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2.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(8): 980-995, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452258

RESUMO

Array genotyping is a cost-effective and widely used tool that enables assessment of up to millions of genetic markers in hundreds of thousands of individuals. Genotyping array data are typically highly accurate but sensitive to mixing of DNA samples from multiple individuals before or during genotyping. Contaminated samples can lead to genotyping errors and consequently cause false positive signals or reduce power of association analyses. Here, we propose a new method to identify contaminated samples and the sources of contamination within a genotyping batch. Through analysis of array intensity and genotype data from intentionally mixed samples and 22,366 samples of the Michigan Genomics Initiative, an ongoing biobank-based study, we show that our method can reliably estimate contamination. We also show that identifying sources of contamination can implicate problematic sample processing steps and guide process improvements. Compared to existing methods, our approach can estimate the proportion of contaminating DNA more accurately, eliminate the need for external databases of allele frequencies, and provide contamination estimates that are more robust to the ancestral origin of the contaminating sample.

3.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(7): 800-814, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433078

RESUMO

The power of genetic association analyses can be increased by jointly meta-analyzing multiple correlated phenotypes. Here, we develop a meta-analysis framework, Meta-MultiSKAT, that uses summary statistics to test for association between multiple continuous phenotypes and variants in a region of interest. Our approach models the heterogeneity of effects between studies through a kernel matrix and performs a variance component test for association. Using a genotype kernel, our approach can test for rare-variants and the combined effects of both common and rare-variants. To achieve robust power, within Meta-MultiSKAT, we developed fast and accurate omnibus tests combining different models of genetic effects, functional genomic annotations, multiple correlated phenotypes, and heterogeneity across studies. In addition, Meta-MultiSKAT accommodates situations where studies do not share exactly the same set of phenotypes or have differing correlation patterns among the phenotypes. Simulation studies confirm that Meta-MultiSKAT can maintain the type-I error rate at the exome-wide level of 2.5 × 10-6 . Further simulations under different models of association show that Meta-MultiSKAT can improve the power of detection from 23% to 38% on average over single phenotype-based meta-analysis approaches. We demonstrate the utility and improved power of Meta-MultiSKAT in the meta-analyses of four white blood cell subtype traits from the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI) and SardiNIA studies.

4.
PLoS Genet ; 15(6): e1008202, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194742

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) are designed to serve as single summary measures that are easy to construct, condensing information from a large number of genetic variants associated with a disease. They have been used for stratification and prediction of disease risk. The primary focus of this paper is to demonstrate how we can combine PRS and electronic health records data to better understand the shared and unique genetic architecture and etiology of disease subtypes that may be both related and heterogeneous. PRS construction strategies often depend on the purpose of the study, the available data/summary estimates, and the underlying genetic architecture of a disease. We consider several choices for constructing a PRS using data obtained from various publicly-available sources including the UK Biobank and evaluate their abilities to predict not just the primary phenotype but also secondary phenotypes derived from electronic health records (EHR). This study was conducted using data from 30,702 unrelated, genotyped patients of recent European descent from the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI), a longitudinal biorepository effort within Michigan Medicine. We examine the three most common skin cancer subtypes in the USA: basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Using these PRS for various skin cancer subtypes, we conduct a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) within the MGI data to evaluate PRS associations with secondary traits. PheWAS results are then replicated using population-based UK Biobank data and compared across various PRS construction methods. We develop an accompanying visual catalog called PRSweb that provides detailed PheWAS results and allows users to directly compare different PRS construction methods.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Michigan/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 65-77, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204010

RESUMO

The Genes for Good study uses social media to engage a large, diverse participant pool in genetics research and education. Health history and daily tracking surveys are administered through a Facebook application, and participants who complete a minimum number of surveys are mailed a saliva sample kit ("spit kit") to collect DNA for genotyping. As of March 2019, we engaged >80,000 individuals, sent spit kits to >32,000 individuals who met minimum participation requirements, and collected >27,000 spit kits. Participants come from all 50 states and include a diversity of ancestral backgrounds. Rates of important chronic health indicators are consistent with those estimated for the general U.S. population using more traditional study designs. However, our sample is younger and contains a greater percentage of females than the general population. As one means of verifying data quality, we have replicated genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for exemplar traits, such as asthma, diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and pigmentation. The flexible framework of the web application makes it relatively simple to add new questionnaires and for other researchers to collaborate. We anticipate that the study sample will continue to grow and that future analyses may further capitalize on the strengths of the longitudinal data in combination with genetic information.

