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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10352-10360, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503479

RESUMO

The potential for apple peels to mitigate the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet in mice was investigated here. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with apple powders from three apple varieties or a commercial apple polyphenol. Polyphenols were characterized using colorimetric assays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Mice were tested for standard metabolic parameters. There was a dose response to dietary apple peels, with the higher intake leading to reduced weight gain and adipose tissue mass relative to the lower intake, but none of the treatments were statistically different from the control. The gene expression of liver enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd-1) was correlated with adipose weight, and liver enzyme cytochrome P51 (Cyp51) was downregulated by the apple diets. The feces from a subset of mice were analyzed for polyphenols and for bacteria taxa by next-generation sequencing. The results revealed that the makeup of the fecal microbiota was related to the metabolism of dietary polyphenols.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/análise , Catequina/análise , Fezes/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Malus/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Proantocianidinas/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Malus/química , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/genética , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/metabolismo
2.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1943-1948, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211417

RESUMO

Melons are a diverse group of fresh, dessert fruits that includes orange flesh cantaloupe, green flesh honeydew, and mixed hybrid melons. As part of an effort to discover potential health benefits of fruit and vegetable peels that are considered to be byproducts of food processing, we determined the total phenolic content and antioxidative activities of methanolic extracts of the powdered peels of the following commercial melon (Cucumis melo) varieties sold at retail markets in California that were imported from Mexico and Honduras: nonorganic Canary, Charentias, Hani Gold, Vine ripened, and Santa Claus; and organic Ambrosia, Cantaloupe, Galia, Goddess, Ham, Honeydew, and Tuscan. The total phenolic content (in mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract) ranged from 0.69 (Tuscan) to 2.96 (Galia) or 4.3-fold variation from lowest to highest value. The antioxidative activity (in mg ascorbic acid equivalents/mL extract) ranged from 0.13 (organic Tuscan) to 0.26 (organic Galia). Similar results were observed using the ABTS antioxidative assay. The content of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, isovanillic acid, apigenin-7-α-glucoside, luteolin-7-o-glucoside, and quercetin-3-galactoside in three melon flesh samples (nonorganic and organic Galia from Honduras and organic Galia from Mexico and two peel samples (Mexican organic peel and flesh) were analyzed using HPLC. The results suggest that the peel from the Honduran Galia melon with the highest antioxidative activity merits further study to investigate potential health properties. Potential nutritional and health benefits of melon peels, Seeds, and their bioactive compounds are discussed. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The peel from the Honduran Galia melon variety merits further study for potential health benefits, including antioxidative, anticholesterol, and antidiabetic activities, and stimulation of thyroid function, as reported for peels from other melon varieties, as well as antibiotic activities against pathogenic bacteria, protozoa, and viruses.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Cucumis melo/química , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/análise , California , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas/química , México , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Pós/química , Pós/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química
3.
J Food Sci ; 84(3): 659-666, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730568

