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1.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvement in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with better health behavior such as better medication adherence and greater use of nutrition and weight loss programs. However, it is not known if reducing PTSD severity is associated with smoking cessation, a poor health behavior common in patients with PTSD. METHODS: Veterans Health Affairs (VHA) medical record data (2008 to 2015) were used to identify patients with PTSD diagnosed in specialty care. Clinically meaningful PTSD improvement, was defined as ≥20 point PTSD Checklist (PCL) decrease from the first PCL ≥ 50 and the last available PCL within 12 months and at least 8 weeks later. The association between clinically meaningful PTSD improvement and smoking cessation within 2-years after baseline among 449 smokers was estimated in Cox proportional hazard models. Entropy balancing controlled for confounding. RESULTS: On average, patients were 39.4 (SD=12.9) years of age, 86.6% were male and 71.5% were white. We observed clinically meaningful PTSD improvement in 19.8% of participants. Overall, 19.4% quit smoking in year 1 and 16.6% in year 2. More patients with vs. without clinically meaningful PTSD improvement stopped smoking (n=36, cumulative incidence=40.5% vs. 111, cumulative incidence=30.8%; respectively). After controlling for confounding, patients with vs. without clinically meaningful PTSD improvement were more likely to stop smoking within 2-years (HR=1.57; 95%CI:1.04-2.36). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with clinically meaningful PTSD improvement were significantly more likely to stop smoking. Further research should determine if targeted interventions are needed or whether improvement in PTSD symptoms is sufficient to enable smoking cessation. IMPLICATIONS: Patients with PTSD are more likely to develop chronic health conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. Poor health behaviors, including smoking, partly explain the risk for chronic disease in this patient population. Our results demonstrate that clinically meaningful PTSD improvement is followed by greater likelihood of smoking cessation. Thus, PTSD treatment may enable healthier behaviors and reduce risk for smoking related disease.

2.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips202000297, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Violence by patients against inpatient psychiatric unit staff is common, causing considerable suffering. Despite the Joint Commission's 2018 requirement for behavioral health organizations to use standardized instruments, no identified gold standard measures of violence and aggression exist. Therefore, accurate data are lacking on the frequency of patient-to-staff violence to guide development of safer institutional clinical policies or to assess the impact of targeted interventions to reduce violence. To inform recommendations for developing standardized scales, the authors reviewed the scoring instruments most commonly used to measure violence in recent studies. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search for violence measurement instruments in articles published in English from June 2008 to June 2018 was performed. Review criteria included use of instruments measuring patient-to-staff violence or aggression in acute, nonforensic, nongeriatric populations. Exclusion criteria included child or adolescent populations, staff-to-staff violence, and staff- or visitor-to-patient violence. RESULTS: Overall, 74 studies were identified, of which 74% used structured instruments to measure aggression and violence on inpatient psychiatric units during the past 10 years. The instruments were primarily variants of the Observed Aggression Scale (OAS); 26% of the studies used unstructured clinical notes and researcher questionnaires. Major obstacles to implementing measurement instruments included time and workflow constraints and difficulties with use. CONCLUSIONS: In the past 10 years, OAS variants with evidence of validity and reliability that define aggression and violence have been consistently used. The authors propose that adapting the Modified OAS to collect real-time clinical data could help overcome barriers to implementing standardized instruments to quantify violence against psychiatric staff.