6.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 1067, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068672

RESUMO

In the version of this article initially published, in Supplementary Data 5, the logFC, FC, P value and adjusted P value for advanced AMD versus control (DE 4/1) without age correction did not correspond to the correct gene IDs. The errors have been corrected in the HTML version of the article.

7.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The genetic component of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) development is ~90%. Of the known heritability, ~20% is explained by HLA-B27, and 113 identified AS-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) account for ~7.4%. The objectives were to construct a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) using currently known genome-wide susceptibility SNP, and to evaluate its predictive ability for AS in the Norwegian population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). METHODS: AS cases (n = 164) and controls (n = 49,032) were from the second (1995-1997) and third (2006-2008) waves of the HUNT study, to which the entire adult population of the northern region of Trøndelag was invited. A wGRS based on 110 SNP weighted by published OR for AS was constructed, representing each person's carriage of all risk variants. Logistic regression models including the wGRS alone or in combination with HLA-B27 carrier state and other adjustment variables (sex, age, smoking, body mass index, and hypertension) were developed. Discrimination among models was compared using area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: The wGRS was associated with AS (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1), but showed low discrimination (AUC 0.62, 95% CI 0.58-0.67). HLA-B27 was significantly associated with AS (OR 50, 95% CI 32-81), showing high discrimination (AUC 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.90). Combining the wGRS and HLA-B27 improved prediction (AUC 0.90, 95% CI 0.87-0.92; p < 0.001 vs wGRS alone, p < 0.01 vs HLA-B27 alone). Further inclusion of adjustment variables gave a small improvement (AUC 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.94; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Prediction in a population-based setting based on all currently known AS susceptibility SNP was better than HLA-B27 carrier state alone, although the improvement was small and of uncertain clinical value.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1847, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015462

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing health burden currently affecting 10-15% of adults worldwide. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a marker of kidney function is commonly used to diagnose CKD. We analyze eGFR data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study and Michigan Genomics Initiative and perform a GWAS meta-analysis with public summary statistics, more than doubling the sample size of previous meta-analyses. We identify 147 loci (53 novel) associated with eGFR, including genes involved in transcriptional regulation, kidney development, cellular signaling, metabolism, and solute transport. Additionally, sex-stratified analysis identifies one locus with more significant effects in women than men. Using genetic risk scores constructed from these eGFR meta-analysis results, we show that associated variants are generally predictive of CKD with only modest improvements in detection compared with other known clinical risk factors. Collectively, these results yield additional insight into the genetic factors underlying kidney function and progression to CKD.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
9.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(5): 462-476, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793809

RESUMO

With the availability of large-scale biobanks, genome-wide scale phenome-wide association studies are being instrumental in discovering novel genetic variants associated with clinical phenotypes. As increasing number of such association results from different biobanks become available, methods to meta-analyse those association results is of great interest. Because the binary phenotypes in biobank-based studies are mostly unbalanced in their case-control ratios, very few methods can provide well-calibrated tests for associations. For example, traditional Z-score-based meta-analysis often results in conservative or anticonservative Type I error rates in such unbalanced scenarios. We propose two meta-analysis strategies that can efficiently combine association results from biobank-based studies with such unbalanced phenotypes, using the saddlepoint approximation-based score test method. Our first method involves sharing the overall genotype counts from each study, and the second method involves sharing an approximation of the distribution of the score test statistic from each study using cubic Hermite splines. We compare our proposed methods with a traditional Z-score-based meta-analysis strategy using numerical simulations and real data applications, and demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed methods in terms of Type I error control.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Simulação por Computador , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Análise Numérica Assistida por Computador , Reino Unido
10.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 606-610, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742112

