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1.
Clin Exp Hepatol ; 7(3): 270-277, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712828

RESUMO

Aim of the study: Prevalence and prognostic relevance of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM), as defined according to the new core criteria proposed in 2019, are still unknown. We investigated this relevant issue in a large cohort of cirrhotic patients. Material and methods: We retrospectively interrogated a data set of 162 collected cirrhotic patients followed up for at least 6 years, who underwent standard Doppler echocardiography and were compared with 46 healthy subjects. Left ventricular (LV) geometry, systo-diastolic function, global longitudinal strain and the main hemodynamic parameters were assessed according to current guidelines. Systolic dysfunction was diagnosed if LV ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 50% and/or global longitudinal strain (GLS) < 18% or > 22%. Results: Adequate echocardiographic images permitting speckle tracking analysis were available in 83 patients. No patient presented LVEF ≤ 50%, GLS < 18% or > 22% was evident in 25%, advanced diastolic dysfunction was evident in 10%. Overall the prevalence of CCM was 29%. Patients with and without CCM presented similar clinical, biochemical, hemodynamic and echocardiographic features at baseline and similar incidence of death or type 1 hepatorenal syndrome at follow-up. Conclusions: According to the new criteria CCM is detected in 29%, mainly due to altered GLS at rest, but without prognostic relevance and therefore useless for the clinical management of cirrhotic patients. We propose to modify the criteria by removing the LVEF assessment and adding also a stress test assessing the cardiac contractile reserve to distinguish patients with a blunted cardiac response, which could present a worst prognosis.

2.
Neonatology ; 118(5): 569-577, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Placing an endotracheal tube (ETT) in neonates is challenging and currently requires timely radiographic confirmation of correct tip placement. The objective was to establish the reliability of ultrasound (US) for assessing ETT position in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), time needed to do so, and patients' tolerance. METHODS: A prospective study on 71 newborns admitted to our NICU whose ETT placement was evaluated with US (ETT-echo) and confirmed on chest X-rays (CXR). Data were collected by 3 operators (2 neonatologists and a resident in pediatrics). The right pulmonary artery (RPA) was used as a landmark for US. The distance between the tip of the ETT and the upper margin of the RPA was measured using US and compared with the distance between the tube's tip and the carina on the CXR. RESULTS: Seventy-one intubated newborns were included in the study (n = 34 < 1,000 g, n = 18 1,000-2,000 g, n = 19 > 2,000 g). Statistical analysis (Bland-Altman plot and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient) showed an excellent consistency between ETT positions identified on US and chest X-ray. The 2 measures (ETT-echo and CXR) were extremely concordant both in the whole sample and in the subgroups. Minimal changes in patients' vital signs were infrequently observed during US, confirming the tolerability of ETT-echo. The mean time to perform US was 3.2 min (range 1-13). CONCLUSIONS: ETT-echo seems to be a rapid, tolerable, and highly reliable method worth further investigating for future routine use in neonatology with a view to reducing radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Intubação Intratraqueal , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia
3.
Support Care Cancer ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580783

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of different preventive dental visits and treatments in reducing the risk of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ). METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients diagnosed with MRONJ were divided into 5 groups based on available data: no preventive dental visits (group 0); dental visits and compliance with recommended treatments, at the university hospital's dental clinic (group 1) or maxillofacial surgery unit (group 2), or at a private dentist's (group 3); dental visits at one of the above and noncompliance with proposed treatments (group 4); patients judged eligible by the oncologist on panoramic radiography (group 5). Patients were classified on severity of MRONJ according to the Italian SIPMO/SICMF 2.0 staging system. A descriptive analysis was performed on the results. Fisher's exact test was applied (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Ninety-three patients diagnosed with MRONJ were considered for the study, but 22 were excluded due to a lack of data, leaving a sample of 71 cases. MRONJ staging was only 0 for some patients (26.92%) in group 0. In all groups, the majority of patients had stage 2 MRONJ. The proportions of cases in stage 3 were 7.69% in group 0, 18.18% in group 3, and 43.48% in group 5. Groups 0 and 3 were somewhat similar as regard MRONJ staging. Most patients in group 5 had MRONJ stage 2 or 3. No statistically significant differences emerged between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Preventive dental care can reduce the risk of MRONJ providing patients comply with the specialist's recommendations.

