to-expected ratio was 14.29 (95% CI, 4.64-33.34; P < .001), and for sarcoma (n = 4) it was 37.74 (95% CI, 10.28-96.62). These rates were also higher than those detected in a group of 1844 age- and ethnicity-matched women (53% with breast cancer). CONCLUSION: Israeli BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers are at an increased risk for developing uterine cancer, especially serous papillary and sarcoma. These elevated risks of uterine cancer should be discussed with BRCA carriers.

13.
In Vivo ; 32(6): 1527-1531, 2018 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ethnicity has an effect on survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which may be reflected in the rate of somatic driver mutations. The Brazilian population represents au extensive interethnic admixture and little is known about the spectrum and rates of somatic driver mutations in Brazilian PDAC cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Direct sequencing of six genes in 23 PDAC cases was performed and the ancestry of patients was determined using a validated panel of ancestry-informative insertion/deletion DNA polymorphisms. RESULTS: KRAS proto-oncogene (KRAS) was the most commonly mutated gene (60%). A novel putatively pathogenic mutation in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) (c.2948T>A; p.M983K) was identified. Mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (4%), PIK3CA (4%), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) (4%) and TP53 (8%) were noted, in rates that are less frequent than those reported for other populations. Mutations of B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) were not present. All individuals with high African ancestral component (allelic frequency, >0.45) exhibited KRAS mutations. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the importance of the effect of ethnicity on somatic mutations in Brazilian patients with PDAC.

14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312457

RESUMO

Background: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear. Methods: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Conclusion: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.

15.
J Neurosci ; 38(38): 8200-8210, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093565

RESUMO

The serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor is a key regulator of serotonergic activity and is implicated in mood and emotion. However, its post-transcriptional regulation has never been studied in humans. In the present study, we show that the "intronless" human 5-HT1A gene (HTR1A) is alternatively spliced in its 3'-UTR, yielding two novel splice variants. These variants lack a ∼1.6 kb intron, which contains an microRNA-135 (miR135) target site. Unlike the human HTR1A, the mouse HTR1A lacks the splice donor/accepter sites. Thus, in the mouse HTR1A, splicing was not detected. The two spliced mRNAs are extremely stable, are resistant to miR135-induced downregulation, and have greater translational output than the unspliced variant. Moreover, alternative HTR1A RNA splicing is oppositely regulated by the splice factors PTBP1 and nSR100, which inhibit or enhance its splicing, respectively. In postmortem human brain tissue from both sexes, HTR1A mRNA splicing was prevalent and region-specific. Unspliced HTR1A was expressed more strongly in the hippocampus and midbrain versus the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and correlated with reduced levels of nSR100. Importantly, HTR1A RNA splicing and nSR100 levels were reduced in the PFC of individuals with major depression compared with controls. Our unexpected findings uncover a novel mechanism to regulate HTR1A gene expression through alternative splicing of microRNA sites. Altered levels of splice factors could contribute to changes in regional and depression-related gene expression through alternative splicing.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alternative splicing, which is prevalent in brain tissue, increases gene diversity. The serotonin-1A receptor gene (HTR1A) is a regulator of serotonin, which is implicated in mood and emotion. Here we show that human HTR1A RNA is alternately spliced. Splicing removes a microRNA site to generate ultrastable RNA and increase HTR1A expression. This splicing varies in different brain regions and is reduced in major depression. We also identify specific splice factors for HTR1A RNA, showing they are also reduced in depression. Thus, we describe a novel mechanism to regulate gene expression through splicing. Altered levels of splice factors could contribute to depression by changing gene expression.

16.
Anticancer Res ; 38(8): 4557-4563, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Several algorithms have been developed to assess the risk of predicting BRCA mutation and breast cancer (BC) risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of these prediction algorithms in the Israeli population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Risk for developing breast cancer and the probability for carrying BRCA1/2 mutations using BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, IBIS, MYRIAD and PENN2 models were computed for individuals counseled and genotyped at the Oncogenetics unit in 2000 and 2005. The predicted mutation carriers and BC risks were compared with actual carrier rates by genotyping and BC diagnoses derived from the Israeli National Cancer Registry database. RESULTS: Overall, 65/648 (10%) study participants were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Of 373 cancer-free participants at counseling, 25 had breast cancer by 2016. BOADICEA and BRCAPRO performed best for predicting BRCA mutation (AUC=0.741, 0.738, respectively). No model was clinically useful in predicting breast cancer risk. CONCLUSION: BOADICEA and BRCAPRO outperformed the other tested algorithms in BRCA mutation prediction in Israeli women, but none was valuable in breast cancer risk prediction.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 56: 6-13, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between cellphone technology and brain, central nervous system (CNS) and intracranial tumors is unclear. Analysis of trends in incidence of such tumors for periods during which cellphone use increased dramatically may add relevant information. Herein we describe secular trends in the incidence of primary tumors of the brain and CNS from 1990 to 2015 in Israel, a period during which cellphone technology became extremely prevalent in Israel. METHODS: All cases of primary brain, CNS and intracranial tumors (excluding lymphomas) diagnosed in Israel from 1990 to 2015 were identified in the Israel National Cancer Registry database and categorized by behavior (malignant; benign/uncertain behavior) and histologic type. Annual age-standardized incidence rates by sex and population group (Jews; Arabs) were computed, and the annual percent changes and 95% confidence intervals per category were calculated using Joinpoint software. RESULTS: Over 26 years (1990-2015) no significant changes in the incidence of malignant brain, CNS and intracranial tumors were observed, except for an increase in malignant glioma incidence in Jewish women up to 2008 and Arab men up to 2001, which levelled off in both subgroups thereafter. The incidence of benign/uncertain behavior brain, CNS and intracranial tumors increased in most population groups up to the mid-2000s, a trend mostly driven by changes in the incidence of meningioma, but either significantly decreased (Jews) or stabilized (Arabs) thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are not consistent with a discernable effect of cellphone use patterns in Israel on incidence trends of brain, CNS and intracranial tumors.

