Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 202
Filtrar
1.
Global Health ; 17(1): 119, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627303

RESUMO

The major threat to human societies posed by undernutrition has been recognised for millennia. Despite substantial economic development and scientific innovation, however, progress in addressing this global challenge has been inadequate. Paradoxically, the last half-century also saw the rapid emergence of obesity, first in high-income countries but now also in low- and middle-income countries. Traditionally, these problems were approached separately, but there is increasing recognition that they have common drivers and need integrated responses. The new nutrition reality comprises a global 'double burden' of malnutrition, where the challenges of food insecurity, nutritional deficiencies and undernutrition coexist and interact with obesity, sedentary behaviour, unhealthy diets and environments that foster unhealthy behaviour. Beyond immediate efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition, what must change in order to reduce the future burden? Here, we present a conceptual framework that focuses on the deeper structural drivers of malnutrition embedded in society, and their interaction with biological mechanisms of appetite regulation and physiological homeostasis. Building on a review of malnutrition in past societies, our framework brings to the fore the power dynamics that characterise contemporary human food systems at many levels. We focus on the concept of agency, the ability of individuals or organisations to pursue their goals. In globalized food systems, the agency of individuals is directly confronted by the agency of several other types of actor, including corporations, governments and supranational institutions. The intakes of energy and nutrients by individuals are powerfully shaped by this 'competition of agency', and we therefore argue that the greatest opportunities to reduce malnutrition lie in rebalancing agency across the competing actors. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on food systems and individuals illustrates our conceptual framework. Efforts to improve agency must both drive and respond to complementary efforts to promote and maintain equitable societies and planetary health.


Assuntos
Previsões , Saúde Global/tendências , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Humanos
2.
BMC Nutr ; 7(1): 60, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Without high-quality nutritional support, there is a risk that people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) will replace lost muscle mass with fat mass when initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). We have shown that lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with whey or soy considerably increases lean mass among Ethiopian people with HIV starting ART. Here, we aim to assess the effects of LNS on insulin function and glucose metabolism. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial testing the effect of three-month supplementation with LNS containing whey (LNS/whey) or soy (LNS/soy) among people with HIV. LNS/whey and LNS/soy groups were combined and then were compared against the non-supplemented group. The outcomes were change in fasting plasma-glucose (FPG), and 30-min glucose and 120-min glucose after oral glucose tolerance test. We further assessed effect on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment index for beta-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: Of the 318 patients enrolled, 268 (84.3%) had available FPG and HbA1c and included. After 3 months of ART, HbA1c tended to be 2 mmol/mol higher in the LNS supplemented group, most pronounced among those receiving whey as the protein source. LNS led to higher 30-min glucose (0.5 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.2, 0.8) and 120-min glucose (0.4 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.03, 0.8) and a > 50% increase in fasting insulin, HOMA-B and HOMA-IR compared to the non-supplemented. CONCLUSION: Among Ethiopian people with HIV initiating ART, short-term LNS intake increased glucose and insulin levels, and tended to increase HbA1c, potentially leading to more insulin resistance. Higher intake of carbohydrates with LNS could influence glycemic status. Whether these metabolic changes in early HIV treatment are beneficial or increase long-term risk of metabolic disorders needs to be explored.

3.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 5(10): nzab118, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712895

RESUMO

Background: Linear catch-up growth after treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is low, and little is known about the association between ponderal and subsequent linear growth. Objective: The study assessed the association of weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) gain with subsequent linear growth during SAM treatment and examined its modifiers. Methods: This was a prospective study, nested in a trial (ISRCTN16454889), among 6-59-mo-old children treated for SAM in Uganda. Weight, total length (TL), and knee-heel length (KHL) were measured at admission, weekly during inpatient therapeutic care (ITC), at discharge, and fortnightly during outpatient therapeutic care (OTC) for 8 wk. Linear regression was used to assess the association between WHZ gain during ITC and linear growth during OTC. Results: Of 400 children, 327 were discharged to OTC and 290 were followed up for 8 wk. Mean WHZ gains were 0.45 in ITC and 1.24 in OTC, whereas mean height-for-age z-score (HAZ) declined by 0.41 during ITC and increased by 0.14 during OTC. WHZ gain during ITC was positively associated with HAZ, TL, and KHL gains during OTC [regression coefficients (ß) (95% CI): 0.12 (0.09, 0.15) z-score; 3.1 (2.4, 3.8) mm and 0.5 (0.1, 0.7) mm, respectively]. The regression coefficients were highest for the middle tertile of WHZ gain with respect to HAZ and TL. Admission diarrhea and low plasma citrulline reduced the association between WHZ gain during ITC and HAZ and TL gain during OTC (P < 0.001). In contrast, pneumonia (P = 0.051) and elevated plasma C-reactive protein (P < 0.001) increased the association with TL gain, but reduced the association with KHL gain (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Among children admitted with SAM, considerable WHZ gain during ITC was followed by very modest linear catch-up growth during OTC, with no indication of a WHZ gain threshold, above which linear growth was higher. To optimize linear growth in these children, early treatment of infections and conditions affecting the gut may be necessary.