4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suspected early-onset sepsis (EOS) results in antibiotic treatment and blood withdraw of a substantial number of neonates who are uninfected. We evaluated if the EOS calculator can reduce antibiotic exposure and invasive procedures for suspected EOS in term and late preterm neonates, without any significant increase in adverse outcomes. METHODS: The proportion of EOS risk in neonates ≥35 weeks gestation exposed to antibiotics, intensive monitoring and blood withdrawal was compared between a baseline period (January 2018-May 2018), when Centers for Disease Control guidelines approach was used, and a post-EOS calculator-implementation period (June 2018-December 2019). RESULTS: We included 4363 newborn infants with gestational age ≥35 weeks, respectively 824 in baseline period and 3539 in the EOS calculator period. Among them, 1021 (23.4%) infants presented risk factors for neonatal sepsis. There was a halving in empirical antibiotics exposure: 3% in the baseline and 1.4% in the post-EOS-implementation period, P < 0.05. Blood culture and laboratory evaluations had fallen from 30.6% to 15.4% (P < 0.05). Close monitoring of vital parameters decreased from 25.4% to 4.8% (P < 0.05). The number of antibiotic days per 100 live births decreased from 15.05 to 6.36 days (P <0.05). The incidence of culture-confirmed sepsis and clinical sepsis was very low in 2 periods. Only one infant identified at low risk by Kaiser calculator at birth developed symptoms after 12 h from birth. We had no readmissions for EOS. CONCLUSIONS: Application of the EOS calculator more than halved the burden of intensive monitoring and antibiotic exposure, without compromising safety in a population with a relatively low incidence of culture-proven EOS and good access to follow-up care.

5.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103210, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536918

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome of facial nerve (FN) cable graft interposition in lateral skull base surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 16 patients who underwent FN graft interposition procedure was retrospectively considered. Postoperative FN function was evaluated using the House-Brackmann (HB) grading system, the Sunnybrook Facial Grading System (SFGS), the Facial Disability Index (FDI) and the Oral Functioning Scale (OFS) questionnaires. RESULTS: 56.2% of patients had a good postoperative FN outcome (HB grade II-III). Postoperative electromyography (EMG) showed re-innervation potentials in 60% of patients; median age of these patients was significantly lower compared to who did not manifest re-innervation (p = 0.039). CONCLUSION: FN primary reconstruction remains the advisable rehabilitative option when the nerve is interrupted during lateral skull base surgeries, allowing to satisfactory postoperative results in more than half of patients. EMG confirmed the restoring of nerve conduction and it was more frequent in younger patients. The SFGS, the FDI and the OFS are important tools especially in the setting of a rehabilitation program.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255741, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral health is closely related to both physical and psychological well-being, as it enables individuals to eat, speak, and socialize. The number of teeth is the most used indicator of oral health. Several reports document a relationship of dental status with a variety of indicators of general health but longitudinal studies employing standardized physical performance tests are infrequent in the scientific literature. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The Italian elderly participating in the Pro.V.A. longitudinal Study (3099 subjects aged 65+ at baseline, 2196 at the 5-year follow-up 1 and 1641 at the 7-year follow- up 2) underwent detailed interview and extensive clinical and instrumental examination that included validated physical performance measures. Participants were classified into 4 groups according to the number of remaining teeth: 0, 1-7, 8-19, and 20+. To explore the association of the number of remaining teeth with physical function and disability, we performed logistic regression analyses with models progressively adjusted for a wide number of covariates, namely anthropometric (gender, age, BMI), comorbidity (cardio-vascular, osteoarticular, and neurological diseases including depression), muscle strength (assessed for upper and lower limbs), lifestyle (smoking status, alcohol use, leisure time activities) and socioeconomical status (education, income, marital status, loneliness). RESULTS: Dental status correlated with most comorbidities, lifestyle, and socio-economic variables at the univariate analysis at baseline and at follow-ups. A good dental status was significantly associated with better physical functioning and lower disability. The presence of 20+ teeth resulted significantly protective (reference group: 0 teeth) versus mobility-related disability (OR = 0.67), disability (OR = 0.54) and inability to perform heavy duties (OR = 0.62), at follow up 1 and low physical performance score (OR = 0.59) at follow up 2. Conversely, the detrimental effect of edentulism, explored in subjects with or without dentures, was present but not as straightforward. Conclusion. The assessment of a geriatric patient should include an oral evaluation as a good dental status is a crucial component of successful aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Classe Social , Dente/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Bucal
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed at investigating if a low myocardial mechano-energetic efficiency (MEE) with energy waste could be a feature of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and predictive of poor prognosis. METHODS: We retrospectively interrogated a large data set of 115 cirrhotic patients followed up for 6 years and compared with 50 healthy controls. Echocardiographic and haemodynamic parameters were assessed at baseline according with current guidelines. MEE was estimated by echocardiographic stroke volume (z-derived)/(heart rate × 0.6). RESULTS: Cirrhotic patients presented low peripheral vascular resistance, a compensatory hyperdynamic syndrome with increased cardiac work, left atrial and left ventricular (LV) dimension and mass. Systolic parameters and MEE were similar between patients and controls. Patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites showed significantly lower MEE compared with both patients with treatable ascites and patients without ascites (1.68 ± 0.47 vs. 1.98 ± 0.64 and 1.80 ± 0.37 ml/s; P < 0.05). Increased age and heart rate and reduced body weight, cardiac dimension and work significantly correlated with lower MEE, mostly when compared nonalcoholic with alcoholic cirrhosis (1.65 ± 0.42 vs. 1.95 ± 0.56 ml/s respectively; P = 0.002). Among the cardiovascular parameters left atrium enlargement and reduced MEE were independent predictors of death. CONCLUSIONS: In advanced chronic liver disease left ventricular performance is blunted due to an energetically inefficient cardiac mechanical work which correlates with a poor prognosis. Therefore, the simple basal assessment of MEE can identify patients with a worst prognosis which requires a close follow-up.