3.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(9): 882-885, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a globally significant crisis with a rapid spread worldwide, high rates of illness and mortality, a high degree of uncertainty, and a disruption of daily life across the sociodemographic spectrum. The clinically relevant psychological consequences of this catastrophe will be long-lasting and far-reaching. There is an emerging body of empirical literature related to the mental health aspects of this pandemic and this body will likely expand exponentially. The COVID-19 pandemic is an example of a historic catastrophe from which we can learn much and from which the field will need to archive, interpret, and synthesize a multitude of clinical and research observations. METHODS: In this commentary, we discuss situations and contexts in which a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may or may not apply within the context of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria. RESULTS: Our consensus is that a COVID-related event cannot be considered traumatic unless key aspects of DSM-5's PTSD Criterion A have been established for a specific type of COVID-19 event (e.g., acute, life-threatening, and catastrophic). CONCLUSION: The application of a more liberal interpretation of Criterion A will dilute the PTSD diagnosis, increase heterogeneity, confound case-control research, and create an overall sample pool with varying degrees of risk and vulnerability factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
5.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 218: 108365, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials reveal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) improvement leads to decreased substance use among patients with comorbid substance use disorder (SUD). Using administrative medical record data, we determined whether clinically meaningful PTSD Checklist (PCL) (≥20 points) score decreases were positively associated with SUD treatment utilization. METHODS: We used a retrospective cohort of Veterans Health Affairs (VHA) medical record data (2008-2015). PTSD Checklist (PCL) scores were used to categorize patients into those with a clinically meaningful PTSD improvement (≥20 point decrease) or not (<20 point decrease or increase). PTSD and SUD were measured by ICD-9 codes. Propensity score weighting controlled for confounding in logistic and negative binomial models that estimated the association between clinically meaningful PTSD improvement and use of SUD treatment and number of SUD clinic visits. RESULTS: The 699 eligible patients were, on average, 40.4 (±13.2) years old, 66.2% white and 33.1% were married. After controlling for confounding, there was a 56% increased odds of any SUD treatment utilization among those with a PCL decrease ≥20 vs < 20 (OR = 1.56; 95%CI = 1.04-2.33) but there was no association with number of SUD treatment visits. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically meaningful reductions in PTSD symptoms were associated with any SUD treatment utilization but not amount of utilization. Improvement in PTSD symptoms, independent of the treatment modality, may enable SUD treatment seeking.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Lista de Checagem , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(1): 24-33, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349712

RESUMO

Despite extensive study of the neurobiological correlates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known about its molecular determinants. Here, differential gene expression and network analyses of four prefrontal cortex subregions from postmortem tissue of people with PTSD demonstrate extensive remodeling of the transcriptomic landscape. A highly connected downregulated set of interneuron transcripts is present in the most significant gene network associated with PTSD. Integration of this dataset with genotype data from the largest PTSD genome-wide association study identified the interneuron synaptic gene ELFN1 as conferring significant genetic liability for PTSD. We also identified marked transcriptomic sexual dimorphism that could contribute to higher rates of PTSD in women. Comparison with a matched major depressive disorder cohort revealed significant divergence between the molecular profiles of individuals with PTSD and major depressive disorder despite their high comorbidity. Our analysis provides convergent systems-level evidence of genomic networks within the prefrontal cortex that contribute to the pathophysiology of PTSD in humans.


Assuntos
Química Encefálica/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Autopsia , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2360, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398677