RESUMO

Acrylamide, formed in baked and fried plant-based foods, is reported to induce numerous adverse effects in cells, animals, and humans. Examples from the literature show that processed potato- and cereal-based products are two major food types that seem to contribute the highest amounts of acrylamide to the diet worldwide. To meet both the demand for gluten-free products and the interest in alternative grains, we previously developed recipes for flatbreads using a variety of different grains. In this study, we determined the acrylamide content of 15 experimental flatbreads made from a variety of flours and 21 commercial flatbreads. The application of a validated, highly sensitive HPLC/MS method revealed that flatbreads made with the following flours baked at 195.5 °C for 2 min had very low (<10 µg/kg) levels of acrylamide: brown rice, buckwheat, cornmeal, millet, oat, and quinoa. The acrylamide levels of the following flatbreads were 14 to 59 µg/kg: rye, sorghum, soy, wheat, commercial pita, pita crackers, pizza, naan, and lavash. Wheat-based matzo breads, which are rapidly baked to a crisp texture at high heat (∼400 °C), contained 101 to 504 µg/kg acrylamide. Potato-based products were some of the highest of the products tested, ranging from 153 (potato pancakes) to 2,070 (potato-containing gluten-free matzos) µg/kg acrylamide. Except for the potato-containing products, the flatbreads made in this study were lower in acrylamide content (<3 to 21.3 µg/kg) than any of the commercial products tested. Of these experimental flatbreads, wheat- and sorghum-based products were the highest. Flatbreads from alternative grains can result in gluten-free products with high nutritional value and less acrylamide. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Acrylamide formation is dependent on both the composition of the food product and the method of cooking. Flatbreads have the potential to be high in acrylamide due to cooking methods which lead to the development of desirable browning products. Flatbreads developed in this study using alternative and ancient grains were mostly lower in acrylamide content than their wheat counterpart, suggesting that they can serve as a low-acrylamide, gluten-free functional food.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/química , Pão/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Culinária , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos
4.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 322, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human infection by pathogenic Salmonella bacteria can be acquired by consuming of undercooked meat products and eggs. Antimicrobial resistance against antibiotics used in medicine is also a major concern. To help overcome these harmful effects on microbial food safety and human health, we are developing novel antimicrobial food-compatible formulations, one of which is described in the present study. METHODS: The composition of a bioprocessed (fermented) rice bran extract (BPRBE) from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelia culture was evaluated using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and the mechanism of its antibacterial effect against Salmonella Typhimurium, strain SL1344 was investigated in macrophage cells and in mice. RESULTS: BPRBE stimulated uptake of the bacteria into RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. Activation of the cells was confirmed by increases in NO production resulting from the elevation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA, and in protein expression. Salmonella infection down-regulated the expression of the following protein biomarkers of autophagy (a catabolic process for stress adaptation of cellular components): Beclin-1, Atg5, Atg12, Atg16, LC3-I and LC3-II. BPRBE promoted the upregulation of protein expressions that induced bacterial destruction in autolysosomes of RAW 264.7 cells. ELISA analysis of interferon IFN-ß showed that inflammatory cytokine secretion and bactericidal activity had similar profiles, suggesting that BPRBE enhances cell-autonomous and systemic bactericidal activities via autophagic capture of Salmonella. The treatment also elicited increased excretion of bacteria in feces and their decreased translocation to internal organs (cecum, mesenteric lymph node, spleen, and liver). CONCLUSIONS: The antibiotic mechanism of BPRBE involves the phagocytosis of extracellular bacteria, autophagic capture of intracellular bacteria, and prevention of translocation of bacteria across the intestinal epithelial cells. The new bioprocessing combination of mushroom mycelia and rice brans forms a potentially novel food formulation with in vivo antimicrobial properties that could serve as a functional antimicrobial food and medical antibiotic.

5.
Int J Tryptophan Res ; 11: 1178646918802282, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275700

RESUMO

Tryptophan is an essential plant-derived amino acid that is needed for the in vivo biosynthesis of proteins. After consumption, it is metabolically transformed to bioactive metabolites, including serotonin, melatonin, kynurenine, and the vitamin niacin (nicotinamide). This brief integrated overview surveys and interprets our current knowledge of the reported multiple analytical methods for free and protein-bound tryptophan in pure proteins, protein-containing foods, and in human fluids and tissues, the nutritional significance of l-tryptophan and its isomer d-tryptophan in fortified infant foods and corn tortillas as well the possible function of tryptophan in the diagnosis and mitigation of multiple human diseases. Analytical methods include the use of acid ninhydrin, near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, colorimetry, basic hydrolysis; acid hydrolysis of S-pyridylethylated proteins, and high-performance liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Also covered are the nutritional values of tryptophan-fortified infant formulas and corn-based tortillas, safety of tryptophan for human consumption and the analysis of maize (corn), rice, and soybean plants that have been successfully genetically engineered to produce increasing tryptophan. Dietary tryptophan and its metabolites seem to have the potential to contribute to the therapy of autism, cardiovascular disease, cognitive function, chronic kidney disease, depression, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, sleep, social function, and microbial infections. Tryptophan can also facilitate the diagnosis of certain conditions such as human cataracts, colon neoplasms, renal cell carcinoma, and the prognosis of diabetic nephropathy. The described findings are not only of fundamental scientific interest but also have practical implications for agriculture, food processing, food safety, nutrition, and animal and human health. The collated information and suggested research need will hopefully facilitate and guide further studies needed to optimize the use of free and protein-bound tryptophan and metabolites to help improve animal and human nutrition and health.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(30): 7942-7947, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039703