4.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the associations of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with cardio-metabolic risk factors for diabetes in adult Kenyans. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among rural and urban Kenyans of different ethnic origin. Ultrasonography scanning (USS) methods were used for the assessment of hepatic fat accumulation for NAFLD assessment and abdominal fat distribution, and simple anthropometry measurements were performed. All participants underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, and biochemical, haemodynamic and lifestyle data were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess sex, age, residency and ethnic differences in the association between NAFLD and various metabolic parameters. RESULTS: In total, 743 individuals (59.1% women) with a mean age of 38.0 (range 18-68) years participated in the study. Overall, 118 individuals (15.9%) had NAFLD, of whom 94.1% had mild steatosis. Age >40 years was significantly associated with having NAFLD compared with <30 years of age with no difference found in NAFLD between ethnic groups (Luo, Kamba, Maasai). All body composition and clinical measurements were associated with NAFLD (p < 0.045 for OR). CONCLUSION: Finding lower odds for NAFLD in men was unexpected, as was the lack of differences in NAFLD among the ethnic groups, while higher odds for NAFLD with increasing age and in urban vs. rural populations was expected. Especially the sex-specific results warrant further studies in black African populations on biology of body composition for having NAFLD, and whether this translates into insulin resistance and higher risk of diabetes and consequently cardiovascular disease in black African women.

5.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 355, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the burden of impaired renal function is rising in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), little is known about correlates of impaired renal function in the region. We determined factors associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and impaired renal function in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults. METHODS: We undertook cross-sectional analysis of data from 1947 adults at enrolment for a cohort study on diabetes and associated complications in HIV patients in Mwanza, north-western Tanzania. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemography, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and anthropometry. We measured blood pressure, tested blood samples for creatinine, glucose and HIV, and performed Kato Katz for Schistosoma mansoni. Correlates of eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) and impaired renal function (eGFR< 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) were determined using linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. RESULTS: 655 (34%) participants were HIV-uninfected, 956 (49%) were ART-naive HIV-infected and 336 (17%) were HIV-infected adults on ART. The mean age was 41 years (SD12) and majority (59%) were females. Overall, the mean eGFR was 113.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 but 111.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 in HIV-uninfected, 109.7 mL/min/1.73 m2 in ART-naive HIV-infected and 129.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 in HIV-infected ART-experienced adults, and respective prevalence of impaired renal function was 7.0, 5.7, 8.1 and 6.3%. Correlates of lower eGFR were increasing age, higher socioeconomic status, unhealthy alcohol drinking, higher body mass index and diabetes mellitus. Anaemia was associated with 1.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.2, 2.7, p = 0.001) higher odds of impaired renal function compared to no anaemia and this effect was modified by HIV status (p value 0.02 for interaction). CONCLUSION: Impaired renal function is prevalent in this middle-aged study population. Interventions for prevention of impaired renal function are needed in the study population with special focus in HIV-infected adults and those with high socioeconomic status. Interventions targeting modifiable risk factors such as alcohol and weight reduction are warranted.

