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1.
Am J Health Promot ; 34(1): 25-31, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359765

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Retroactive interference involves the disruption of previously encoded information from newly learned information and thus may impair the consolidation of long-term memory. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether acute exercise can attenuate retroactive memory interference. DESIGN: Three experimental studies were employed. Experiment 1 employed a between-subject randomized control trial (RCT) involving moderate-intensity walking (15 minutes). Experiment 2 employed a between-subject RCT involving high-intensity jogging (15 minutes). Experiment 3 employed a within-subject RCT involving moderate-intensity walking (15 minutes). SETTING: University setting. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twelve young adults. MEASURES: After exercise, memory interference was evaluated from an episodic word-list memory task, involving the recall of 2 word lists. RESULTS: The pooled effect size (standard difference in means: -0.35; 95% confidence interval: -0.64 to -0.06) across the 3 experiments was statistically significant (P = .01). CONCLUSION: We provide suggestive evidence that acute, short-duration exercise may help attenuate a retroactive memory interference effect. Implications of these findings for exercise to improve memory and attenuate memory decay are discussed.

2.
Am J Health Behav ; 43(6): 1016-1029, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662162

RESUMO

Objective: In this study, we evaluated whether exercise prior to memory encoding or during memory consolidation can influence episodic memory function after being exposed to a stressful environment. Methods: We conducted 3 between-group randomized controlled experiments among young adults. We assessed episodic memory (via logic memory task) at the beginning of the experiment and approximately 45 minutes later. Across the 3 experiments, we varied the temporal period (eg, before memory encoding or during consolidation) of the acute bout of exercise (15-minute moderate-intensity exercise) and psychological stress induction. Results: Across all 3 experiments there was a statistically significant main effect for time for memory function, but there were no time x group interaction effects. Conclusion: Memory declined across the 2 assessment periods, but for all 3 experiments, exercise was not associated with memory function after being exposed to a stressful stimulus.

3.
Percept Mot Skills ; 126(6): 1058-1083, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407960

RESUMO

The controlled measurement of creative potential in early childhood is imperative for researchers seeking to fully understand the initial emergence and development of creativity. Evidence for original ideation has been demonstrated in infants as young as one year old, through their performance of movement-based, interactive creativity tasks. In this focused review of developmental research, we suggest that embodied movements and interactive play may uniquely facilitate creative thinking in early childhood (i.e., from birth to age six). From this review, we propose that embodied movement reinforces physical interactions that influence cognitions underlying creative behavior. Embodied creativity may supplement traditional creativity measures, as young children may be more inclined to represent their inner thoughts and experiences through movement rather than through language alone. Thus, we explored the importance of embodied creativity as a means of informing current researchers about the development of creativity, and we suggest future experimental research in this area.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Criatividade , Movimento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor , Pensamento
4.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(8): 1003-1007, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous work is conflicted regarding the relationship between motor skill development and physical activity. One potential explanation for this equivocality is the difficulty and lack of precision in physical activity measurement, particularly within preschool populations. Our exploration of plank performance as a proxy measure for fitness addresses a void in the literature, as few studies have investigated the role of motor skill development on fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between motor skill level and musculoskeletal endurance (via the plank test). METHODS: Data from the 2012 National Youth Fitness Survey were used, which included 224 preschool-aged children (3-5 years). Motor skill level was assessed from the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD2). Motor skill parameters included general motor skills, locomotor skills, and object control skills. RESULTS: Within this nationally representative sample of preschoolers, increased motor skills were positively associated with plank performance [General Motor Skills (ß = 0.45; 95% CI 0.31-0.59), locomotor skills (ß = 1.88; 95% CI 1.15-2.61), and object control skills (ß = 2.05; 95% CI 1.11-2.98)]. CONCLUSION: Motor skill level in this national preschool sample was associated with musculoskeletal endurance. Thus, future interventions should aim to develop and refine motor skills among preschoolers.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
J Lifestyle Med ; 9(1): 15-26, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918830

RESUMO

Background: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively examine the association of a multitude of individual medical conditions, as well as multimorbidity, on work status among a national sample of U.S. adults. Methods: The present study included 7 cycles (1999-2012) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 28,119). Results: In total, 26 medical conditions increased the odds of not working. Multimorbidity as well as having prevalent medical condition(s) within each of the Cumulative Index Rating Scale Morbidity Classes were associated with increased odds of not working. Few medical conditions were associated with higher odds of working part-time (vs. full-time) or unemployment (vs. working). Conclusion: These findings underscore the importance of instating comprehensive worksite wellness health promotion policies, as well as providing individuals with resources to preserve and enhance personal health.