RESUMO

Despite well-known peripheral immune activation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there are no studies of brain immunologic regulation in individuals with PTSD. [11C]PBR28 Positron Emission Tomography brain imaging of the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a microglial biomarker, was conducted in 23 individuals with PTSD and 26 healthy individuals-with or without trauma exposure. Prefrontal-limbic TSPO availability in the PTSD group was negatively associated with PTSD symptom severity and was significantly lower than in controls. Higher C-reactive protein levels were also associated with lower prefrontal-limbic TSPO availability and PTSD severity. An independent postmortem study found no differential gene expression in 22 PTSD vs. 22 controls, but showed lower relative expression of TSPO and microglia-associated genes TNFRSF14 and TSPOAP1 in a female PTSD subgroup. These findings suggest that peripheral immune activation in PTSD is associated with deficient brain microglial activation, challenging prevailing hypotheses positing neuroimmune activation as central to stress-related pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/imunologia , Microglia/imunologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/imunologia , Acetamidas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Microglia/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Receptores de GABA/imunologia , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo , Membro 14 de Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/patologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Psychosom Res ; 134: 110128, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Whether clinically meaningful PTSD improvement is associated with lowering CVD risk is unknown. METHODS: Eligible patients (n = 1079), were 30-70 years old, diagnosed with PTSD and used Veterans Health Affairs PTSD specialty clinics. Patients had a PTSD Checklist score (PCL) ≥ 50 between Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 and FY2012 and a second PCL score within 12 months and at least 8 weeks after the first PCL ≥ 50. Clinically meaningful PTSD improvement was defined by ≥20 point PCL decrease between the first and second PCL score. Patients were free of CVD diagnoses for 1 year prior to index. Index date was 12 months following the first PCL. Follow-up continued to FY2015. Cox proportional hazard models estimated the association between clinically meaningful PTSD improvement and incident CVD and incident ischemic heart disease (IHD). Sensitivity analysis stratified by age group (30-49 vs. 50-70 years) and depression. Confounding was controlled using propensity scores and inverse probability of exposure weighting. RESULTS: Patients were 48.9 ± 10.9 years of age on average, 83.3% male, 60.1% white, and 29.5% black. After controlling for confounding, patients with vs. without PTSD improvement did not differ in CVD risk (HR = 1.08; 95%CI: 0.72-1.63). Results did not change after stratifying by age group or depression status. Results were similar for incident IHD. CONCLUSIONS: Over a 2-7 year follow-up, we did not find an association between clinically meaningful PTSD improvement and incident CVD. Additional research is needed using longer follow-up.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Lista de Checagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico
9.
Health Psychol ; 39(5): 403-412, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. Clinically meaningful PTSD improvement is associated with a lower risk for diabetes, but it is not known if similar associations exist for incident hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and clinically relevant weight loss (i.e., ≥5% loss). METHOD: Medical record data from Veterans Health Affairs patients with clinic encounters between fiscal year (FY) 2008 to 2015 were used to identify patients with worsening or no PTSD improvement (i.e., PTSD checklist (PCL) score decrease <10), small (10-19 point PCL decrease), and large (≥20 point PCL decrease) PTSD improvement. To estimate the association between degree of PTSD improvement and incident hypertension (n = 979), incident hyperlipidemia (n = 1,139) and incident ≥5% weight loss (1,330), we computed Cox proportional hazard models, controlling for confounding using inverse probability of exposure weighting (IPEW). RESULTS: Overall, patients were about 40 years of age, 80% male and 65% White. Worsening or no PCL change occurred in about 60%, small improvement in 20%, and large improvement in 20%. After weighting data, compared with worsening or no change, both small and large PTSD improvements were associated, albeit not significantly, with lower risks for hypertension (HR = 0.68; 95% confidence interval, CI [0.46, 1.01] and HR = 0.79; 95% CI [0.53, 1.18], respectively). In weighted data, PTSD improvement was not associated with incident hyperlipidemia or ≥5% weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: We observed limited evidence for an association between PTSD improvement and decreased hypertension risk. PCL decreases were not associated with hyperlipidemia or ≥5% weight loss. Further studies that measure potential physical health benefits of change in specific PTSD symptoms are needed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 119-123, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with vs. without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more likely to have poor antidepressant medication (ADM) adherence but it is unclear if improved PTSD is associated with ADM adherence. We determined if clinically meaningful PTSD symptom reduction was associated with ADM adherence. METHODS: Electronic health record data (2008-2015) was obtained from 742 Veterans Health Affairs (VHA) patients using PTSD specialty clinics with a PTSD diagnosis and PTSD checklist (PCL) score ≥50. The last PCL in the exposure year after the first PCL≥50 was used to identify patients with a clinically meaningful PCL decrease (≥20 point) versus those without (< 20 point). Patients had a depression diagnosis in the 12-months before the exposure year and received an ADM in the exposure year. Proportion of days covered ≥80% in exposure year defined adherence. Confounding was controlled using propensity scores and inverse probability of treatment weighting. RESULTS: Patients were 42.2 ±â€¯13.1 years of age, 63.9% white and 18.9% had a clinically meaningful PCL decrease. After controlling for confounding variables, patients with vs. without a clinically meaningful PCL decrease were significantly more likely to be adherent (OR = 1.78; 95% CI:1.16-2.73). However, adherence remained low in both patients with and without meaningful PCL decrease (53.5% vs. 39.3%). LIMITATIONS: The sample was limited to VHA patients. Patients may not have taken medication as prescribed. CONCLUSIONS: Large reductions in PTSD symptoms are associated with ADM adherence. Prior literature suggests ADM adherence improves depression symptoms. Thus, PTSD symptom reduction may lead to better depression outcomes.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
11.
J Psychosom Res ; 127: 109849, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with poor health behaviors, including low utilization of Veteran Health Affairs (VHA) weight loss programs. It is not known if clinically meaningful PTSD improvement is associated with increased use of weight loss programs. METHODS: Medical record data was obtained from VHA patients who received PTSD specialty care between Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 to FY2012. Clinically meaningful PTSD improvement was defined as ≥20 point PTSD Checklist (PCL) decrease between the first PCL ≥ 50 and a second PCL at least 8 weeks later and within 12 months of the first PCL. Eligible patients, n = 993, were followed through FY2015. Propensity scores and inverse probability of exposure weighting controlled confounding. Cox proportional hazard models estimated the association between clinically meaningful PCL decrease and weight loss clinic utilization. Supplemental analysis compared both PTSD groups vs. no PTSD. RESULTS: Patients were 44.8 (SD ±14) years of age, 88.9% male and 66.8% white. Patients with vs. without a clinically meaningful PCL decrease were more likely to use a weight loss clinic (HR = 1.37; 95%CI:1.02-1.85). Among those with a weight loss encounter, PCL decrease was not associated with the number of encounters (RR = 1.13; 95%CI:0.70-1.81). Compared to no PTSD, patients with PTSD improvement had more weight loss encounters. CONCLUSIONS: Large improvements in PTSD are associated with increased utilization of weight loss programs, and PTSD is not a barrier to seeking weight loss counseling. Research to understand why improvement in PTSD is not related to better weight loss outcomes is needed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 76(11): 1159-1166, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433443