6.
BMC Nutr ; 7(1): 26, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight gain is routinely monitored to assess hydration and growth during treatment of children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM). However, changes in weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) gain velocities over time are scarcely described. We assessed weight and MUAC gain velocities in 6-59 mo-old children with complicated SAM by treatment phase and edema status. METHODS: This was a prospective study, nested in a randomized/probiotic trial ( ISRCTN16454889 ). Weight and MUAC gain velocities were assessed by treatment phase and edema at admission using linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: Among 400 children enrolled, the median (IQR) age was 15.0 (11.2;19.2) months, 58% were males, and 65% presented with edema. During inpatient therapeutic care (ITC), children with edema vs no edema at admission had negative weight gain velocity in the stabilization phase [differences at day 3 and 4 were - 11.26 (95% CI: - 20.73; - 1.79) g/kg/d and - 13.09 (95% CI: - 23.15; - 3.02) g/kg/d, respectively]. This gradually changed into positive weight gain velocity in transition and eventually peaked at 12 g/kg/d early in the rehabilitation phase, with no difference by edema status (P > 0.9). During outpatient therapeutic care (OTC), overall, weight gain velocity showed a decreasing trend over time (from 5 to 2 g/kg/d), [difference between edema and non-edema groups at week 2 was 2.1 (95% CI: 1.0;3.2) g/kg/d]. MUAC gain velocity results mirrored those of weight gain velocity [differences were - 2.30 (95% CI: - 3.6; - 0.97) mm/week at week 1 in ITC and 0.65 (95% CI: - 0.07;1.37) mm/week at week 2 in OTC]. CONCLUSIONS: Weight and MUAC gain velocities among Ugandan children with complicated SAM showed an increasing trend during transition and early in the rehabilitation phase, and a decreasing trend thereafter, but, overall, catch-up growth was prolonged. Further research to establish specific cut-offs to assess weight and MUAC gain velocities during different periods of rehabilitation is needed.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(3): 965-972, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (sIGF-1) is an important growth factor in childhood. However, studies on sIGF-1 among children from low-income countries are few, and the role of body composition is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the associations of anthropometry, body composition, inflammation, and breastfeeding with sIGF-1 among children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on admission data from 6- to 23-mo-old children with MAM participating in a nutrition intervention trial (Treatfood) in Burkina Faso. Linear regression analysis was used to identify correlates of sIGF-1. RESULTS: Among 1546 children, the median (IQR) sIGF-1 was 12 (8.2-18.3) ng/mL. sIGF-1 was highest at 6 mo, with a nadir ∼10-11 mo, and higher in girls than boys. Length-for-age z score (LAZ), weight-for-length z score (WLZ), and midupper arm circumference were positively associated with sIGF-1 (P ≤ 0.001). Fat-free mass (FFM) was also positively associated, as sIGF-1 increased 1.5 (95% CI: 0.5, 2.5) ng/mL for each 1-kg increase in FFM. However, the association disappeared after adjustment for height. Elevated serum C-reactive protein and α1-acid glycoprotein were negatively associated with sIGF-1 (P ≤ 0.001), as was fever (P < 0.001) but not a positive malaria test per se (P = 0.15). Children never breastfed had lower sIGF-1 (-5.1; 95% CI: -9.8, -0.3). CONCLUSIONS: LAZ and WLZ were positively and inflammation negatively associated with sIGF-1. As all children were moderately malnourished and many had inflammation, this probably explains the very low median sIGF-1. The association of FFM with sIGF-1 was fully explained by height. There was a marked age pattern, with a nadir in late infancy, confirming findings from smaller studies from well-nourished populations. There is a need for prospective studies to disentangle the role of sIGF-1 in growth and health. This trial was registered at https://www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN42569496.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
8.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 5(5): nzab067, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027295

