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2.
J Clin Med ; 10(23)2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34884293

RESUMO

The most common arrhythmia associated with COronaVIrus-related Disease (COVID) infection is sinus tachycardia. It is not known if high Heart Rate (HR) in COVID is simply a marker of higher systemic response to sepsis or if its persistence could be related to a long-term autonomic dysfunction. The aim of our work is to assess the prevalence of elevated HR at discharge in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 and to evaluate the variables associated with it. We enrolled 697 cases of SARS-CoV2 infection admitted in our hospital after February 21 and discharged within 23 July 2020. We collected data on clinical history, vital signs, laboratory tests and pharmacological treatment. Severe disease was defined as the need for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and/or mechanical ventilation. Median age was 59 years (first-third quartile 49, 74), and male was the prevalent gender (60.1%). 84.6% of the subjects showed a SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia, and 13.2% resulted in a severe disease. Mean HR at admission was 90 ± 18 bpm with a mean decrease of 10 bpm to discharge. Only 5.5% of subjects presented HR > 100 bpm at discharge. Significant predictors of discharge HR at multiple linear model were admission HR (mean increase = ß = 0.17 per bpm, 95% CI 0.11; 0.22, p < 0.001), haemoglobin (ß = -0.64 per g/dL, 95% CI -1.19; -0.09, p = 0.023) and severe disease (ß = 8.42, 95% CI 5.39; 11.45, p < 0.001). High HR at discharge in COVID-19 patients is not such a frequent consequence, but when it occurs it seems strongly related to a severe course of the disease.

3.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585525

RESUMO

The growing population of left ventricular assist device (LVAD)-supported patients increases the probability of an LVAD- supported patient hospitalized in the internal or surgical wards with certain expected device related, and patient-device interaction complication as well as with any other comorbidities requiring hospitalization. In this third part of the trilogy on the management of LVAD-supported patients for the non-LVAD specialist healthcare provider, definitions and structured approach to the hospitalized LVAD-supported patient are presented including blood pressure assessment, medical therapy of the LVAD supported patient, and challenges related to anaesthesia and non-cardiac surgical interventions. Finally, important aspects to consider when discharging an LVAD patient home and palliative and end-of-life approaches are described.

4.
Heart Fail Clin ; 17(4): 619-634, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511210

RESUMO

Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are indicated in inotrope-dependent heart failure (HF) patients with pure or predominant LV dysfunction. Survival benefit is less clear in ambulatory, advanced HF. Timing is crucial: early, unnecessary exposure to the risks of surgery, and device-related complications (infections, stroke, and bleeding) should be weighed against the probability of dying or developing irreversible right ventricular and/or end-organ dysfunction while deferring implant. The interplay between LVAD and heart transplantation depends largely on donor availability and allocation rules. Postoperatively, quality of life depends on patients' expectations and is influenced by complications. Patients' preferences, prognosis, and alternative options-including palliation-should be openly discussed and reviewed before and after the operation.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Ventrículos do Coração , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Int J Cardiol ; 340: 26-33, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is conflicting observational data on the survival benefit cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) in patients with LVADs. METHODS: Patients in whom an LVAD was implanted between January 2008 and April 2017 in the multinational Trans-Atlantic Registry on VAD and Transplant (TRAViATA) registry were separated into four groups based on the presence of CIED prior to LVAD implantation: none (n = 146), implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) (n = 239), cardiac resynchronization without defibrillator (CRT-P) (n = 28), and CRT with defibrillator (CRT-D) (n = 111). RESULTS: A total of 524 patients (age 52 years ±12, 84.4% male) were followed for 354 (interquartile range: 166-701) days. After multivariable adjustment, there were no differences in survival across the groups. In comparison to no device, only CRT-D was associated with late right ventricular failure (RVF) (hazard ratio 2.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42-5.72, p = 0.003). There was no difference in risk of early RVF across the groups or risk of ICD shocks between those with ICD and CRT-D. CONCLUSION: In a multinational registry of patients with LVADs, there were no differences in survival with respect to CIED subtype. However, patients with a pre-existing CRT-D had a higher likelihood of late RVF suggesting significant long-term morbidity in those with devices capable of LV­lead pacing post LVAD implantation.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coração Auxiliar , Eletrônica , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(10): 1597-1609, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409711