RESUMO

Potato peel, a waste product of the potato processing industry, is high in bioactive compounds. We investigated the in vitro antitrichomonad activity of potato peel powders prepared from commercial Russet, red, purple, and fingerling varieties as well as several known potato components, alkaloids and phenolic compounds, against three pathogenic strains of trichomonads. Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted protozoan parasite that causes the human disease trichomoniasis. Two distinct strains of the related Tritrichomonas fetus infect cattle and cats. The glycoalkaloids α-chaconine and α-solanine were highly active against all parasite lines, while their common aglycone solanidine was only mildly inhibitory. α-Solanine was several times more active than α-chaconine. The phenolic compounds caffeic and chlorogenic acids and quercetin were mildly active against the parasites. Most of the potato peel samples were at least somewhat active against all three trichomonad species, but their activities were wide-ranging and did not correspond to their glycoalkaloid and phenolic content determined by HPLC. The two Russet samples were the most active against all three parasites. The purple potato peel sample was highly active against bovine and mostly inactive against feline trichomonads. None of the test substances were inhibitory toward several normal microflora species, suggesting the potential use of the peels for targeted therapeutic treatments against trichomonads.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Tricomoníase/microbiologia , Trichomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Tubérculos/química , Trichomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tricomoníase/tratamento farmacológico
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(24): 6064-6072, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877090

RESUMO

The present study investigated the potential of potato peel powders, high in bioactive phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids, to reduce weight gain in mice consuming a high-fat diet. Potato peel powders were prepared from the following fresh commercial potato varieties by hand-peeling and then freeze-drying and grinding the peels into powder: non-organic (conventionally grown) gold, red, and Russet and organically grown Russet. Mice diets (25% fat by weight) were supplemented with either 10 or 20% potato peel powders for 3 weeks. In comparison to the control diet, the isocaloric and isonitrogenous peel-containing diets induced a reduction in weight gain that ranged from 17-45% (10% peel diets) to 46-73% (20% peel diets), suggesting that differences in weight gain are associated with the potato peel source and peel concentration of the diet. Weight reductions were accompanied by reduced epididymal white adipose tissue ranging from 22 to 80% as well as changes in the microbiota analyzed using next-generation sequencing and in obesity-associated genetic biomarkers determined by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Safety aspects and possible mechanisms of the antiobesity effects are discussed in terms of the composition of the bioactive potato peel compounds, which were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The results suggest that potato peels, a major peeling byproduct of potato processing used to prepare fries, chips, and potato flour, that showed exceptionally high antiobesity properties in fat mice, have the potential to serve as an antiobesity functional food.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Solanum tuberosum/química , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Agricultura , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Tubérculos/química , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pós/administração & dosagem , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resíduos/análise
8.
J Food Sci ; 83(2): 440-445, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29266224

RESUMO

The present study tested antibacterial activity of a rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against a multidrug-resistant strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and examined its mode of suppressive action in vitro and in mice. In vitro studies showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of RHSE was 1.29% (v/v). The inactivation was confirmed by complete loss of cell viability in the range of 104 to 107 colony forming units of the resistant Salmonella Typhimurium strain. Agarose and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses were used to evaluate the integrities of bacterial genomic DNA and total cellular protein profiles. The antibacterial action of RHSE results from a leakage of intracellular macromolecules following rupture of bacterial cells. Scanning electron microscopy of the cells shows that RHSE also induced deleterious morphological changes in the bacterial cell membrane of the pathogens. In vivo antibacterial activity of RHSE at a 1 × MIC concentration was examined in a bacterial gastroenteritis model using Balb/c mice orally infected with the Salmonella Typhimurium. The results show greatly decreased excretion of the bacteria into the feces and suppressed translocation of the bacteria to internal organs (cecum, mesenteric lymph node, spleen, and liver) compared with the infected mice not subjected to the RHSE treatment. Collectively, the present findings indicate that the mechanism of the antibacterial activities both in vitro and in the gastroenteritis environment of the animal model is the result of the direct disruption of cell structure, leading to cell death. RHSE has the potential to serve as a multifunctional food additive that might protect consumers against infections by antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The rice hull derived liquid smoke has the potential to complement widely used wood-derived smoke as an antimicrobial flavor and health-promoting formulation for application in foods and feeds.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Oryza/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Sementes/química
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(48): 10406-10423, 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29155570