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants at 34 loci contributing to age-related macular degeneration (AMD)1-3. We generated transcriptional profiles of postmortem retinas from 453 controls and cases at distinct stages of AMD and integrated retinal transcriptomes, covering 13,662 protein-coding and 1,462 noncoding genes, with genotypes at more than 9 million common SNPs for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis of a tissue not included in Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) and other large datasets4,5. Cis-eQTL analysis identified 10,474 genes under genetic regulation, including 4,541 eQTLs detected only in the retina. Integrated analysis of AMD-GWAS with eQTLs ascertained likely target genes at six reported loci. Using transcriptome-wide association analysis (TWAS), we identified three additional genes, RLBP1, HIC1 and PARP12, after Bonferroni correction. Our studies expand the genetic landscape of AMD and establish the Eye Genotype Expression (EyeGEx) database as a resource for post-GWAS interpretation of multifactorial ocular traits.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Degeneração Macular/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Retina/fisiopatologia
11.
PLoS Med ; 16(1): e1002739, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease that has been reported to be associated with obesity. We aimed to investigate a possible causal relationship between body mass index (BMI) and psoriasis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Following a review of published epidemiological evidence of the association between obesity and psoriasis, mendelian randomization (MR) was used to test for a causal relationship with BMI. We used a genetic instrument comprising 97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI as a proxy for BMI (expected to be much less confounded than measured BMI). One-sample MR was conducted using individual-level data (396,495 individuals) from the UK Biobank and the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), Norway. Two-sample MR was performed with summary-level data (356,926 individuals) from published BMI and psoriasis genome-wide association studies (GWASs). The one-sample and two-sample MR estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effect model. To test for a potential reverse causal effect, MR analysis with genetic instruments comprising variants from recent genome-wide analyses for psoriasis were used to test whether genetic risk for this skin disease has a causal effect on BMI. Published observational data showed an association of higher BMI with psoriasis. A mean difference in BMI of 1.26 kg/m2 (95% CI 1.02-1.51) between psoriasis cases and controls was observed in adults, while a 1.55 kg/m2 mean difference (95% CI 1.13-1.98) was observed in children. The observational association was confirmed in UK Biobank and HUNT data sets. Overall, a 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with 4% higher odds of psoriasis (meta-analysis odds ratio [OR] = 1.04; 95% CI 1.03-1.04; P = 1.73 × 10(-60)). MR analyses provided evidence that higher BMI causally increases the odds of psoriasis (by 9% per 1 unit increase in BMI; OR = 1.09 (1.06-1.12) per 1 kg/m2; P = 4.67 × 10(-9)). In contrast, MR estimates gave little support to a possible causal effect of psoriasis genetic risk on BMI (0.004 kg/m2 change in BMI per doubling odds of psoriasis (-0.003 to 0.011). Limitations of our study include possible misreporting of psoriasis by patients, as well as potential misdiagnosis by clinicians. In addition, there is also limited ethnic variation in the cohorts studied. CONCLUSIONS: Our study, using genetic variants as instrumental variables for BMI, provides evidence that higher BMI leads to a higher risk of psoriasis. This supports the prioritization of therapies and lifestyle interventions aimed at controlling weight for the prevention or treatment of this common skin disease. Mechanistic studies are required to improve understanding of this relationship.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Psoríase/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Psoríase/genética , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 237-244, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643251