RESUMO

Stunting is associated with cognitive impairment and later chronic disease. Previous trials to prevent stunting have had little effect, and no trials seem to have provided larger amounts of energy and high-quality proteins to already stunted children. We aimed to assess the effects of milk protein (MP) and whey permeate (WP) in large-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS-LQ), among stunted children, on linear growth and child development. This was a randomized, double-blind, 2-by-2 factorial trial. Stunted children aged 12-59 mo from eastern Uganda (n = 750) were randomly assigned to receive 100 g LNS-LQ with or without MP and WP (n = 4 × 150) or no supplement (n = 150) for 3 mo. The primary outcomes were change in knee-heel and total length. Secondary outcomes included child development, body composition, anthropometry, and hemoglobin. Micronutrient status, intestinal function, and microbiota were also assessed. Our findings will contribute to an understanding of the role of milk ingredients and LNS in linear catch-up growth. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN13093195.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247600, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity predict metabolic syndrome parameters at low levels of waist circumference (WC) in Africans. At the same time, the African lipid profile phenotype of low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol without concomitant elevated triglyceride levels renders high triglyceride levels detrimental to cardiometabolic health unsuitable for identifying cardiometabolic risk in black African populations. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify simple clinical measures for cardiometabolic risk based on WC and HDL in an adult Kenyan population in order to determine which of the two predictors had the strongest impact. METHODS: We used linear regression analyses to assess the association between the two exposure variables WC and HDL with cardiometabolic risk factors including ultrasound-derived visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) accumulation, fasting and 2-h venous glucose, fasting insulin, fasting lipid profile, and blood pressure in adult Kenyans (n = 1 370), and a sub-population with hyperglycaemia (diabetes and pre-diabetes) (n = 196). The same analyses were performed with an interaction between WC and HDL to address potential effect modification. Ultrasound-based, semi-quantitative hepatic steatosis assessment was used as a high-risk measure of cardiometabolic disease. RESULTS: Mean age was 38.2 (SD 10.7) (range 17-68) years, mean body mass index was 22.3 (SD 4.5) (range 13.0-44.8) kg/m2, and 57.8% were women. Cardiometabolic risk was found in the association between both WC and HDL and all outcome variables (p<0.05) except for HDL and SAT, fasting and 2-h venous glucose. Additive cardiometabolic risk (WC and HDL interaction) was found for SAT, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. No differences in the association between WC and HDL and the outcome variables were found when comparing the full study population and the hyperglycaemia sub-population. Increase in WC and HDL were both associated with hepatic steatosis (OR 1.09, p<0.001, and OR 0.46, p = 0.031, respectively). CONCLUSION: In adult Kenyans, increasing WC identified more cardiometabolic risk factors compared to HDL.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 1, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition continues to be a major cause of mortality and morbidity among children in resource limited settings. Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) experience severe thymus atrophy, possibly reflecting poor immune function. This immune dysfunction is responsible for the severe infections they experience which lead to mortality. Since their immune dysfunction is not fully understood and there has been a lapse in research in this field, more research is needed. Knowing the correlates of thymus size may help clinicians identify those with more severe atrophy who might have more severe immune impairment. We aimed to describe thymus size and its correlates at admission among children hospitalized with SAM. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved children 6-59 months admitted with complicated SAM in Mulago National Referral Hospital. Well-nourished children from same communities were used as a community reference group for thymus size. At admission, thymus size was measured by ultrasound scan. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were identified at admission. A linear regression model was used to determine correlates of thymus size among children with SAM. RESULTS: Among 388 children with SAM, the mean age was 17±8.5 months and 58% were boys. The mean thymus size was 3.14 (95% CI 2.9; 3.4) cm2 lower than that of the 27 healthy community reference children (1.06 vs 4.2 cm2, p<0.001) when controlled for age. Thymus size positively correlated with current breastfeeding (0.14, 95% CI 0.01, 0.26), anthropometric measurements at admission (weight, length, mid-upper-arm circumference, weight-for-height Z scores and length-for-age Z scores) and suspected tuberculosis (0.12, 95% CI 0.01; 0.22). Thymus size negatively correlated with > 2 weeks duration of sickness (-0.10; 95% CI -0.19; -0.01). CONCLUSION: The thymus is indeed a barometer for nutrition since all anthropometric measurements and breastfeeding were associated with bigger thymus. The immune benefits of breastfeeding among children with SAM is underscored. Children with longer duration of illness had a smaller thymus gland indicating that infections have a role in the cause or consequence of thymus atrophy.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Desnutrição Aguda Grave , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/diagnóstico por imagem , Timo/diagnóstico por imagem , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(4): 428-434, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Better understanding of glucose metabolism in patients with HIV after initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important to target treatment and follow-up for diabetes risk and other non-communicable diseases in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to assess the changes and predictors of glucose metabolism and blood pressure among patients with HIV on ART for 12 months. METHODS: One-year follow-up of Ethiopian patients with HIV after initiation of ART was done. Outcomes were changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 30-minute (30mPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) after oral glucose tolerance test, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma insulin (p-insulin), homeostatic model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and blood pressure.   RESULTS: The mean age was 33 years, and the majority were women. During the first 12 months, levels of all plasma glucose parameters decreased, while p-insulin (10B 3.1; 95% CI2.4, 4.0), HOMA-IR (10B 3.1; 95% CI2.3, 4.0) and systolic blood pressure (B 4.0; 95% CI2.5, 5.5) increased. Fat-free mass at baseline predicted higher increments in p-insulin, HOMA-IR and blood pressure; whereas, fat mass predicted higher increment in HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: Among Ethiopian patients with HIV, blood pressure and insulin increased, and all glucose parameters declined during 12-month of ART. Only longer-term follow-up will tell us whether insulin increase is due to insulin resistance or from recovering ß-cells.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/sangue , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Etiópia , Jejum , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Longevidade , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(4): 435-443, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies on phenotypes of diabetes in Africa are inconsistent. We assessed the role of ß-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance on pre-diabetes and diabetes. METHODS: We included 1890 participants with mean age of 40.6 (SD11.9) years in a cross-sectional study among male and female adults in Tanzania during 2016 to 2017. Data on C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha-acid glycoprotein (AGP), HIV, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), body composition and insulin were collected. Insulinogenic index and HOMA-IR were used to derive an overall marker of ß-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance which was categorised as follows: normal ß-cell function and insulin sensitivity, isolated ß-cell dysfunction, isolated insulin resistance, and combined ß-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Pre-diabetes and diabetes were defined as 2-hour OGTT glucose between 7.8-11.0 and ≥ 11.1 mmol/L, respectively. Multinomial regression assessed the association of ß-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance with outcome measures. RESULTS: ß-cell dysfunction, insulin resistance, and combined ß-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance were associated with higher pre-diabetes risk. Similarly, isolated ß-cell dysfunction (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) 4.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5, 9.0), isolated insulin resistance (aRRR 3.2 (95% CI 1.5, 6.9), and combined ß-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance (aRRR 35.9 (95% CI 17.2, 75.2) were associated with higher diabetes risk. CRP, AGP and HIV were associated with higher diabetes risk, but fat mass was not. 31%, 10% and 33% of diabetes cases were attributed to ß-cell dysfunction, insulin resistance, and combined ß-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ß-cell dysfunction seemed to explain most of diabetes cases compared to insulin resistance in this population. Cohort studies on evolution of diabetes in Africa are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Glicoproteínas/sangue , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia
13.
Pediatr Res ; 89(7): 1732-1741, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) affects millions of children, increasing their risk of dying from infections. Thymus atrophy may be a marker of malnutrition-associated immunodeficiency, but factors associated with thymus size in children with MAM are unknown, as is the effect of nutritional interventions on thymus size. METHODS: Thymus size was measured by ultrasound in 279 children in Burkina Faso with MAM, diagnosed by low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and/or low weight-for-length z-score (WLZ), who received 12 weeks treatment with different food supplements as part of a randomized trial. Correlates of thymus size and of changes in thymus size after treatment, and after another 12 weeks of follow-up were identified. RESULTS: Thymus size correlated positively with age, anthropometry and blood haemoglobin, and was smaller in children with malaria. Children with malnutrition diagnosed using MUAC had a smaller thymus than children diagnosed based on WLZ. Thymus size increased during and after treatment, similarly across the different food supplement groups. CONCLUSIONS: In children with MAM, the thymus is smaller in children with anaemia or malaria, and grows with recovery. Assuming that thymus size reflects vulnerability, low MUAC seems to identify more vulnerable children than low WLZ in children with MAM. IMPACT: Thymus atrophy is known to be a marker of the immunodeficiency associated with malnutrition in children. In children with moderate malnutrition, we found the thymus to be smaller in children with anaemia or malaria. Assuming that thymus size reflects vulnerability, low MUAC seems to identify more vulnerable children than low weight for length. Thymus atrophy appears reversible with recovery from malnutrition, with similar growth seen in children randomized to treatment with different nutritional supplements.

