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2.
Cardiol Rev ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282391

RESUMO

There has been significant interest in research for the development of device-based therapy as a treatment option of heart failure (HF), whether it is with reduced or preserved ejection fraction. This is due to the high morbidity and mortality rate in patients with HF despite recent advances in pharmacologic treatment. Following the success of cardiac resynchronization therapy, baroreceptor activation therapy has emerged as another novel device-based treatment for HF. The Barostim neo™ was developed by CVRx, Minneapolis, MN for the treatment of mild to severe HF. The device works by electrically activating the baroreceptor reflex with the goal to restore the maladaptive autonomic imbalance that is seen in patients with HF. Preliminary clinical investigations have given promising results with an encouraging safety profile. Baroreceptor activation therapy as a treatment option is still investigational at this time, however several trials in different patient populations have already shown benefit with a very good safety profile. In this review, we will summarize the current state of technology and the available literature of the use of baroreceptor activation therapy in patients with different comorbidities, with a focus on this device-based therapy in patients with HF.

3.
Cardiol Rev ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282392

RESUMO

Stress (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy (SC) is becoming an increasingly recognized syndrome, previously underdiagnosed due to its similar presentation to acute coronary syndrome (ACS). With advancements in imaging and diagnostic tools, our ability to recognize, diagnose and subsequently manage SC has advanced as well. Multiple diagnostic criteria have been created for the diagnosis of SC. While the diagnosis of SC does not always require imaging, advanced imaging can aid in the diagnosis of SC in unclear cases. However, due to the severity of ACS and the consequences of missing that diagnosis, SC is still typically a diagnosis of exclusion once ACS has been ruled out on cardiac catheterization. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of SC is still evolving. While catecholamine surges are widely believed to be the precipitating cause of SC, the exact mechanism for how catecholamine surges lead to ventricular dysfunction is still being debated. Understanding the mechanism behind ventricular dysfunction in SC can potentially provide the basis for treatment. Different stressors may lead to different variants of cardiomyopathy, with different portions of the ventricles affected. Treatment of SC is largely supportive and therefore should be tailored to the patient's individual needs based on the severity of presentation. Both the underlying stressor and the variant of SC affect time to recovery and mortality. Many patient factors can impact prognosis as well. Even after initial hospital discharge for SC, long-term risks do exist, including the risk for recurrent SC. Only angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown to reduce the recurrence of SC.

4.
Cardiol Rev ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282393

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). With T2DM growing in pandemic proportions, there will be profound healthcare implications of CVD in diabetics. The ideal drugs to improve outcomes in T2DM are those having antiglycemic efficacy in addition to CV safety, which has to be determined in appropriately-designed CV outcome trials as mandated by regulatory agencies. Available evidence is largely supportive of metformin's CV safety and potential CVD risk reduction effects, whereas sulfonylureas are either CV risk neutral or are associated with variable CVD risk. Pioglitazone was also associated with improved CVD risk in non-diabetics. The more recent antihyperglycemic medications have shown promise with regards to CVD risk reduction in T2DM patients at a high CV risk. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, a type of incretin-based therapy, were associated with better CV outcomes and mortality in T2DM patients, leading to the Food and Drug Administration approval of liraglutide to reduce CVD risk in high-risk T2DM patients. Ongoing and planned randomized controlled trials of the newer drugs should clarify the possibility of class effects, and of CVD risk reduction benefits in low-moderate CV risk patients. While metformin remains the first-line antiglycemic therapy in T2DM, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists should be appropriately prescribed in T2DM patients with baseline CVD or in those at a high CVD risk to improve CV outcomes. Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors and sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors are discussed in the second part of this review.

5.
Cardiol Rev ; 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271194

RESUMO

Ideal drugs to improve outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are those with anti-glycemic efficacy, as well as cardiovascular safety that has to be determined in appropriately designed cardiovascular outcome trials as mandated by regulatory agencies. The more recent anti-hyperglycemic medications have shown promise with regards to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction in T2DM patients at a high cardiovascular risk. Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are associated with better cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in T2DM patients than are dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, leading to the Food and Drug Administration's approval of empagliflozin to reduce mortality, and of liraglutide to reduce CVD risk in high-risk T2DM patients. For heart failure outcomes, sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors are beneficial, while glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are neutral. Ongoing and planned randomized controlled trials of these newer drugs should clarify the possibility of class-effects and of CVD risk reduction benefits in low-moderate cardiovascular risk patients. While we eagerly await the results on ongoing studies, these medications should be appropriately prescribed in T2DM patients with baseline CVD or those at a high CVD risk after carefully evaluating the elevated risk for adverse events like gastrointestinal disturbances, bladder cancer, genital infections, and amputations. Studies to understand the pleotropic and novel pathophysiological mechanisms demonstrated by the sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors will shed light on the effects of the modulation of microvascular, inflammatory, and thrombotic milieu for improving CVD risk in T2DM patients. This is part 2 of the series on non-insulin antihyperglycemic drugs for the treatment of T2DM.