8.
Int J Cardiol ; 342: 94-102, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy (AC) is a familial cardiac disease, mainly caused by mutations in desmosomal genes. AC hearts show fibro-fatty myocardial replacement, which favors stress-related life-threatening arrhythmias, predominantly in the young and athletes. AC lacks effective therapies, as its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Recently, we showed that cardiac Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (cMSCs) contribute to adipose tissue in human AC hearts, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. PURPOSE: We hypothesize that the sympathetic neurotransmitter, Neuropeptide Y (NPY), participates to cMSC adipogenesis in human AC. METHODS: For translation of our findings, we combined in vitro cytochemical, molecular and pharmacologic assays on human cMSCs, from myocardial biopsies of healthy controls and AC patients, with the use of existing drugs to interfere with the predicted AC mechanisms. Sympathetic innervation was inspected in human autoptic heart samples, and NPY plasma levels measured in healthy and AC subjects. RESULTS: AC cMSCs expressed higher levels of pro-adipogenic isotypes of NPY-receptors (i.e. Y1-R, Y5-R). Consistently, NPY enhanced adipogenesis in AC cMSCs, which was blocked by FDA-approved Y1-R and Y5-R antagonists. AC-associated PKP2 reduction directly caused NPY-dependent adipogenesis in cMSCs. In support of the involvement of sympathetic neurons (SNs) and NPY in AC myocardial remodeling, patients had elevated NPY plasma levels and, in human AC hearts, SNs accumulated in fatty areas and were close to cMSCs. CONCLUSIONS: Independently from the disease origin, AC causes in cMSCs a targetable gain of responsiveness to NPY, which leads to increased adipogenesis, thus playing a role in AC myocardial remodeling.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Adipogenia , Humanos , Neuropeptídeo Y , Receptores de Neuropeptídeo Y
9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283055

RESUMO

The mechanism of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is fundamental for carcinogenesis, tumor progression, cancer cell invasion, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy resistance, comprising important events, such as cellular junction degradation, downregulation of epithelial phenotype markers, overexpression of mesenchymal markers, and increase in cellular motility. The same factors that drive epithelial cells toward a mesenchymal phenotype may also drive endothelial cells toward a proangiogenic phenotype. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate a potential interplay between EMT and angiogenesis (quantified through CD105 expression) in laryngeal carcinoma (LSCC). CD105-assessed microvessel density (MVD) and EMT markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, Zeb1, and Zeb2) were assessed on 37 consecutive LSCC cases. The univariate Cox regression model identified pN+ status (p = 0.0343) and Slug expression (p = 0.0268) as predictive of disease-free survival (DFS). A trend toward significance emerged for CD105-assessed MVD (p = 0.0869) and N-cadherin expression (p = 0.0911). In the multivariate Cox model, pN-status, Slug, and N-cadherin expressions retained their significant values in predicting DFS (p = 0.0346, p = 0.0430, and p = 0.0214, respectively). Our data support the hypothesis of a mutual concurrence of EMT and angiogenesis in driving LSCC cells toward an aggressive phenotype. To better characterize the predictive performance of prognostic models based on EMT and angiogenesis, further large-scale prospective studies are required.