RESUMO

Importance: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Improvement in PTSD has been associated with improved self-reported physical health and hypertension; however, there is no literature, to our knowledge, on whether PTSD improvement is associated with T2D risk. Objective: To examine whether clinically meaningful PTSD symptom reduction is associated with lower risk of T2D. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study examined Veterans Health Affairs medical record data from 5916 patients who received PTSD specialty care between fiscal years 2008 and 2012 and were followed up through fiscal year 2015. Eligible patients had 1 or more PTSD Checklist (PCL) scores of 50 or higher between fiscal years 2008 and 2012 and a second PCL score within the following 12 months and at least 8 weeks after the first PCL score of 50 or higher. The index date was 12 months after the first PCL score. Patients were free of T2D diagnosis or an antidiabetic medication use for 12 months before the index date and had at least 1 visit after the index date. Data analyses were completed during January 2019. Exposures: Reduction in PCL scores during a 12-month period was used to define patients as those with a clinically meaningful improvement (≥20-point PCL score decrease) and patients with less or no improvement (<20-point PCL score decrease). Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident T2D diagnosed during a 2- to 6-year follow-up. Results: Medical records from a total of 1598 patients (mean [SD] age, 42.1 [13.4] years; 1347 [84.3%] male; 1060 [66.3%] white) were studied. The age-adjusted cumulative incidence of T2D was 2.6% among patients with a clinically meaningful PCL score decrease and 5.9% among patients without a clinically meaningful PCL score decrease (P = .003). After control for confounding, patients with a clinically meaningful PCL score decrease were significantly less likely to develop T2DM compared with those without a clinically meaningful decrease (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.26-0.98). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that clinically meaningful reductions in PTSD symptoms are associated with a lower risk of T2D. A decrease in PCL score, whether through treatment or spontaneous improvement, may help mitigate the greater risk of T2D in patients with PTSD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Veteranos
13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(4): e011133, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755078