RESUMO

Cinnamaldehyde is a major constituent of cinnamon essential oils produced by aromatic cinnamon plants. This compound has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties in vitro in laboratory media and in animal feeds and human foods contaminated with disease-causing bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. This integrated review surveys and interprets our current knowledge of the chemistry, analysis, safety, mechanism of action, and antibiotic activities of cinnamaldehyde in food animal (cattle, lambs, calves, pigs, poultry) diets and in widely consumed liquid (apple, carrot, tomato, and watermelon juices, milk) and solid foods. Solid foods include various fruits (bayberries, blueberries, raspberries, and strawberries), vegetables (carrots, celery, lettuce, spinach, cucumbers, and tomatoes), meats (beef, ham, pork, and frankfurters), poultry (chickens and turkeys), seafood (oysters and shrimp), bread, cheese, eggs, infant formula, and peanut paste. The described findings are not only of fundamental interest but also have practical implications for food safety, nutrition, and animal and human health. The collated information and suggested research needs will hopefully facilitate and guide further studies needed to optimize the use of cinnamaldehyde alone and in combination with other natural antimicrobials and medicinal antibiotics to help prevent and treat food animal and human diseases.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Carne/microbiologia , Acroleína/química , Acroleína/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Gado , Carne/análise
10.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 461, 2017 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28903731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants produce secondary metabolites that often possess widespread bioactivity, and are then known as phytochemicals. We previously determined that several phytochemical-rich food-derived preparations were active against pathogenic foodborne bacteria. Trichomonads produce disease (trichomoniasis) in humans and in certain animals. Trichomonads are increasingly becoming resistant to conventional modes of treatment. It is of interest to test bioactive, natural compounds for efficacy against these pathogens. METHODS: Using a cell assay, black tea, green tea, grape, pomegranate, and jujube extracts, as well as whole dried jujube were tested against three trichomonads: Trichomonas vaginalis strain G3 (found in humans), Tritrichomonas foetus strain D1 (found in cattle), and Tritrichomonas foetus-like organism strain C1 (found in cats). The most effective of the test substances was subsequently tested against two metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis strains, and on normal mucosal flora. RESULTS: Black tea extract inhibited all the tested trichomonads, but was most effective against the T. vaginalis organisms. Inhibition by black tea was correlated with the total and individual theaflavin content of the two tea extracts determined by HPLC. Metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis strains were also inhibited by the black tea extract. The response of the organisms to the remaining preparations was variable and unique. We observed no effect of the black tea extract on common normal flora bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the black tea, and to a lesser degree green tea, grape seed, and pomegranate extracts might present possible natural alternative therapeutic agents to treat Trichomonas vaginalis infections in humans and the related trichomonad infections in animals, without negatively affecting the normal flora.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tricomoníase/microbiologia , Tricomoníase/veterinária , Trichomonas vaginalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tritrichomonas foetus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Camellia sinensis/química , Gatos , Bovinos , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Punicaceae/química , Trichomonas vaginalis/genética , Trichomonas vaginalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Tritrichomonas foetus/genética , Tritrichomonas foetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tritrichomonas foetus/isolamento & purificação , Vitis/química , Ziziphus/química
11.
Foods ; 6(9)2017 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837070

RESUMO

The antimicrobial modes of action of six naturally occurring compounds, cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, oregano oil, carvacrol, 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde, previously found to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) reported to infect food animals and humans and to be present in milk, cheese, and meat, were investigated. The incubation of Map cultures in the presence of all six compounds caused phosphate ions to leak into the extracellular environment in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde decreased the intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration of Map cells, whereas oregano oil and carvacrol caused an initial decrease of intracellular ATP concentration that was restored gradually after incubation at 37 °C for 2 h. Neither 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde nor 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde had a significant effect on intracellular ATP concentration. None of the compounds tested were found to cause leakage of ATP to the extracellular environment. Monolayer studies involving a Langmuir trough apparatus revealed that all anti-Map compounds, especially the essential oil compounds, altered the molecular packing characteristics of phospholipid molecules of model membranes, causing fluidization. The results of the physicochemical model microbial membrane studies suggest that the destruction of the pathogenic bacteria might be associated with the disruption of the bacterial cell membrane.