RESUMO

The accepted use of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) technology as a good alternative for the treatment of patients with advanced heart failure together with the improved survival of patients on the device and the scarcity of donor hearts has significantly increased the population of LVAD supported patients. Device-related, and patient-device interaction complications impose a significant burden on the medical system exceeding the capacity of LVAD implanting centres. The probability of an LVAD supported patient presenting with medical emergency to a local ambulance team, emergency department medical team and internal or surgical wards in a non-LVAD implanting centre is increasing. The purpose of this paper is to supply the immediate tools needed by the non-LVAD specialized physician - ambulance clinicians, emergency ward physicians, general cardiologists, and internists - to comply with the medical needs of this fast-growing population of LVAD supported patients. The different issues discussed will follow the patient's pathway from the ambulance to the emergency department, and from the emergency department to the internal or surgical wards and eventually back to the general practitioner.

7.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(5): 3587-3593, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331419

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate endothelial function in subjects with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), comparing them with subjects with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction on the list for heart transplant (HT) and with HT patients with a normal systolic cardiac function to identify any differences. METHODS: We enrolled 28 subjects with LVAD, 55 subjects with HT, and 42 subjects with heart failure on the transplant list. The subjects underwent a general physical examination, assessment of laboratory blood parameters, and assessment of endothelial function through flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of brachial artery. RESULTS: The three groups were homogeneous as regards age, gender, smoke abuse, C-reactive protein (CRP) and FMD parameters (P = ns). In LVAD group percentage of FMD change showed an inverse correlation with CRP (rho: -0.5, P: 0.003), a well-known marker of inflammation and tissue damage. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous flow related to LVAD seems to not worsen endothelial function. Endothelial function was not affected by cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes, obesity, and tobacco habit), by the functional status expressed by New York Heart Association class, by the left ventricular systolic function and by the presence or absence of ischaemic heart disease in all the populations analysed. CRP was the only factor able to influence percentage of FMD change in patient with LVAD, reinforcing the hypothesis that inflammation is the main determinant of endothelial function.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Função Ventricular Esquerda
8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196079

RESUMO

AIMS: The outcomes of patients presenting with acute myocarditis and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias (LT-VA) are unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and predictors of recurrent major arrhythmic events (MAEs) after hospital discharge in this patient population. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analysed 156 patients (median age 44 years; 77% male) discharged with a diagnosis of acute myocarditis and LT-VA from 16 hospitals worldwide. Diagnosis of myocarditis was based on histology or the combination of increased markers of cardiac injury and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) Lake Louise criteria. MAEs were defined as the relapse, after discharge, of sudden cardiac death or successfully defibrillated ventricular fibrillation, or sustained ventricular tachycardia (sVT) requiring implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy or synchronized external cardioversion. Median follow-up was 23 months [first to third quartile (Q1-Q3) 7-60]. Fifty-eight (37.2%) patients experienced MAEs after discharge, at a median of 8 months (Q1-Q3 2.5-24.0 months; 60.3% of MAEs within the first year). At multivariable Cox analysis, variables independently associated with MAEs were presentation with sVT [hazard ratio (HR) 2.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38-6.11]; late gadolinium enhancement involving ≥2 myocardial segments (HR 4.51, 95% CI 2.39-8.53), and absence of positive short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) (HR 2.59, 95% CI 1.40-4.79) at first CMR. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients discharged with a diagnosis of myocarditis and LT-VA, 37.2% had recurrences of MAEs during follow-up. Initial CMR pattern and sVT at presentation stratify the risk of arrhythmia recurrence.