6.
Diabetes Spectr ; 32(1): 16-20, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853760

RESUMO

Objective: We evaluated the specific association between muscle-strengthening activity (MSA) and accelerometer-assessed physical activity on systemic inflammation among retinopathy patients in the United States. Methods: Data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to identify 157 retinopathy patients between 40 and 85 years of age with complete data on select study variables. MSA was assessed via self-report. Participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was determined from objective accelerometer data. Systemic inflammation was assessed using C-reactive protein (CRP), which was quantified using latex-enhanced nephelometry. Nonproliferative retinopathy was determined using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grading criteria, as well as objective retinal imaging assessments using the Canon Non-Mydriatic Retinal Camera CR6-45NM. Individuals were excluded if they had been diagnosed with coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, heart attack, or stroke. Results: MVPA (ß = -0.004, 95% CI -0.007 to -0.001, P = 0.006) but not MSA (ß = -0.0001, 95% CI -0.002 to 0.001, P = 0.86) was associated with lower CRP levels. Additionally, for a more substantive 30 minutes/day increase in MVPA, there was a corresponding 0.12 mg/dL decrease in CRP. Conclusion: In this nationally representative sample of adults, only individuals who engaged in higher levels of MVPA had lower CRP levels, which is indicative of reduced systemic inflammation. MSA was not associated with systemic inflammation among this cohort. Our findings suggest that MVPA is inversely associated with systemic inflammation among retinopathy patients, which is noteworthy because increased systemic inflammation may facilitate retinopathic severity.

7.
Eur J Intern Med ; 62: 37-42, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the secular trends in the association between obesity and hypertension among American adults between 1999 and 2014. METHODS: Data from the 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (eight survey cycles) were used. Obesity was determined from measured body mass index, with hypertension assessed from measured blood pressure and self-reported medication use. Meta-regression was used to examine the linear, quadratic, and cubic trends of the relationship between the observed odds ratio effect sizes (obesity and hypertension) and the NHANES cycles (year) using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Across the years of 1999 to 2014, there was a significant, positive linear trend (p = .006) in the association between overweight/obesity and hypertension. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the association between overweight/obesity and hypertension is becoming stronger over time. Continued surveillance of temporal changes associated with obesity and hypertension is necessary to monitor how such changes may underlie changes in the risk for chronic disease. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: This novel study evaluates whether the magnitude of association between obesity and hypertension has changed over the last 15-years.


Assuntos
Previsões , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
J Physiol Sci ; 69(1): 1-12, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203315

RESUMO

The objective of this paper was to systematically evaluate the potential preventive and therapeutic effects of exercise in attenuating stress-induced memory impairment. A systematic review was employed, searching PubMed, PsychInfo, Sports Discus and Google Scholar databases. For eligibility, studies had to be published in English, employ an experimental design, have the acute or chronic bout of exercise occur prior to, during or after the stressor, implement a psychophysiological stressor, and have an assessment of memory function occurring after the stressor. In total, 23 studies were evaluated, all of which were conducted among animal models. All 23 studies employed a chronic exercise protocol and a chronic stress protocol. Eight studies evaluated a preventive model, three employed a concurrent model, ten studies employed a therapeutic model, and two studies evaluated both a preventive and therapeutic model within the same study. Among the eight studies employing a preventive model, all eight demonstrated that the stress regimen impaired memory function. In all eight of these studies, when exercise occurred prior to the stressor, exercise attenuated the stress-induced memory impairment effect. Among the ten studies employing a therapeutic model, one study showed that the stress protocol enhanced memory function, one showed that the stress protocol did not influence memory, and eight demonstrated that the stress regimen impaired memory function. Among the eight studies showing that the stress protocol impaired memory function, all eight studies demonstrated that exercise, after the stressor, attenuated stress-induced memory impairment. Within animal models, chronic stress is associated with memory impairment and chronic exercise has both a preventive and therapeutic effect in attenuating stress-induced memory impairment. Additional experimental work in human studies is needed. Such work should also examine acute exercise and stress protocols.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
9.
Psychol Rep ; 122(3): 841-852, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566595