10.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e047208, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321297

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paediatric cardiac arrest (PCA), despite its low incidence, has a high mortality. Its management is complex and deviations from guideline recommendations occur frequently. We developed a new interactive tablet app, named PediAppRREST, to support the management of PCA. The app received a good usability evaluation in a previous pilot trial. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the PediAppRREST app in reducing deviations from guideline recommendations in PCA management. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre, simulation-based, randomised controlled, three-parallel-arm study. Participants are residents in Paediatric, Emergency Medicine, and Anaesthesiology programmes in Italy. All 105 teams (315 participants) manage the same scenario of in-hospital PCA. Teams are randomised by the study statistician into one of three study arms for the management of the PCA scenario: (1) an intervention group using the PediAppRREST app or (2) a control group Paediatric Advanced Life Support (CtrlPALS+) using the PALS pocket reference card; or (3) a control group (CtrlPALS-) not allowed to use any PALS-related cognitive aid. The primary outcome of the study is the number of deviations (delays and errors) in PCA management from PALS guideline recommendations, according to a novel checklist, named c-DEV15plus. The c-DEV15plus scores will be compared between groups with a one-way analysis of variance model, followed by the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons adjustment procedure in case of statistical significance. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Ethics Committee of the University Hospital of Padova, coordinating centre of the trial, deemed the project to be a negligible risk study and approved it through an expedited review process. The results of the study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals, and at national and international scientific conferences. Based on the study results, the PediAppRREST app will be further refined and will be available for download by institutions/healthcare professionals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04619498; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca , Aplicativos Móveis , Criança , Cognição , Pessoal de Saúde , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209846

RESUMO

The prevalence of violence against women continues to grow and this plague has had a huge impact from a clinical, social and judicial point of view. For this reason, alongside the efforts made at the legislative level to prevent the phenomenon and to improve assistance to victims in recent years, efforts to contain and better manage this phenomenon have also grown in the extra-legislative sphere: for example, through the application of new technological solutions and safety planning. In recent years, there has been an increase in the marketing of mobile phone apps dedicated to the prevention of violence against women, with different functions and different objectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate the knowledge and propensity to download this type of app in a group of 1782 Italian female university students. This research was performed using an online questionnaire administered to female students attending four different courses (law, medicine, healthcare professionals and political sciences) at one Italian university. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test was used to analyze associations between responses to questionnaire and the type and the year of course. The results show that 62.6% of our sample are unaware of the existence of these apps and that 79.5% of the sample would be willing to download one in the future. With regard to whom to turn to after a violent incident, the majority of those interviewed (43.9%) would turn to the police and not to health facilities. According to our findings, law female students (52.7%) think, more than any other category, that the most effective way to improve public safety and reduce the number of victims lies in legislative solutions. Our results suggest that, although this type of technology may be promising, it is necessary to improve the knowledge and dissemination of these apps in order to make them a useful tool for prevention, education and assistance in cases of violence against women.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Violência/prevenção & controle
12.
JAMA Surg ; 156(9): e213112, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259797