6.
Am J Med ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151592
7.
Cardiol Rev ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032132

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is categorized into five groups based on etiology. The two most prevalent forms are pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and PH due to left heart disease (PH-LHD). Therapeutic options do exist for PAH to decrease symptoms and improve functional capacity; however, the mortality rate remains high and clinical improvements are limited. PH-LHD is the most common cause of PH, however, no treatment exists and the use of PAH-therapies is discouraged. Pulmonary artery denervation (PADN) is an innovative catheter-based ablation technique targeting the afferent and efferent fibers of a baroreceptor reflex in the main pulmonary artery (PA) trunk and its bifurcation. This reflex is involved in the elevation of the PA pressure seen in PH. Since 2013, both animal trials and human trials have shown the efficacy of PADN in improving PAH, including improved hemodynamic parameters, increased functional capacity, decreased PA remodeling, and much more. PADN has been shown to decrease the rate of rehospitalization, PH-related complications, and death, and is an overall safe procedure. PADN has also been shown to be effective for PH-LHD. Additional therapeutic mechanisms and benefits of PADN are discussed along with new PADN techniques. PADN has shown efficacy and safety as a potential treatment option for PH.

8.
Cardiol Rev ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032133

RESUMO

Myocardial depression is a common, yet reversible phenomenon that occurs in patients in septic shock. Initially, it was unclear whether this provided an adaptive survival benefit, as early studies showed decreased mortality in septic patients with myocardial depression. However, subsequent larger studies have debunked this myth. Given that no benefit exists, cardiac dysfunction in septic patients may be monitored via echocardiography and may be treated with inotropic agents. Beta-blockers provide a novel avenue of treatment as they aid in reducing adrenergic overstimulation and cytokine production, which may drive the pathogenesis of septic shock. This review chronicles how the understanding of myocardial depression in sepsis has evolved and how it should be clinically managed.

9.
Cardiol Rev ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032135

RESUMO

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), formerly called 'arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia', is an under-recognized clinical entity characterized by ventricular arrhythmias and a characteristic ventricular pathology. Diagnosis is often difficult due to the nonspecific nature of the disease and the broad spectrum of phenotypic variations. Therefore, consensus diagnostic criteria have been developed which combine electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and histologic criteria. In 1994, an international task force first proposed the major and minor diagnostic criteria of ARVC based on family history, arrhythmias, electrocardiographic abnormalities, tissue characterization, and structural and functional right ventricular abnormalities. In 2010, the task force criteria were revised to include quantitative abnormalities. These diagnostic modalities and the most recent task force criteria will be discussed in this review.

11.
Cardiol Rev ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040019

RESUMO

Exposure to heavy metals is common. This exposure is related to environmental contamination of air, water and soil, occupational exposure, accumulation in food, tobacco and other factors. Cadmium and lead are notable for their widespread contamination, long lasting effects in the body, and renal as well as cardiovascular toxicity. Acute toxicity due to high level exposure, as well as chronic low level exposure are now well-established pathogenic entities. Both chronic renal failure and ischemic heart disease patients have been treated separately in recent studies with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelation therapy. In patients with chronic kidney disease, serum creatinine 1.5-4.0 mg/dL, and increased body lead burden, weekly low dose chelation with calcium EDTA slowed the rate of decline in renal function in diabetics and non-diabetics. In patients with a history of myocardial infarction, the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy study showed that EDTA chelation decreased the likelihood of cardiovascular events, particularly in diabetics. However, heavy metal levels were not measured in this study. It is clear that more research is needed in this area. There is also a need to more frequently consider and test for the possibility of cadmium and lead toxicity in patients with increased risk, such as those with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic renal disease.

13.
Cardiol Rev ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053544

RESUMO

Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis (PAS) is an abnormal narrowing of the pulmonary vasculature and can form anywhere within the pulmonary artery tree. PAS is a congenital or an acquired disease, and its severity depends on the etiology, location, and number of stenoses. Most often seen in infants and young children, some symptoms include shortness of breath, fatigue, and tachycardia. Symptoms can progressively worsen over time as right ventricular pressure increases, leading to further complications including pulmonary artery hypertension and systolic and diastolic dysfunctions. The current treatment options for PAS include simple balloon angioplasty, cutting balloon angioplasty, and stent placement. Simple balloon angioplasty is the most basic therapeutic option for proximally located PAS. Cutting balloon angioplasty is utilized for more dilation-resistant PAS vessels and for more distally located PAS. Stent placement is the most effective option seen to treat the majority of PAS; however, it requires multiple re-interventions for serial dilations and is generally reserved for PAS vessels that are resistant to angioplasty.

14.
Cardiol Rev ; 28(3): 140-147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032134

RESUMO

Each year 790,000 people in the United States suffer from a myocardial infarction. This results in the permanent loss of cardiomyocytes and an irreversible loss of cardiac function. Current therapies lower mortality rates, but do not address the core pathology, which opens a pathway to step-wise heart failure. Utilizing stem cells to regenerate the dead tissue is a potential method to reverse these devastating effects. Several clinical trials have already demonstrated the safety of stem cell therapy. In this review, we highlight clinical trials, which have utilized various stem cell lineages, and discuss areas for future research.