9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(5): 4322-4327, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients in heart transplantation (HTx) waiting list for advanced heart failure (HF) are susceptible to acute deterioration refractory to standard HF medical therapies. Limited data are available on long-term in-hospital continuous intravenous (IV) inotropic therapy as bridge to definite therapies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed medical records of all heart transplant recipients treated in the pre-HTx phase with in-hospital continuous IV inotropes at our institution between 2012 and 2018. We analysed data before the beginning of continuous IV therapy and at the moment of HTx. We report data of 24 patients (mean age of 43.5 ± 15.7 years) treated with IV inotropes as bridge to HTx (median follow-up of 28 months after HTx). The main length of IV inotropic therapy was 84 ± 66 days (min 22; max 264 days). At the beginning, the most frequently used inotrope was dopamine (median dosage of 3 mcg/kg/min, interquartile range 2.5-3.75), alone (n = 11, 46%) or in combination with other inotropes (n = 13, 54%). In 18 patients, the class of inotropes was changed during the hospitalization. We registered a progressive improvement of perfusion markers and neuro-hormonal activation. CONCLUSION: In-hospital continuous parenteral inotropic therapy may serve as a temporary pharmacological bridge to HTx in patients with advanced HF that are actively listed to HTx with good reply in terms of prognosis and perfusion markers.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Transplante de Coração , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Listas de Espera
10.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 34: 100809, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34141863

RESUMO

Background: Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS) has unique pathophysiological background requiring specific patient stratification, management and therapeutic targets. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to derive a simple stratification tool to predict survival in patients with ADHF complicated by CS. Methods and results: Using logistic regression, univariable testing was performed to identify the variables potentially associated with 28-day mortality. We propose a new logistic model (ALC-Shock score) based on three easy parameters (age, serum creatinine and serum lactate at the ICU admission) as a powerful predictor of survival or successful bridge to heart replacement therapy at 28-day follow-up in this specific population. A multivariable analysis (logistic model) was performed to evaluate the association between selected variables and outcome (overall death at 28-day follow up). The score was then validated in a different cohort of 93 ADHF-CS patients and compared to a previous developed score (the Cardshock score).Overall, 28-day mortality was 34%. The ALC-shock score showed better discrimination (Area Under the Curve-AUC- 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.91) as compared to the Cardshock score (AUC 0.67; 95% CI 0.55-0.79) (p = 0.009) to predict 28-days overall mortality. In the validation cohort the AUC for the ALC-shock score was 0.66. Conclusions: A simple score including age, lactates and creatinine on admission could be considered to predict short-term mortality in CS-ADHF patients in order to drive towards a treatment intensification.