12.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 19(4): 363-376, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605325

RESUMO

This study investigated the suppressive mechanisms of an extract from bioprocessed Lentinus edodes mycelial liquid culture supplemented with turmeric (bioprocessed Curcuma longa extract [BPCLE]) against murine salmonellosis. The BPLCE extract from the bioprocessed mycelia of the Salmonella Typhimurium into murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, elimination of intracellular bacteria, and elevation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Dietary administration of BPCLE activated leukocytes from the mice infected with Salmonella through the intraperitoneal route. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the cytokines produced by splenocytes from infected mice showed significant increases in the levels of Th1 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12. Histology showed that dietary administration of BPCLE protected against necrosis of the liver resulting from a sublethal dose of Salmonella. In addition, the treatment (1) extended the lifespan of lethally infected mice, (2) suppressed the invasion of Salmonella into human Caco-2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, (3) increased excretion of the bacterium in the feces, (4) suppressed the translocation of the Salmonella to internal organs, and (5) increased total immunoglobulin A in both serum and intestinal fluids. BPCLE protected the mice against salmonellosis via cooperative effects that include the upregulation of the Th1 immune reaction, prevention of translocation of bacteria across the intestinal epithelial cells, and increased immunoglobulin A production in serum and intestinal fluids.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/química , Curcuma/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Salmonelose Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Cogumelos Shiitake/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Salmonelose Animal/patologia , Cogumelos Shiitake/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Molecules ; 22(2)2017 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28208613

RESUMO

Anthraquinone (9,10-anthraquinone) and several hydroxy derivatives, including purpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxyanthraquinone), anthrarufin (1,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone), and chrysazin (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone), were evaluated for antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in chemical assays and mammalian cells (murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells). Several tests were used to assess their activities: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical; ABTS radical cation; hydrogen peroxide scavenging; reduction of potassium ferricyanide; chelation of ferrous ions; inhibition of lipid peroxidation; inhibition of nitric oxide generation; scavenging of the intracellular hydroxyl radical; expression of NLRP3 polypeptide for inflammasome assembly; and quantitation of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) for inflammasome activation. The results show that purpurin, from the root of the madder plant (Rubia tinctorum L.), exhibited the highest antioxidative activity in both chemical and cultured cell antioxidant assays. The antioxidative activities of the other three anthraquinones were lower than that of purpurin. In addition, purpurin could down-regulate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, suggesting that it might protect foods against oxidative damage and prevent in vivo oxidative stress and inflammation. Structure-activity relationships and the significance of the results for food quality and human health are discussed.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Animais , Antraquinonas/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Quelantes de Ferro/química , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Picratos/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(46): 8806-8810, 2016 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27934291

RESUMO

The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of the commercial tetrasaccharide tomato glycoalkaloid tomatine and the aglycone tomatidine on three mucosal pathogenic protozoa that are reported to infect humans, cattle, and cats, respectively: Trichomonas vaginalis strain G3, Tritrichomonas foetus strain D1, and Tritrichomonas foetus strain C1. A preliminary screen showed that tomatine at 100 µM concentration completely inhibited the growth of all three trichomonads. In contrast, the inhibition of all three pathogens by tomatidine was much lower, suggesting the involvement of the lycotetraose carbohydrate side chain in the mechanism of inhibition. Midpoints of concentration-response sigmoid plots of tomatine on the three strains correspond to IC50 values, the concentration that inhibits 50% of growth of the pathogenic protozoa. The concentration data were used to calculate the IC50 values for G3, D1, and C1 of 7.9, 1.9, and 2.2 µM, respectively. The results show an approximately 4-fold variation from the lowest to the highest value (lowest activity). Although the inhibition by tomatine was not as effective as that of the medicinal drug metronidazole, the relatively low IC50 values for both T. vaginalis and T. foetus indicated tomatine as a possible natural alternative therapeutic for trichomoniasis in humans and food-producing (cattle and pigs) and domestic (cats) animals. Because tomatine has the potential to serve as a new antiprotozoan functional (medical) food, the distribution of this glycoalkaloid in tomatoes and suggestions for further research are discussed.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tomatina/análogos & derivados , Tomatina/farmacologia , Trichomonadida/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antiprotozoários/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tomatina/química , Trichomonadida/química
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(4): 773-84, 2016 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26807923