15.
Cardiol Rev ; 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101908

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), often referred to as diastolic heart failure, remains one of the more challenging forms of heart failure to treat. This is a condition in which patients may or may not have signs and symptoms of heart failure, and retain a left ventricular EF > 50%. The challenge to treating HFpEF is due to the paucity of clinical trials with specific therapies, and those that have been completed have yielded relatively neutral results. This has resulted in treatments that are aimed more towards associated conditions, such as hypertension, and pulmonary edema, rather than the underlying pathophysiology. This article will review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of HFpEF, and discuss the current therapeutic modalities, and clinical trials. In addition, we will discuss an ongoing clinical trial and the impact it may hold on future treatment options.

16.
Cardiol Rev ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985523

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in the general population. In western countries with aging populations, atrial fibrillation poses a significant health concern, as it is associated with a high risk of thromboembolism, stroke, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction. Thrombi are generated in the left atrial appendage, and subsequent embolism into the cerebral circulation is a major cause of ischemic stroke. Therefore, patients have a lifetime risk of stroke, and those at high risk, defined as a CHA2DS2-VASc2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age >75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke, vascular disease, sex category) ≥2, are usually placed on oral anticoagulants. Unfortunately, long-term anticoagulation poses bleeding risks, of which intracranial hemorrhage is the most feared and deadly complication.In patients who survive an intracranial hemorrhage, the question of oral anticoagulation resumption arises. It is a therapeutic dilemma in which clinicians must decide how to manage the risk of thromboembolism versus recurrent hemorrhage. Although there is a substantial amount of retrospective data on the topic of resumption of anticoagulation, there are, at this time, no randomized controlled trials addressing the issue. We therefore sought to address intracranial hemorrhage risk and management, summarize high quality existing evidence on restarting oral anticoagulation, and suggest an approach to clinical decision making.

17.
Cardiol Rev ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934898

RESUMO

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a rare congenital arrhythmogenic disorder induced by physical or emotional stress. It mainly affects children and younger adults and is characterized by rapid polymorphic and bidirectional ventricular tachycardia. Symptoms can include dizziness, palpitations, and presyncope, which may progress to syncope, hypotonia, convulsive movements, and sudden cardiac death. CPVT is the result of perturbations in Ca ion handling in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiac myocytes. Mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor gene and the calsequestrin isoform 2 gene are most commonly seen in familial CPVT patients. Under catecholaminergic-stimulation, either mutation can result in an excess Ca load during diastole resulting in delayed afterdepolarizations and subsequent arrhythmogenesis. The current first-line treatment for CPVT is ß-blocker therapy. Other therapeutic interventions that can be used in conjunction with ß-blockers include moderate exercise training, flecainide, left cardiac sympathetic denervation, and implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Several potential therapeutic interventions including verapamil, dantrolene, JTV519, and gene therapy are also discussed.

18.
Europace ; 22(3): 361-367, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985781

RESUMO

AIMS: This study sought to determine the impact of weight and body mass index (BMI) on the safety and efficacy of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) compared with warfarin in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic literature search was employed in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane clinical trials with no language or date restrictions. Randomized trials or their substudies were assessed for relevant outcome data for efficacy that included stroke or systemic embolization (SSE), and safety including major bleeding and all-cause mortality. Binary outcome data and odds ratios from the relevant articles were used to calculate the pooled relative risk. For SSE, the data from the four Phase III trials showed that DOACs are better or similarly effective with low BMI 0.73 (0.56-0.97), normal BMI 0.72 (0.58-0.91), overweight 0.87 (0.76-0.99), and obese 0.87 (0.76-1.00). The risk of major bleeding was also better or similar with DOACs in all BMI subgroups with low BMI 0.62 (0.37-1.05), normal BMI 0.72 (0.58-0.90), overweight 0.83 (0.71-0.96), and obese 0.91 (0.81-1.03). There was no impact on mortality in all the subgroups. In a meta-regression analysis, the effect size advantage of DOACs compared with warfarin in terms of safety and efficacy gradually attenuated with increasing weight. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a weight-based dosage adjustment may be necessary to achieve optimal benefits of DOACs for thromboembolic prevention in these patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Further dedicated trials are needed to confirm these findings. PROSPERO 2019 CRD42019140693. Available from: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php? ID=CRD42019140693.

19.
Cardiol Rev ; 28(3): 148-155, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000219

RESUMO

Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare and a severe form of heart failure that affects women during pregnancy or shortly after delivery. Risk factors include advanced age, race, multiparity, multifetal pregnancy, socioeconomic disparity, and medical comorbidities including systemic hypertension, diabetes, asthma, and anemia. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as a detrimental long-term impact on quality of life. Its etiology is not clear, although it is thought to be a combined effect of a hyperdynamic fluid state associated with pregnancy, hormonal changes unique to gestation, and a genetic predisposition. There is no current expert consensus on an optimal treatment regimen. This article will provide a comprehensive review and update on this important disease state.

20.
Am J Med ; 133(1): 1-3, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348895
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