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment is associated with various chronic diseases, including mobility limitation and early mortality. Thus, evaluating changes in cognition is of paramount public health interest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate secular trends in cognitive function among a representative sample of the U.S. older adult population. Data from the 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were utilized to identify an aggregate sample of adults 60+ years of age. The sample size across the four respective cycles was 1417, 1558, 1422, and 1592. Three cognitive assessments were employed, including the CERAD Word Learning subset (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease), the Animal Fluency test, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). For the entire sample and several subpopulations, DSST scores increased from 1999 to 2012 and then decreased in the 2013 to 2014 cycle. For all CERAD trials, there was evidence of increased CERAD performance from 2011-2012 to 2013-2014. No secular trends were observed for the Animal Fluency task across these cycles. Select cognitive parameters appear to be improving among U.S. older adults. Future work is needed to further explore secular trends in cognitive sustainability, and, as evidenced by our present study, cognitive enrichment over time.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estados Unidos
10.
Psychol Rep ; 122(1): 108-116, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29307247

RESUMO

There is irrefutable evidence that regular participation in physical activity is favorably associated with numerous positive health outcomes, including cognitive function. Emerging work suggests that perceived physical activity, independent of actual physical activity behavior, is inversely associated with mortality risk. In this study, we evaluate whether perceived physical activity, independent of actual physical activity, is associated with cognitive function, a robust indicator of mortality risk. Data from the cross-sectional 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were employed ( N = 2352; 60+ years of age). Actual physical activity was assessed via a validated survey. Perceived physical activity was assessed using the following question: "Compared with others of the same age, would you say that you are: more active, less active, or about the same?" Cognitive function was assessed from the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. When examined in separate models, both actual and perceived physical activity were positively and statistically significantly associated with cognitive function. However, when considered in the same model, actual physical activity was no longer statistically significantly associated with cognitive function, but perceived physical activity was. Perceived physical activity, independent of actual physical activity, is independently associated with cognitive function. If these findings are replicated, future work should consider evaluating perceived physical activity when examining the effects of actual physical activity behavior on cognitive function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging ; 39(1): 9-14, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29719116

RESUMO

One of the most amazing aspects of the human brain is its ability to learn information and use it to change behaviour. A key neurotrophin that influences memory function is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This review briefly discusses the mechanistic role that BDNF may play in facilitating learning and memory. We also describe the role of exercise on this relationship. As discussed herein, BDNF may influence memory via BDNF-induced alterations in membrane receptor expression and translocation, as well as activating several pathways (PLC-y, PI3K, ERK) that act together to facilitate cellular effects that influence synaptic plasticity. Exercise may help to facilitate BDNF expression and its downstream cellular pathways from both direct and indirect mechanisms.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Memória , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/citologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Phys Sportsmed ; 47(3): 290-294, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449247

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of the study is to examine the association between physical activity and hippocampal-orbitofrontal functional connectivity. Methods: Data from the Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample was utilized, which consisted of 366 participants (Mage = 43 years; 63% female). Physical activity was self-reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Hippocampal-orbitofrontal functional connectivity was assessed from magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Moderate-intensity physical activity was not statistically significantly associated with left hippocampal-orbitofrontal connectivity (ß = 0.001; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.03; P = 0.90) or right hippocampal-orbitofrontal connectivity (ß = 0.01; 95% CI: -0.01, 0.04; P = 0.22). However, vigorous-intensity physical activity was statistically significantly associated with right hippocampal-orbitofrontal connectivity (ß = 0.01; 95% CI: 0.004, 0.02; P = 0.002). Discussion: Habitual engagement in intense physical activity was associated with greater hippocampal-orbitofrontal connectivity, while moderate activity engagement was not. This may have important implications for the exercise neurobiology field in the context of exercise and memory function, suggesting that intense activity may facilitate cognitive/memory functions. However, our findings should be interpreted with caution given the relatively weak associations that were observed.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychol Rep ; 122(5): 1744-1754, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975180