RESUMO

Importance: Living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) offers advantages over deceased-donor liver transplant (DDLT) of improved intention-to-treat outcomes and management of the shortage of deceased-donor allografts. However, conflicting data still exist on the outcomes of LDLT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Objective: To investigate the potential survival benefit of an LDLT in patients with HCC from the time of waiting list inscription. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study with an intention-to-treat design analyzed the data of patients aged 18 years or older who had an HCC diagnosis and were on a waiting list for a first transplant. Patients from 12 collaborative centers in Europe, Asia, and the US who were on a transplant waiting list between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2017, composed the international cohort. The Toronto cohort comprised patients from 1 transplant center in Toronto, Ontario, Canada who were on a waiting list between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015. The international cohort centers performed either an LDLT or a DDLT, whereas the Toronto cohort center was selected for its capability to perform both LDLT and DDLT. The benefit of LDLT was tested in the 2 cohorts before and after undergoing an inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis. Data were analyzed from February 1 to May 31, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Intention-to-treat death was defined as a patient death that occurred for any reason and was calculated from the time of waiting list inscription for liver transplant to the last follow-up date (December 31, 2019). Four multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models for intention-to-treat death were created. Results: A total of 3052 patients were analyzed in the international cohort, of whom 2447 were men (80.2%) and the median (IQR) age at first referral was 58 (53-63) years. The Toronto cohort comprised 906 patients, of whom 743 were men (82.0%) and the median (IQR) age at first referral was 59 (53-63) years. In all the settings, LDLT was an independent protective factor, reducing the risk of overall death by 49% in the pre-IPTW analysis for the international cohort (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.36-0.71; P < .001), 33% in the post-IPTW analysis for the international cohort (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.53-0.85; P = .001), 43% in the pre-IPTW analysis for the Toronto cohort (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.45-0.73; P < .001), and 48% in the post-IPTW analysis for the Toronto cohort (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.65; P < .001). The discriminatory ability of the mathematical models further improved in all of the cases in which LDLT was incorporated. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that having a potential live donor could decrease the intention-to-treat risk of death in patients with HCC who are on a waiting list for a liver transplant. This benefit is associated with the elimination of the dropout risk and has been reported in centers in which both LDLT and DDLT options are equally available.

13.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 35: 100821, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179333

RESUMO

Background: Compared to angiotensin inhibition, angiotensin-neprilysin "blockade" improves mortality and reduces hospitalizations in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (EF). Sacubitril/valsartan is known to influence left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling with systolic function improvement, although underlying mechanisms remain partially unclear. Our objectives were to evaluate whether sacubitril/valsartan promotes LV remodeling and improves LV ejection fraction (LVEF) (above the 35% threshold by echocardiographic evaluation) and to identify predictors of reverse remodeling in a real-world setting. Methods: New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III patients with EF ≤ 35% were consecutively enrolled. All patients were on optimal medical therapy on the initiation of sacubitril/valsartan therapy. Full clinical and multi-parametric echocardiographic evaluation, electrocardiogram, and laboratory tests were performed at baseline and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Results: In total, 69 patients were recruited from July 2016 to August 2018. Reverse remodeling was observed in 57.7% (30/52) of patients, occurring within 3, 6, 12, and 24 months in 2, 11, 13, and 4 patients, respectively. Twenty-four (46%) patients showed LVEF improvement above the threshold of 35% during follow-up, occurring in 1, 10, 9, and 4 patients within 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Primitive dilated cardiomyopathy and female gender were identified as significant predictors of reverse remodeling. NYHA class was improved in both remodeling and non-remodeling patients. Conclusion: Sacubitril/valsartan promotes favorable cardiac remodeling and significantly improves LVEF in a significant proportion of HF patients within 24 months, both in NYHA class II and III patients with HF.

14.
J Neuroimmunol ; 357: 577598, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099270

RESUMO

Epidemiologic data on neuronal surface antibody (NSAb)-associated autoimmune encephalitides (NSAE) are scarce and heterogeneous. We review our 13-year-long biobank-data collection and provide the incidence of NSAE in two Italian provinces (approx. Population of 1,400,000) over a 5-year period (July 2013-June 2018). NSAbs were diagnosed in 75 out of 1179 tested patients (6.4%). The most common NSAbs were anti-LGI1 (30 cases), followed by NMDAR (24). Eleven cases of NSAE were diagnosed in Treviso and Trento provinces with an estimated incidence of 1.54 per 1,000,000 population (LGI1-encephalitis 0.84; C.I. 0.38-1.88). LGI1-E is the most frequent NSAE among adults.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Encefalite Límbica/epidemiologia , Encefalite Límbica/imunologia , Neurônios/imunologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(6): 103083, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049171