RESUMO

Background Posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease ( CVD ). Biopsychosocial factors associated with PTSD likely account for some or all of this association. We determined whether 1, or a combination of comorbid conditions explained the association between PTSD and incident CVD . Methods and Results Eligible patients used 1 of 5 Veterans Health Affairs medical centers distributed across the United States. Data were obtained from electronic health records. At index date, 2519 Veterans Health Affairs ( VA ) patients, 30 to 70 years of age, had PTSD diagnoses and 1659 did not. Patients had no CVD diagnoses for 12 months before index date. Patients could enter the cohort between 2008 and 2012 with follow-up until 2015. Age-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were computed before and after adjusting for comorbidities. Patients were middle aged (mean=50.1 years, SD ±11.0), mostly male (87.0%), and 60% were white. The age-adjusted association between PTSD and incident CVD was significant (hazard ratio=1.41; 95% CI : 1.21-1.63). After adjustment for metabolic conditions, the association between PTSD and incident CVD was attenuated but remained significant (hazard ratio=1.23; 95% CI : 1.06-1.44). After additional adjustment for smoking, sleep disorder, substance use disorder, anxiety disorders, and depression, PTSD was not associated with incident CVD (hazard ratio=0.96; 95% CI : 0.81-1.15). Conclusions PTSD is not an independent risk factor for CVD . Physical and psychiatric conditions and smoking that co-occur with PTSD explain why this patient population has an increased risk of CVD . Careful monitoring may limit exposure to CVD risk factors and subsequent incident CVD .


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos , Adulto Jovem
15.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(11): 1189-1198, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30090920

RESUMO

Importance: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Existing literature has adjusted for obesity in combination with other confounders, which does not allow estimating the contribution of obesity alone on the association of PTSD with incident T2DM. Objective: The current study was designed to determine if obesity accounted for the association between PTSD and incident T2DM. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from Veterans Health Administration medical records collected from patients with PTSD and without PTSD from 2008 to 2015. Patients were eligible for study inclusion if they were free of prevalent PTSD and T2DM for 12 months prior to index date. To estimate whether the association of PTSD and incident T2DM remained independent of obesity, Cox proportional hazard models were computed before and after adding obesity to the model and then further expanded by adding psychiatric disorders, psychotropic medications, physical conditions, smoking status, and demographics. Additional Cox models were computed to compare the risk of incident T2DM in patients with PTSD with and without obesity. Data analysis was completed from February 2018 to May 2018. Exposures: Two International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for PTSD in the same 12 months and obesity, defined by a body mass index of 30 or more or an ICD-9 code for obesity. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident T2DM, as defined by ICD-9 codes. Results: Among 2204 patients without PTSD, the mean (SD) age was 47.7 (14.3) years; 1860 (84.4%) were men, 1426 (64.7%) were white, and 956 (43.4%) were married. Among 3450 patients with PTSD, the mean (SD) age was 42.8 (14.2) years; 2983 (86.5%) were men, 2238 (64.9%) were white, and 1525 (44.2%) were married. The age-adjusted association between PTSD and incident T2DM was significant (hazard ratio [HR], 1.33 [95% CI, 1.08-1.64]; P = .01), and after adding obesity to the model, this association was reduced and no longer significant (HR, 1.16 [95% CI, 0.94-1.43]; P = .18). Results of the full model, which included additional covariate adjustment, revealed no association between PTSD and incident T2DM (HR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.64-1.10]; P = .19). Among patients with PTSD with obesity, the age-adjusted incidence of T2DM was 21.0 per 1000 person-years vs 5.8 per 1000 person-years in patients without obesity. In patients without PTSD, it was 21.2 per 1000 person-years for patients with obesity vs 6.4 per 1000 person-years in those without obesity. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of patients who use the Veterans Health Administration for health care, obesity moderated the association between PTSD and incident T2DM. The incidence of T2DM in patients with PTSD who are not obese is similar to the national incidence rate in the United States. These results suggest PTSD is not likely to have a causal association with incident T2DM. Future research is needed to determine if PTSD remission can lead to weight loss and reduced T2DM incidence.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
18.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 14: 116-121, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813308