14.
Clin Nutr ; 40(2): 624-631, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Change in hydration is common in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) including during treatment, but is difficult to assess. We investigated the utility of bio-electrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), a quick non-invasive method, for indexing hydration during treatment. METHODS: We studied 350 children 0·5-14 years of age with SAM (mid-upper arm circumference <11·0 cm or weight-for-height <70% of median, and/or nutritional oedema) admitted to a hospital nutrition unit, but excluded medically unstable patients. Weight, height (H), resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PA) were measured and oedema assessed. Similar data were collected from 120 healthy infants and preschool/school children for comparison. Means of height-adjusted vectors (R/H, Xc/H) from SAM children were interpreted using tolerance and confidence ellipses of corresponding parameters from the healthy children. RESULTS: SAM children with oedema were less wasted than those without (p < 0·001), but had BIVA parameters that differed more from those of healthy children (P < 0·05) than those non-oedematous. Initially, both oedematous and non-oedematous SAM children had mean vectors outside the reference 95% tolerance ellipse. During treatment, mean vectors migrated differently in the two SAM groups, indicating fluid loss in oedematous patients, and tissue accretion in non-oedematous patients. At admission, R/H was lower (oedematous) or higher (non-oedematous) among children who died than those who exited the hospital alive. CONCLUSIONS: BIVA can be used in children with SAM to distinguish tissue-vs. hydration-related weight changes during treatment, and also identify children at high risk of death enabling early clinical interventions.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Impedância Elétrica , Avaliação Nutricional , Terapia Nutricional , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Edema/complicações , Edema/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/terapia
15.
PLoS Med ; 17(12): e1003442, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and corn-soy blends (CSBs) with varying soy and milk content are used in treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). We assessed the impact of these supplements on child development. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a randomised 2 × 2 × 3 factorial trial to assess the effectiveness of 12 weeks' supplementation with LNS or CSB, with either soy isolate or dehulled soy, and either 0%, 20%, or 50% of protein from milk, on child development among 6-23-month-old children with MAM. Recruitment took place at 5 health centres in Province du Passoré, Burkina Faso between September 2013 and August 2014. The study was fully blinded with respect to soy quality and milk content, while study participants were not blinded with respect to matrix. This analysis presents secondary trial outcomes: Gross motor, fine motor, and language development were assessed using the Malawi Development Assessment Tool (MDAT). Of 1,609 children enrolled, 54.7% were girls, and median age was 11.3 months (interquartile range [IQR] 8.2-16.0). Twelve weeks follow-up was completed by 1,548 (96.2%), and 24 weeks follow-up was completed by 1,503 (93.4%); follow-up was similar between randomised groups. During the study, 4 children died, and 102 children developed severe acute malnutrition (SAM). There was no difference in adverse events between randomised groups. At 12 weeks, the mean MDAT z-scores in the whole cohort had increased by 0.33 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.37), p < 0.001 for gross motor; 0.26 (0.20, 0.31), p < 0.001 for fine motor; and 0.14 (0.09, 0.20), p < 0.001 for language development. Children had larger improvement in language z-scores if receiving supplements with milk (20%: 0.09 [-0.01, 0.19], p = 0.08 and 50%: 0.11 [0.01, 0.21], p = 0.02), although the difference only reached statistical significance for 50% milk. Post hoc analyses suggested that this effect was specific to boys (interaction p = 0.02). The fine motor z-scores were also improved in children receiving milk, but only when 20% milk was added to CSB (0.18 [0.03, 0.33], p = 0.02). Soy isolate over dehulled soy increased language z-scores by 0.07 (-0.01, 0.15), p = 0.10, although not statistically significant. Post hoc analyses suggested that LNS benefited gross motor development among boys more than did CSB (interaction p = 0.04). Differences between supplement groups did not persist at 24 weeks, but MDAT z-scores continued to increase post-supplementation. The lack of an unsupplemented control group limits us from determining the overall effects of nutritional supplementation for children with MAM. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that child development improved during and after supplementation for treatment of MAM. Milk protein was beneficial for language and fine motor development, while suggested benefits related to soy quality and supplement matrix merit further investigation. Supplement-specific effects were not found post-intervention, but z-scores continued to improve, suggesting a sustained overall effect of supplementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN42569496.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/dietoterapia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Proteínas do Leite/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Fatores Etários , Burkina Faso , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Linguagem Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Destreza Motora , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244782, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382828