RESUMO

Our previous work employing a between-subject randomized controlled trial design suggests that exercising prior to memory encoding is more advantageous in enhancing retrospective episodic memory function when compared to exercise occurring during or after memory encoding. The present experiment evaluates this potential temporal effect of acute exercise on memory function while employing a within-subject, counterbalanced design. In a counterbalanced order (via Latin squares), 24 participants completed four visits including (1) exercising (moderate-intensity walking) prior to memory encoding, (2) exercising during memory encoding, (3) exercising after memory encoding, and (4) a control visit (no exercise). Retrospective memory function (short term and long term; 24-hour follow-up) was assessed from a multitrial word list. Prospective memory was assessed from a time-based task. Compared to all other visits, short-term memory was greater in the visit that involved exercising prior to memory encoding (F = 3.76; P = .01; η2 = .79). Similar results occurred for long-term memory, with no significant effects for prospective memory performance. We provide robust evidence demonstrating that acute moderate-intensity exercise prior to memory encoding is optimal in enhancing short-term and long-term memory function when compared to no exercise as well as exercising during and after memory encoding.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychol Rep ; 122(6): 2396-2405, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060715

RESUMO

The field of neurobiology of learning and memory has demonstrated that interhemispheric activation plays an important role in subserving episodic memory function. A common behavioral technique to induce interhemispheric activation includes saccadic eye movements, with a common behavioral marker being the degree of handedness. Importantly, however, the field of exercise neurobiology has yet to consider these behavioral techniques and markers in exercise-based studies. This review highlights the effects of these techniques and markers on episodic memory function and discusses the implications of this for exercise studies. We discuss the physiological and neurological mechanisms of interhemispheric activation on memory. We also discuss the role this may play in cardiorespiratory exercise studies. Our understanding of the role of both exercise and interhemispheric activation on memory function is improving. The interplay between these two factors on memory, however, is unknown. We discuss these implications and provide recommendations for future research.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Corpo Caloso/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Humanos
15.
J Lifestyle Med ; 8(2): 51-59, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474001

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper was to review the literature to evaluate the potential effects of exercise on prospective memory (PM). A narrative review was employed. In this review, we provide a brief description of PM; indicate the effects of PM on health; evaluate the effects of age and neurological impairment on PM; examine the neural correlates of PM; provide a description of specific components that subserve PM; identify non-behavioral strategies used to enhance PM; and evaluate the literature and plausibility through which exercise behavior may influence PM. Regarding the latter, this paper aims to burgeon the development of a new research paradigm that will play a critical role in patient health, given that memory function, and in particular, the prospective (vs. retrospective) component of memory, is highly sensitive to aging and is critically associated with health status. This is an emerging line of research that has critical implications for patient health.

16.
J Lifestyle Med ; 8(2): 99-104, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474005

RESUMO

Background: We evaluated the association between lower extremity muscular strength and cognition among older adults in the United States. Methods: Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to identify 1508 older adults, between 60-85 years. Muscle strengthening activities were assessed via self-report. Participation in physical activity was determined from self-report data. The DSST was used to assess participant executive cognitive functioning tasks of pairing and free recall. A Kin-Com MP isokinetic dynamometer (Chatanooga Group Inc.) was used to assess lower extremity strength, expressed as absolute strength (N), relative strength (N/body weight in kg), and high (<245.75 N) vs. low (≤245.75 N) absolute strength based on the median levels of strength. Results: Lower extremity strength (ß = 0.01; 95% CI: 0.0008-0.03; p = 0.039) was associated with higher cognitive performance, independent of age, muscle strengthening activities, physical activity and other covariates. In an adjusted multivariate logistic regression model, those with high (vs. low) strength had a 34% reduced odds of having low cognitive function (OR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.93; p = 0.02). Conclusion: In this nationally representative sample of older adults, there was a positive association between elevated lower extremity muscular strength and cognitive functioning.