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been conceptualized as an inability to cope with overwhelming stress that is followed by a distinctive pattern of symptoms. This concept has made it possible to develop therapeutic approaches for PTSD that include medication and psychotherapy options. In this article we summarize research studies on pharmacotherapies for PTSD and review new findings in the neurobiology of PTSD that are promoting the development of targeted treatment options. Research findings that have improved our understanding of psychobiological abnormalities associated with PTSD offer clinicians improved treatment strategies. We review those findings, the developments in the medication management of PTSD and common co-occurring disorders, and new areas of pharmacological research on PTSD treatment.

19.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 19(10): 73, 2017 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28840457

RESUMO

The National PTSD Brain Bank (NPBB) is a brain tissue biorepository established to support research on the causes, progression, and treatment of PTSD. It is a six-part consortium led by VA's National Center for PTSD with participating sites at VA medical centers in Boston, MA; Durham, NC; Miami, FL; West Haven, CT; and White River Junction, VT along with the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences. It is also well integrated with VA's Boston-based brain banks that focus on Alzheimer's disease, ALS, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and other neurological disorders. This article describes the organization and operations of NPBB with specific attention to: tissue acquisition, tissue processing, diagnostic assessment, maintenance of a confidential data biorepository, adherence to ethical standards, governance, accomplishments to date, and future challenges. Established in 2014, NPBB has already acquired and distributed brain tissue to support research on how PTSD affects brain structure and function.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Encéfalo/patologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/patologia , Bancos de Tecidos/organização & administração , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Humanos , Estados Unidos
20.
JMIR Ment Health ; 4(3): e34, 2017 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28827214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aggression and violence on acute psychiatric inpatient units is extensive and leads to negative sequelae for staff and patients. With increasingly acute inpatient milieus due to shorter lengths of stay, inpatient staff is limited in training and time to be able to provide treatments. Mobile technology provides a new platform for offering treatment on such units, but it has not been tested for feasibility or usability in this particular setting. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility, usability, and acceptability of a brief mindfulness meditation mobile phone app intended to reduce anger and aggression in acute psychiatric inpatients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder, and a history of violence. METHODS: Participants were recruited between November 1, 2015 and June 1, 2016. A total of 13 inpatients at an acute care state hospital carried mobile phones for 1 week and were asked to try a commercially available mindfulness app called Headspace. The participants completed a usability questionnaire and engaged in a qualitative interview upon completion of the 7 days. In addition, measures of mindfulness, state and trait anger, and cognitive ability were administered before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Of the 13 enrolled participants, 10 used the app for the 7 days of the study and completed all measures. Two additional participants used the app for fewer than 7 days and completed all measures. All participants found the app to be engaging and easy to use. Most (10/12, 83%) felt comfortable using Headspace and 83% (10/12) would recommend it to others. All participants made some effort to try the app, with 6 participants (6/12, 50%) completing the first 10 10-minute "foundation" guided meditations. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first known study of the use of a commercially available app as an intervention on acute psychiatric inpatient units. Acutely ill psychiatric inpatients at a state hospital found the Headspace app easy to use, were able to complete a series of meditations, and felt the app helped with anxiety, sleep, and boredom on the unit. There were no instances of an increase in psychotic symptoms reported and there were no episodes of aggression or violence noted in the record.

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