RESUMO

Tobacco and alcohol use are leading causes of mortality that influence risk for many complex diseases and disorders1. They are heritable2,3 and etiologically related4,5 behaviors that have been resistant to gene discovery efforts6-11. In sample sizes up to 1.2 million individuals, we discovered 566 genetic variants in 406 loci associated with multiple stages of tobacco use (initiation, cessation, and heaviness) as well as alcohol use, with 150 loci evidencing pleiotropic association. Smoking phenotypes were positively genetically correlated with many health conditions, whereas alcohol use was negatively correlated with these conditions, such that increased genetic risk for alcohol use is associated with lower disease risk. We report evidence for the involvement of many systems in tobacco and alcohol use, including genes involved in nicotinic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic neurotransmission. The results provide a solid starting point to evaluate the effects of these loci in model organisms and more precise substance use measures.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Fumar/genética , Tabagismo/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Risco , Tabaco/efeitos adversos
14.
Diabetes Care ; 41(11): 2396-2403, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) shares clinical features with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes; however, there is ongoing debate regarding the precise definition of LADA. Understanding its genetic basis is one potential strategy to gain insight into appropriate classification of this diabetes subtype. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed the first genome-wide association study of LADA in case subjects of European ancestry versus population control subjects (n = 2,634 vs. 5,947) and compared against both case subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 2,454 vs. 968) and type 2 diabetes (n = 2,779 vs. 10,396). RESULTS: The leading genetic signals were principally shared with type 1 diabetes, although we observed positive genetic correlations genome-wide with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we observed a novel independent signal at the known type 1 diabetes locus harboring PFKFB3, encoding a regulator of glycolysis and insulin signaling in type 2 diabetes and inflammation and autophagy in autoimmune disease, as well as an attenuation of key type 1-associated HLA haplotype frequencies in LADA, suggesting that these are factors that distinguish childhood-onset type 1 diabetes from adult autoimmune diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the need for further investigations of the genetic factors that distinguish forms of autoimmune diabetes as well as more precise classification strategies.

15.
Nat Genet ; 50(9): 1335-1341, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104761

RESUMO

In genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for thousands of phenotypes in large biobanks, most binary traits have substantially fewer cases than controls. Both of the widely used approaches, the linear mixed model and the recently proposed logistic mixed model, perform poorly; they produce large type I error rates when used to analyze unbalanced case-control phenotypes. Here we propose a scalable and accurate generalized mixed model association test that uses the saddlepoint approximation to calibrate the distribution of score test statistics. This method, SAIGE (Scalable and Accurate Implementation of GEneralized mixed model), provides accurate P values even when case-control ratios are extremely unbalanced. SAIGE uses state-of-art optimization strategies to reduce computational costs; hence, it is applicable to GWAS for thousands of phenotypes by large biobanks. Through the analysis of UK Biobank data of 408,961 samples from white British participants with European ancestry for > 1,400 binary phenotypes, we show that SAIGE can efficiently analyze large sample data, controlling for unbalanced case-control ratios and sample relatedness.

16.
Nat Genet ; 50(9): 1234-1239, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061737

RESUMO

To identify genetic variation underlying atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia, we performed a genome-wide association study of >1,000,000 people, including 60,620 atrial fibrillation cases and 970,216 controls. We identified 142 independent risk variants at 111 loci and prioritized 151 functional candidate genes likely to be involved in atrial fibrillation. Many of the identified risk variants fall near genes where more deleterious mutations have been reported to cause serious heart defects in humans (GATA4, MYH6, NKX2-5, PITX2, TBX5)1, or near genes important for striated muscle function and integrity (for example, CFL2, MYH7, PKP2, RBM20, SGCG, SSPN). Pathway and functional enrichment analyses also suggested that many of the putative atrial fibrillation genes act via cardiac structural remodeling, potentially in the form of an 'atrial cardiomyopathy'2, either during fetal heart development or as a response to stress in the adult heart.

17.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 136(8): 875-884, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29852030