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is recommended for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes. However, in people with sickle cell disease (SCD), sickle cell trait (SCT), α-thalassemia or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, HbA1c may underestimate the prevalence of diabetes. There are no data on the extent of this problem in sub-Saharan Africa despite having high prevalence of these red blood cell disorders. METHODS: Blood samples from 431 adults in northwestern Tanzania, randomly selected from the prospective cohort study, Chronic Infections, Comorbidities and Diabetes in Africa (CICADA), were analysed for SCT/SCD, α-thalassemia and G6PD deficiency and tested for associations with the combined prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes (PD/DM) by HbA1c, using the HemoCue 501 HbA1c instrument, and by 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 40.5 (SD11.6) years; 61% were females and 71% were HIV-infected. Among 431 participants, 110 (25.5%) had SCT and none had SCD. Heterozygous α-thalassemia (heterozygous α+ AT) was present in 186 (43%) of the participants, while 52 participants (12%) had homozygous α-thalassemia (homozygous α+ AT). Furthermore, 40 (9.3%) participants, all females, had heterozygous G6PD deficiency while 24 (5.6%) males and 4 (0.9%) females had hemizygous and homozygous G6PD deficiency, respectively. In adjusted analysis, participants with SCT were 85% less likely to be diagnosed with PD/DM by HbA1c compared to those without SCT (OR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.26, P < 0.001). When using OGTT, in adjusted analysis, SCT was not associated with diagnosis of PD/DM while participants with homozygous α+ AT and hemizygous G6PD deficiency were more likely to be diagnosed with PD/DM. CONCLUSIONS: HbA1c underestimates the prevalence of PD/DM among Tanzanian adults with SCT. Further research using other HbA1c instruments is needed to optimize HbA1c use among populations with high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies or G6PD deficiency.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hemoglobinopatias/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13266, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764545