18.
Cancer Res ; 78(18): 5419-5430, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054336

RESUMO

Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 35 loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. The majority of GWAS-identified disease susceptibility variants are located in noncoding regions, and causal genes underlying these associations remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel genetic loci and plausible causal genes at known GWAS loci. We used RNA sequencing data (68 normal ovarian tissue samples from 68 individuals and 6,124 cross-tissue samples from 369 individuals) and high-density genotyping data from European descendants of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx V6) project to build ovarian and cross-tissue models of genetically regulated expression using elastic net methods. We evaluated 17,121 genes for their cis-predicted gene expression in relation to EOC risk using summary statistics data from GWAS of 97,898 women, including 29,396 EOC cases. With a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P < 2.2 × 10-6, we identified 35 genes, including FZD4 at 11q14.2 (Z = 5.08, P = 3.83 × 10-7, the cross-tissue model; 1 Mb away from any GWAS-identified EOC risk variant), a potential novel locus for EOC risk. All other 34 significantly associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci, including 23 genes at 6 loci not previously linked to EOC risk. Upon conditioning on nearby known EOC GWAS-identified variants, the associations for 31 genes disappeared and three genes remained (P < 1.47 × 10-3). These data identify one novel locus (FZD4) and 34 genes at 13 known EOC risk loci associated with EOC risk, providing new insights into EOC carcinogenesis.Significance: Transcriptomic analysis of a large cohort confirms earlier GWAS loci and reveals FZD4 as a novel locus associated with EOC risk. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5419-30. ©2018 AACR.

19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 172(1): 151-157, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014164

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRCA1 and BRCA2 genotyping results have clinical implications for cancer risk assessment and targeted therapy. Current practice in Israel is to genotype for the predominant BRCA1/2 mutations first, followed by full gene analysis in eligible mutation-negative individuals. This work assessed the rate of non-predominant mutations in BRCA1/2 in ethnically diverse high-risk cases. METHODS: Breast and/or ovarian cancer patients who tested negative for the predominant BRCA1/2 mutations were referred for comprehensive BRCA1/2 genotyping if calculated risk for carrying a BRCA mutation was ≥ 10%. RESULTS: Of 1258 eligible patients, 41 (3.3%) carried one of 38 mutations: 3% of Ashkenazi Jews and 3.4% of mixed ethnicities. Detection rate was < 5% among patients diagnosed with cancer younger than 40 or with bilateral breast cancer, and was 5.5% of ovarian cancer patients. Three of the carriers (7.3%) carried gene rearrangements. Three mutations were reported in more than one case. CONCLUSIONS: The overall yield of comprehensive BRCA1/2 testing in ethnically diverse high-risk Israeli individuals is 3.3%. This is lower than expected by probability models. A slightly higher rate of BRCA1/2 carriers was seen among ovarian cancer cases. These data should guide BRCA1/2 optimal testing strategy in Israel.

20.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 8(3): 399-403, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966207

RESUMO

Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS)/PARK9 presents with autosomal recessive young onset Parkinson's disease (YOPD), spastic paraparesis, abnormal eye movements and facial myokymia. KRS is caused by homozygous/compound heterozygous inactivating mutations in ATP13A2. Two affected siblings (born to non-consanguineous Jewish parents) presenting a similar KRS phenotype (onset age 27, 23), carried compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in ATP13A2: c.217_218insG and c.3057delC. Allele frequency of the c.3057delC mutation was about 100 times higher in Ashkenazi controls in our study (1/190 = 0.00526) and in the Genome Aggregation Database, (GnomAD, 27/10132 = 0.002665) versus non-Ashkenazi controls worldwide in GnomAD (9/264566 = 0.000034018, p < 0.0001). The c.217_218insG mutation is novel and not found in controls or GnomAD. The c.3057delC mutation should be included in the genetic workup of Ashkenazi YOPD patients.

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