RESUMO

Mushrooms can break down complex plant materials into smaller, more digestible and bioactive compounds. The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of an Ulmus parvifolia bark extract bioprocessed in Lentinus edodes liquid mycelium culture (BPUBE) against allergic asthma in chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cells in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Inhibitory activity of BPUBE against OVA-specific IgE secretion in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was observed in OVA-sensitized/challenged asthmatic mice. BPUBE also inhibited OVA-specific IgG and IgG1 secretion into serum from the allergic mice, suggesting the restoration of a Th2-biased immune reaction to a Th1/Th2-balanced status, as indicated by the Th1/Th2 as well as regulatory T cell (Treg) cytokine profile changes caused by BPUBE in serum or BALF. Inflammatory cell counts in BALF and lung histology showed that leukocytosis and eosinophilia induced by OVA-sensitization/challenge were inhibited by the oral administration of BPUBE. Amelioration of eosinophil infiltration near the trachea was associated with reduced eotaxin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels. Changes in proinflammatory mediator levels in BALF suggest that BPUBE decreased OVA-sensitization-induced elevation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The finding that asthma-associated biomarker levels of OVA-sensitized/challenged mice were much more inhibited with BPUBE treatment than NPUBE (not-bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia extract) treatment suggested the production of new bioactive compounds by the mushroom mycelia that may be involved in enhancing the observed antiasthmatic properties. The possible relation of the composition determined by proximate analysis and GC/MS to observed bioactivity is discussed. The results suggest that the elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with mycelia of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms has the potential to prevent and/or treat allergic asthma.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/química , Asma/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cogumelos Shiitake/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ulmus/química , Ulmus/microbiologia , Animais , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/genética , Asma/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Leucotrieno C4/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Casca de Planta/química , Casca de Planta/microbiologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/imunologia
16.
Foods ; 5(4)2016 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28231175

RESUMO

More than 2000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, many of which are widely consumed, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the mushrooms, including polysaccharides. Although ß-glucans (homopolysaccharides) are believed to be the major bioactive polysaccharides of mushrooms, other types of mushroom polysaccharides (heteropolysaccharides) also possess biological properties. Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential. The associated antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating activities in fat cells, rodents, and humans are also discussed. The mechanisms of action involve the gut microbiota, meaning the polysaccharides act as prebiotics in the digestive system. Also covered here are the nutritional, functional food, clinical, and epidemiological studies designed to assess the health-promoting properties of polysaccharides, individually and as blended mixtures, against obesity, diabetes, cancer, and infectious diseases, and suggestions for further research. The collated information and suggested research needs might guide further studies needed for a better understanding of the health-promoting properties of mushroom polysaccharides and enhance their use to help prevent and treat human chronic diseases.

17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 63(32): 7108-23, 2015 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26244378

RESUMO

The culinary and medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is widely consumed in Asian countries, but apparently not in the United States, for its nutritional and health benefits. To stimulate broader interest in the reported beneficial properties, this overview surveys and consolidates the widely scattered literature on the chemistry (isolation and structural characterization) of polysaccharides and secondary metabolites such as erinacines, hericerins, hericenones, resorcinols, steroids, mono- and diterpenes, and volatile aroma compounds, nutritional composition, food and industrial uses, and exceptional nutritional and health-promoting aspects of H. erinaceus. The reported health-promoting properties of the mushroom fruit bodies, mycelia, and bioactive pure compounds include antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antifatigue, antihypertensive, antihyperlipodemic, antisenescence, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties and improvement of anxiety, cognitive function, and depression. The described anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and immunostimulating properties in cells, animals, and humans seem to be responsible for the multiple health-promoting properties. A wide range of research advances and techniques are described and evaluated. The collated information and suggestion for further research might facilitate and guide further studies to optimize the use of the whole mushrooms and about 70 characterized actual and potential bioactive secondary metabolites to help prevent or treat human chronic, cognitive, and neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Carpóforos/química , Alimento Funcional/análise , Micélio/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Verduras/química , Agaricales/metabolismo , Animais , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Humanos , Micélio/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo
18.
Food Funct ; 6(9): 2939-48, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26190448