RESUMO

Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated based on low weight-for-length z-score (WLZ), low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) or both. This study aimed to assess associations of admission criteria and body composition (BC), to improve treatment of MAM. We undertook a cross-sectional study among 6-23 months old Burkinabe children with MAM. Fat-free (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were determined by deuterium dilution and expressed as FFM (FFMI) and FM index (FMI). Of 1,489 children, 439 (29.5%) were recruited by low MUAC only (MUAC-O), 734 (49.3%) by low WLZ and low MUAC (WLZ-MUAC) and 316 (21.2%) by low WLZ only (WLZ-O). Thus, 1,173 (78.8%) were recruited by low MUAC, with or without low WLZ (ALL-MUAC). After adjustments, WLZ-O had 89 g (95% confidence interval (CI) 5; 172) lower FFM compared to MUAC-O. Similarly, WLZ-O had 0.89 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.77; 1.01) lower FFMI compared to MUAC-O, whereas there was no difference for FMI. However, boys included by WLZ-O compared to MUAC-O had 0.21 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.05; 0.38) higher FMI. In contrast, girls included by WLZ-O had 0.17 (95% CI 0.01; 0.33) kg/m2 lower FMI compared to MUAC-O (interaction, p = 0.002). We found that different criteria for admission into MAM treatment programmes select children with differences in BC, especially FFMI.Trial registration: ISRCTN42569496.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/terapia , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Masculino , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 582, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) or Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) on renal function in Ethiopians. We aimed to assess factors associated with renal function changes during the first year of ART with special focus on TDF. METHODS: HIV positive persons who were ≥ 18 years of age and eligible for ART initiation were recruited. Creatinine measurement to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and spot urine analyses were performed at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months of ART. Univariate and multivariate linear regression and univariate logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with eGFR as continuous and categorical variable respectively. A linear mixed model was used to assess 12 month eGFR difference in TDF and non-TDF based regimen. RESULT: Of 340 ART-naïve HIV patients with baseline renal function tests, 82.3% (279/339) were initiated on a TDF based ART regimen. All patients were on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) based ART regimen. The median (IQR) change in eGFR with 12 months of ART was 0.8 (- 11.1; 10.0) ml/min/1.73m2. About 41 and 26.9% of HIV patients had a drop of greater than 3 and 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 in eGFR at 12 month, respectively. However, none of the HIV patients declined to < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 within 12 months. Moreover, none of the HIV patients had persistent proteinuria or glycosuria. Older HIV patients especially age > 45 years and those with unsuppressed viral load at 6 month of ART had a significantly lower eGFR at 12 months of ART initiation. However, there was no difference in 12 month eGFR between HIV patients initiated on TDF based regimen and non-TDF based regimen. CONCLUSION: Renal function remained stable with no difference between HIV patients treated with TDF or non-TDF NNRTI based ART regimen over 12 months. However, older HIV patients and those with unsuppressed viral load deserve special focus on renal monitoring. Data on long-term safety of TDF (> 1 year) is still warranted in this population.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Creatinina/sangue , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteinúria , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...