17.
Med Princ Pract ; 27(6): 531-536, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An elevated gamma gap is indicative of high serum concentrations of globulin proteins, some of which elicit acute inflammatory responses. An impaired cognitive function has been linked to central and peripheral inflammation, while exercise is associated with protective, anti-inflammatory benefits. In this study, we evaluated whether the gamma gap is associated with cognitive function among older adults and whether physical activity is favorably associated with cognitive function among those with an elevated gamma gap. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to identify 2,352 older adults aged between 60 and 85 years. The gamma gap was evaluated by subtracting albumin from total protein, i.e., gamma gap = total protein (g/dL) - albumin (g/dL). Those at or above 3.1 g/dL (31.0 g/L) were considered to have an elevated gamma gap. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) was used to assess cognitive function tasks of pairing and free recall among participants. Participants were asked open-ended questions about participation in leisure-time physical activity over the previous 30 days. RESULTS: Those with an elevated gamma gap (DSST, 44.8) had a lower cognitive function score when compared to those without an elevated gamma gap (DSST, 50.1) (p < 0.001). After adjustments, and among those with an elevated gamma gap, those meeting the moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) guidelines (vs. not meeting them) had a DSST score of 6.42 units higher (ß = 6.42, 95% CI 3.85-8.99, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this national sample of older adults, the gamma gap was associated with cognitive function, and among those with an elevated gamma gap, meeting the physical activity guidelines was associated with a higher cognitive function. Relevant clinical implications are discussed, as the gamma gap may be predictive of the risk for early mortality and reduced quality of life. Experimental work is needed to investigate whether physical activity training programs are effective in reducing an elevated gamma gap and preserving optimal cognitive functioning among at-risk individuals.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Albumina Sérica/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
19.
Health Promot Perspect ; 8(3): 208-214, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087844

RESUMO

Background: Among other factors, including the decay theory, interfering stimuli (proactive and retroactive interference; PI and RI) may influence the encoding and consolidation of target information. Acute exercise can enhance episodic memory function, but no experiments have evaluated whether exercise can attenuate PI and RI effects on memory, which was the purpose of this experiment. Methods: Twenty young adults were randomized (via computer program) into one of 6 experimental groups (N=120, n=20 per group), including 3 PI (G1, G2, and G3) and 3 RI groups (G4, G5, and G6). Those in G1 and G4 exercised prior to a 10-list AB/AC paradigm with interference; G2 and G5 did not exercise but had interference; and G3 and G6 were the control groups with no exercise and no interference. Results: The mean (95% CI) number of correctly recalled word pairs across the 6 respective groups was 2.4 (1.2-3.5), 2.4 (1.3-3.5), 5.1 (3.9-6.3), 6.9 (5.7-8.0), 5.0 (4.2-5.8), and 6.1 (5.1-6.9) (FANOVA=11.7; P<0.001; η2=0.33). For PI, the control group (group 3) correctly recalled more word pairs (5.1) when compared to the exercise interference group (2.4; group 1) or the non-exercise interference group (2.4; group 2). The difference between group 1 and 3 (2.4 vs.5.1) was significant (P=0.003), as was group 2 vs. 3 (P=0.002). For the RI groups (groups 4-6),group 4 differed from group 5 (6.9 vs. 5.0; P=0.01), but there was no difference between group 4 and group 6 (P=0.25) or group 5 and group 6 (P=0.09). Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest that acute exercise may be more beneficial for RI compared to PI, but additional experimental work is needed.

20.
J Clin Med ; 7(6)2018 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891765

RESUMO

We evaluated the effects of exercise on proactive memory interference. Study 1 (n = 88) employed a 15-min treadmill walking protocol, while Study 2 (n = 88) included a 15-min bout of progressive maximal exertion treadmill exercise. Each study included four distinct groups, in which groups of 22 participants each were randomly assigned to: (a) exercise before memory encoding, (b) a control group with no exercise, (c) exercise during memory encoding, and (d) exercise after memory encoding (i.e., during memory consolidation). We used the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to assess proactive memory interference. In both studies, the group that exercised prior to memory encoding recalled the most words from list B (distractor list) of the RAVLT, though group differences were not statistically significant for Study 1 (walking exercise) (p = 0.521) or Study 2 (high-intensity exercise) (p = 0.068). In this sample of young adults, high intensity exercise prior to memory encoding showed a non-significant tendency to attenuate impairments in recall attributable to proactive memory interference. Thus, future work with larger samples is needed to clarify potential beneficial effects of exercise for reducing proactive memory interference.

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