15.
Am J Transplant ; 21(10): 3280-3295, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764625

RESUMO

Despite much progress in improving graft outcome during cardiac transplantation, chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains an impediment to long-term graft survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) emerged as regulators of the immune response. Here, we aimed to examine the miRNA network involved in CAV. miRNA profiling of heart samples obtained from a murine model of CAV and from cardiac-transplanted patients with CAV demonstrated that miR-21 was most significantly expressed and was primarily localized to macrophages. Interestingly, macrophage depletion with clodronate did not significantly prolong allograft survival in mice, while conditional deletion of miR-21 in macrophages or the use of a specific miR-21 antagomir resulted in indefinite cardiac allograft survival and abrogated CAV. The immunophenotype, secretome, ability to phagocytose, migration, and antigen presentation of macrophages were unaffected by miR-21 targeting, while macrophage metabolism was reprogrammed, with a shift toward oxidative phosphorylation in naïve macrophages and with an inhibition of glycolysis in pro-inflammatory macrophages. The aforementioned effects resulted in an increase in M2-like macrophages, which could be reverted by the addition of L-arginine. RNA-seq analysis confirmed alterations in arginase-associated pathways associated with miR-21 antagonism. In conclusion, miR-21 is overexpressed in murine and human CAV, and its targeting delays CAV onset by reprogramming macrophages metabolism.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração , MicroRNAs , Aloenxertos , Animais , Rejeição de Enxerto/genética , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Macrófagos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética
17.
Int J Cardiol ; 330: 106-111, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates, in a real-world setting, to what extent the recommended therapies by international guidelines, are prescribed after a first hospitalization for heart failure (HF), and to analyse adherence and persistence, and the effect of treatment adherence on mortality and re-hospitalization. METHODS: From the Lombardy healthcare administrative database, we analysed patients discharged after their incident HF, from 2000 to 2012. Adherence was defined as the proportion of days covered (PDC) ≥80% adjusted for hospitalizations and persistence as the absence of discontinuation of therapy for >30 days. A logit model was used to determine the effect of patients' adherence on mortality and readmissions. RESULTS: Of 100422 HF patients (52% males, age 75 ± 12 years), 86846 (87%) had a prescription for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACE/ARBs), 64135 (64%) for beta-blockers (BB), and 36893 (37%) for mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), as mono-, bi- or tri-therapy. In patients on monotherapy, PDC was 78 ± 22% for ACE/ARBs, 69 ± 29% for BB and 54 ± 29% for MRAs; in those on bi-therapy, PDC was 63 ± 31% for ACEI/ARBs+BB, 41 ± 29% for ACEI/ARBs+MRAs, and 40 ± 26% for MRAs+BB; for patients on tri-therapy, PDC was 42 ± 28%. Medication persistence was present in 47% of patients treated with ACEI/ARBs, in 35% of patients treated with BB and in 14% of patients treated with MRAs. Re-hospitalizations and in mortality were significantly reduced in adherent patients (p < 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: Polypharmacy is associated with an increased rate of non-adherence and non-persistence in incident HF. Non-adherence is associated with an increased risk of mortality and re-hospitalizations.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Prescrições , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Int J Cardiol ; 324: 122-130, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geographic variations in management and outcomes of individuals supported by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVAD) between the United States (US) and Europe (EU) is largely unknown. METHODS: We created a retrospective, multinational registry of 524 patients who received a CF-LVAD (either HVAD or Heartmate II) between January 2008 and April 2017. Follow up spanned from date of CF-LVAD implant to post-HTx period with a median follow up of 44.8 months. RESULTS: The cohort included 299 (57.1%) EU and 225 (42.9%) US patients. Although the US cohort was significantly older with a higher prevalence of comorbidities, survival was similar between the cohorts (US 63.1%, EU 68.4% at 5 years, unadjusted log-rank test p = 0.43).Multivariate analyses suggested that older age, higher body mass index, elevated creatinine, use of temporary mechanical circulatory support prior CF-LVAD, and implantation of HVAD were associated with increased mortality. Among CF-LVAD patients undergoing HTx, the median time on CF-LVAD support was shorter in the US, meanwhile US donors were younger. Finally, the pattern of adverse events (stroke, gastrointestinal bleedings, late right ventricular failure, and driveline infection) during support differed significantly between US and EU. CONCLUSIONS: Although waitlisted patients in the US on CF-LVAD have higher risk comorbid conditions, the overall outcome is similar in US and EU. Geographic variations with regards to donor characteristics, duration of CF-LVAD support prior to transplant, and adverse events on support can explain the disparity in the utilization of mechanical bridge to transplant strategy between US and EU.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Am Heart J ; 233: 39-47, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a systemic disorder associated with dismal short-term prognosis. Given its time-dependent nature, mechanical circulatory support may improve survival. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) had gained widespread use because of the easiness to implant and the low rate of complications; however, a randomized trial failed to demonstrate benefit on mortality in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. Acute decompensated heart failure with cardiogenic shock (ADHF-CS) represents a growing resource-intensive scenario with scant data and indications on the best management. However, a few data suggest a potential benefit of IABP in this setting. We present the design of a study aimed at addressing this research gap. METHODS AND DESIGN: The Altshock-2 trial is a prospective, randomized, multicenter, open-label study with blinded adjudicated evaluation of outcomes. Patients with ADHF-CS will be randomized to early IABP implantation or to vasoactive treatments. The primary end point will be 60 days patients' survival or successful bridge to heart replacement therapy. The key secondary end point will be 60-day overall survival; 60-day need for renal replacement therapy; in-hospital maximum inotropic score, maximum duration of inotropic/vasopressor therapy, and maximum sequential organ failure assessment score. Safety end points will be in-hospital occurrence of bleeding events (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium >3), vascular access complications and systemic (noncerebral) embolism. The sample size for the study is 200 patients. IMPLICATIONS: The Altshock-2 trial will provide evidence on whether IABP should be implanted early in ADHF-CS patients to improve their clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Coração Auxiliar , Balão Intra-Aórtico , Choque Cardiogênico/cirurgia , Doença Aguda , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Tamanho da Amostra , Choque Cardiogênico/complicações , Choque Cardiogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo
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