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recurrent upper respiratory disorders (RURD) are among the most common problems diagnosed in pediatric otolaryngology practice. Although several preliminary studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of thermal water inhalations for RURD, inhalation of thermal water has not been included among validated management protocols. The effects of sulfurous-arsenical-ferruginous thermal water nasal irrigations have been confirmed also in prospective, randomized studies. The main aim of this explorative, retrospective, observational study has been to compare the clinical outcome in pediatric patients with RURD treated with sulfurous-arsenical-ferruginous thermal water inhalation versus combined inhalation and nasal irrigation. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-three pediatric patients with RURD were considered; 231 underwent thermal water inhalations (inhalation of hot humid air and aerosol) only, while 22 underwent nasal irrigations combined with inhalations. Subjective overall efficacy perception and treatment tolerability were scored as categorical variables (from 0 = no efficacy/worst tolerability to 3 = maximal efficacy/best tolerability). RESULTS: Nasal obstruction, sneezing, serous, mucous, and purulent rhinorrhea, cough, and snoring improved respectively in 80.2%, 72.9%, 79.0%, 93.8%, 92.3%, 64.8%, and 60.4% of patients referring these symptoms at presentation, respectively. No statistically significant differences between inhalations alone and combined inhalations and irrigations emerged. The median overall efficacy perception score was 2 while the median treatment tolerability score was 3. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation found that sulfurous-arsenical-ferruginous water treatment was a well-tolerated therapeutic option for selected pediatric patients with RURD. These promising preliminary results should be confirmed in prospective, randomized, double-blind settings, also using minimally invasive but objective and quantitative evaluation methods.

16.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 60(5): 1074-1081, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The role of an additional ventricle in patients with a functional single ventricle undergoing the Fontan operation has been debated due to conflicting data. Our goal was to report our experience with Fontan circulation for complex congenital heart disease, with a focus on the influence that an additional ventricular chamber may have on early and long-term clinical outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective clinical study including all patients undergoing the Fontan procedure between 1978 and 2019. Clinical data were retrieved from our institutional database. A 'biventricular' Fontan (BVF) was defined as that performed in a patient with single ventricle anomaly where an additional diminutive ventricular cavity was present at echocardiographic evaluation. RESULTS: A total of 210 consecutive patients with functional single ventricle were included. Among these, 46 had BVF (21.9%). Early complications occurred in 42 patients (20.0%; 11 in BVF vs 31 in univentricular Fontan; P = 0.53) There were 18 early deaths (8.6%) with no difference between the groups. At a median follow-up of 12.7 years (interquartile range 5.4-20.7), there were no significant differences in late mortality, whereas cardiac rhythm disturbances resulted more frequently in univentricular Fontan (P = 0.018). Statistical analysis showed an equal distribution of BVF across time (P = 0.620), and there were no significant differences in terms of early and late survival (P = 0.53 and P = 0.72, respectively) or morbidity (P = 0.45 and P = 0.80, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A secondary ventricle in Fontan circulation is not significantly related to any clinical disadvantage in terms of survival or onset of complications. However, the immediate postoperative course may be influenced negatively by the presence of an additional secondary ventricle.

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(9): 3380-3386, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the outcome of occupational asthma (OA) are heterogeneous. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of being part of a specific cluster at diagnosis on the long-term outcome of diisocyanate-induced OA. METHODS: We collected data from 56 patients who had a diagnosis of OA confirmed by a positive specific inhalation challenge. Patients sensitized to toluene diisocyanate were allocated to cluster 1 or 2 based on a tree analysis, using the 3 variables relevant for cluster segregation identified in a previous study: age, body mass index, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity at diagnosis. Patients sensitized to methylene diisocyanate were allocated to cluster 3, as in previous study. We defined OA remission when a patient had met a total of 3 criteria: no asthma symptoms and no antiasthma therapy for the last year, as well as having normal lung function. RESULTS: At follow-up, 16 patients showed OA remission. They exhibited better lung function, less bronchial hyperreactivity, as well as younger age at diagnosis. Twenty-eight patients were allocated to cluster 1, 10 to cluster 2, and 18 to cluster 3. The percentage of patients with OA remission was higher in cluster 2 (50% vs 25% in cluster 1 and 22.5% in cluster 3), although the difference was not statistically significant (P = .2789). CONCLUSIONS: Age at diagnosis was a strong predictor of OA remission. The outcome of diisocyanate OA tended to be more favorable for patients with toluene diisocyanate OA allocated in cluster 2, but this finding needs to be validated by further data.