RESUMO

The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of a rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells and in mice fed high fat (HFD) and normal (ND) diets. At concentrations of 0.1% and 0.5%, RHSE was shown to reduce the cellular lipid content in MDI-induced 3T3-L1 cells by about 72% and 88%, respectively, compared to that in control cells without RHSE, indicating a strong antiadipogenic effect. This result was supported by the finding that the expression of the adipocyte differentiation marker adiponectin was suppressed. MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays showed that RHSE doses of up to 0.5% (v/v) were not cytotoxic to the 3T3-L1 cells. RHSE activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through raising the phosphorylated ratio during the early phase of cell differentiation, and western blot analysis showed that it dose-dependently inhibited the expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) at the late stage of differentiation. The antiadipogenic properties of RHSE were confirmed in vivo using experimental obese mice on a high-fat diet. Dietary supplementations of 0.5% and 1% RHSE resulted in a reduction at the end of the 7-week feeding study of body weight gain of 66.9% and 72.5%, respectively, a reduction of epididymal white adipose tissue weight by up to 87.9%, restoration of elevated total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in plasma and liver to those observed in the ND-fed mice, normalization of distorted serum leptin and adiponectin levels, and restoration of liver weight and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase/glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GOT/GPT) enzymes, blood urea, and serum creatinine to the normal control levels observed in the ND-fed mice. As was found in the 3T3-L1 cells, RHSE up-regulated AMPK phosphorylation and down-regulated PPARγ, C/EBPα and SREBP-1c protein expression in the epididymal white adipose tissues. These results indicate that RHSE inhibits the AMPK signaling pathway in mice and might serve as an antiobesity multifunctional food additive.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Oryza/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
19.
Food Funct ; 6(6): 1752-72, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25989363

RESUMO

Potentially toxic acrylamide is largely derived from the heat-inducing reactions between the amino group of the amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose in plant-derived foods including cereals, coffees, almonds, olives, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. This review surveys and consolidates the following dietary aspects of acrylamide: distribution in food, exposure and consumption by diverse populations, reduction of the content in different food categories, and mitigation of adverse in vivo effects. Methods to reduce acrylamide levels include selecting commercial food with a low acrylamide content, selecting cereal and potato varieties with low levels of asparagine and reducing sugars, selecting processing conditions that minimize acrylamide formation, adding food-compatible compounds and plant extracts to food formulations before processing that inhibit acrylamide formation during processing of cereal products, coffees, teas, olives, almonds, and potato products, and reducing multiorgan toxicity (antifertility, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, teratogenicity). The herein described observations and recommendations are of scientific interest for food chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology, but also have the potential to benefit nutrition, food safety, and human health.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/antagonistas & inibidores , Antídotos/química , Carcinógenos/antagonistas & inibidores , Culinária , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Teratogênios/química , Acrilamida/análise , Acrilamida/química , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Animais , Anticarcinógenos/química , Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/química , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/uso terapêutico , Manipulação de Alimentos , Alimentos em Conserva/efeitos adversos , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Guias como Assunto , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Teratogênios/análise , Teratogênios/toxicidade
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 63(15): 3805-22, 2015 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25856120

RESUMO

Foodborne antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria such as Campylobacter jejuni, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio parahemolyticus can adversely affect animal and human health, but a better understanding of the factors involved in their pathogenesis is needed. To help meet this need, this overview surveys and interprets much of our current knowledge of antibiotic (multidrug)-resistant bacteria in the food chain and the implications for microbial food safety and animal and human health. Topics covered include the origin and prevalence of resistant bacteria in the food chain (dairy, meat, poultry, seafood, and herbal products, produce, and eggs), their inactivation by different classes of compounds and plant extracts and by the use of chlorine and physicochemical methods (heat, UV light, pulsed electric fields, and high pressure), the synergistic antimicrobial effects of combinations of natural antimicrobials with medicinal antibiotics, and mechanisms of antimicrobial activities and resistant effects. Possible areas for future research are suggested. Plant-derived and other safe natural antimicrobial compounds have the potential to control the prevalence of both susceptible and resistant pathogens in various environments. The collated information and suggested research will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of approaches that could be used to minimize the presence of resistant pathogens in animal feed and human food, thus reducing adverse effects, improving microbial food safety, and helping to prevent or treat animal and human infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos
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