Assuntos
Asma Ocupacional , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Tolueno 2,4-Di-Isocianato , Asma Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Asma Ocupacional/tratamento farmacológico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenótipo
18.
Pathology ; 53(7): 844-851, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994172

RESUMO

In the specific field of laryngeal carcinoma (LSCC), evidence about the interaction between angiogenetic pathway and immune microenvironment has not yet been explored. Given the potential relevance of such an interaction for prognostic and therapeutic purposes, the main aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the existence of a correlation between angiogenesis (quantified through CD31 expression), programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, and immune microenvironment. A secondary aim was to verify whether considering a combination of angiogenesis and immune microenvironment variables might improve prognostic accuracy compared to the traditional clinical-pathological prognostic tools. CD31-assessed micro-vessel density (MVD), PD-L1 in terms of combined positive score (CPS), and tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were assessed on 45 consecutive cases of LSCC. Cox proportional hazards model revealed increasing CD31-assessed MVD values, PD-L1 CPS <1, and TILs count rate <30%, as predictive of reduced disease free survival (DFS). Multivariate analysis found that MVD (p<0.0001) and TILs (p=0.0420) retained their significant independent prognostic value. Spearman's correlation model disclosed a significant negative correlation between CD31-assessed MVD values and PD-L1 CPS (p=0.0040). PD-L1 CPS and TILs count rate were positively correlated (p<0.0001). DFS was significantly lower in the CD31-assessed MVD >7, PD-L1 CPS <1, TILs <30% group than in the MVD ≤7, PD-L1 CPS ≥1, TILs ≥30% group (p=0.0001). These data preliminarily support an integrated interpretation of the prognostic role or angiogenesis and immune microenvironment markers in LSCC. This is of potential clinical relevance suggesting a synergistic effect of the combination of anti-angiogenic drugs with programmed death-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors in advanced LSCC.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808790

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused temporary drops in the supply of organs for transplantation, leading to renewed debate about whether T2 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients should receive priority during these times. The aim of this study was to provide a quantitative model to aid decision-making in liver transplantation for T2 HCC. We proposed a novel ethical framework where the individual transplant benefit for a T2 HCC patient should outweigh the harm to others on the waiting list, determining a "net benefit", to define appropriate organ allocation. This ethical framework was then translated into a quantitative Markov model including Italian averages for waiting list characteristics, donor resources, mortality, and transplant rates obtained from a national prospective database (n = 8567 patients). The net benefit of transplantation in a T2 HCC patient in a usual situation varied from 0 life months with a model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 15, to 34 life months with a MELD score of 40, while it progressively decreased with acute organ shortage during a pandemic (i.e., with a 50% decrease in organs, the net benefit varied from 0 life months with MELD 30, to 12 life months with MELD 40). Our study supports the continuation of transplantation for T2 HCC patients during crises such as COVID-19; however, the focus needs to be on those T2 HCC patients with the highest net survival benefit.

20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(3)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801242

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Over the last two decades, human DNA identification and kinship tests have been conducted mainly through the analysis of short tandem repeats (STRs). However, other types of markers, such as insertion/deletion polymorphisms (InDels), may be required when DNA is highly degraded. In forensic genetics, tumor samples may sometimes be used in some cases of human DNA identification and in paternity tests. Nevertheless, tumor genomic instability related to forensic DNA markers should be considered in forensic analyses since it can compromise genotype attribution. Therefore, it is useful to know what impact tumor transformation may have on the forensic interpretation of the results obtained from the analysis of these polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to investigate the genomic instability of InDels and STRs through the analysis of 55 markers in healthy tissue and tumor samples (hepatic, gastric, breast, and colorectal cancer) in 66 patients. The evaluation of genomic instability was performed comparing InDel and STR genotypes of tumor samples with those of their healthy counterparts. Results: With regard to STRs, colorectal cancer was found to be the tumor type affected by the highest number of mutations, whereas in the case of InDels the amount of genetic mutations turned out to be independent of the tumor type. However, the phenomena of genomic instability, such as loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI), seem to affect InDels more than STRs hampering genotype attribution. Conclusion: We suggest that the use of STRs rather than InDels could be more suitable in forensic genotyping analyses given that InDels seem to be more affected than STRs by mutation events capable of compromising genotype attribution.


Assuntos
Genética Forense , Mutação INDEL , Alelos , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação INDEL/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
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