RESUMO

Importance: Visual acuity (VA) outcomes differ considerably among patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs. Identification of pharmacogenetic associations may help clinicians understand the mechanisms underlying this variability as well as pave the way for personalized treatment in nAMD. Objective: To identify genetic factors associated with variability in the response to anti-VEGF therapy for patients with nAMD. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter genome-wide association study, 678 patients with nAMD with genome-wide genotyping data were included in the discovery phase; 1380 additional patients with nAMD were genotyped for selected common variants in the replication phase. All participants received 3 monthly injections of bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Clinical data were evaluated for inclusion/exclusion criteria from October 2014 to October 2015, followed by data analysis from October 2015 to February 2016. For replication cohort genotyping, clinical data collection and analysis (including meta-analysis) was performed from March 2016 to April 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Change in VA after the loading dose of 3 monthly anti-VEGF injections compared with baseline. Results: Of the 2058 included patients, 1210 (58.8%) were women, and the mean (SD) age across all cohorts was 78 (7.4) years. Patients included in the discovery cohort and most of the patients in the replication cohorts were of European descent. The mean (SD) baseline VA was 51.3 (20.3) Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) score letters, and the mean (SD) change in VA after the loading dose of 3 monthly injections was a gain of 5.1 (13.9) ETDRS score letters (ie, 1-line gain). Genome-wide single-variant analyses of common variants revealed 5 independent loci that reached a P value less than 10 × 10-5. After replication and meta-analysis of the lead variants, rs12138564 located in the CCT3 gene remained nominally associated with a better treatment outcome (ETDRS letter gain, 1.7; ß, 0.034; SE, 0.008; P = 1.38 × 10-5). Genome-wide gene-based optimal unified sequence kernel association test of rare variants showed genome-wide significant associations for the C10orf88 (P = 4.22 × 10-7) and UNC93B1 (P = 6.09 × 10-7) genes, in both cases leading to a worse treatment outcome. Patients carrying rare variants in the C10orf88 and UNC93B1 genes lost a mean (SD) VA of 30.6 (17.4) ETDRS score letters (ie, loss of 6.09 lines) and 26.5 (13.8) ETDRS score letters (ie, loss of 5.29 lines), respectively, after 3 months of anti-VEGF treatment. Conclusions and Relevance: We propose that there is a limited contribution of common genetic variants to variability in nAMD treatment response. Our results suggest that rare protein-altering variants in the C10orf88 and UNC93B1 genes are associated with a worse response to anti-VEGF therapy in patients with nAMD, but these results require further validation in other cohorts.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1048-1061, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779563

RESUMO

Health systems are stewards of patient electronic health record (EHR) data with extraordinarily rich depth and breadth, reflecting thousands of diagnoses and exposures. Measures of genomic variation integrated with EHRs offer a potential strategy to accurately stratify patients for risk profiling and discover new relationships between diagnoses and genomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for common cancers are associated with multiple phenotypes in a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) conducted in 28,260 unrelated, genotyped patients of recent European ancestry who consented to participate in the Michigan Genomics Initiative, a longitudinal biorepository effort within Michigan Medicine. PRS for 12 cancer traits were calculated using summary statistics from the NHGRI-EBI catalog. A total of 1,711 synthetic case-control studies was used for PheWAS analyses. There were 13,490 (47.7%) patients with at least one cancer diagnosis in this study sample. PRS exhibited strong association for several cancer traits they were designed for, including female breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and thyroid cancer. Phenome-wide significant associations were observed between PRS and many non-cancer diagnoses. To differentiate PRS associations driven by the primary trait from associations arising through shared genetic risk profiles, the idea of "exclusion PRS PheWAS" was introduced. Further analysis of temporal order of the diagnoses improved our understanding of these secondary associations. This comprehensive PheWAS used PRS instead of a single variant.

19.
Mol Vis ; 24: 75-82, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410599

RESUMO

Purpose: A recent genome-wide association study by the International Age-related Macular Degeneration Genomics Consortium (IAMDGC) identified seven rare variants that are individually associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of vision loss in the elderly. In literature, several of these rare variants have been reported with different frequencies and odds ratios across populations of Europe and North America. Here, we aim to describe the representation of these seven AMD-associated rare variants in different geographic regions based on 24 AMD studies. Methods: We explored the occurrence of seven rare variants independently associated with AMD (CFH rs121913059 (p.Arg1210Cys), CFI rs141853578 (p.Gly119Arg), C3 rs147859257 (p.Lys155Gln), and C9 rs34882957 (p.Pro167Ser)) and three non-coding variants in or near the CFH gene (rs148553336, rs35292876, and rs191281603) in 24 AMD case-control studies. We studied the difference in distribution, interaction, and effect size for each of the rare variants based on the minor allele frequency within the different geographic regions. Results: We demonstrate that two rare AMD-associated variants in the CFH gene (rs121913059 [p.Arg1210Cys] and rs35292876) deviate in frequency among different geographic regions (p=0.004 and p=0.001, respectively). The risk estimates of each of the seven rare variants were comparable across the geographic regions. Conclusions: The results emphasize the importance of identifying population-specific rare variants, for example, by performing sequencing studies in case-control studies of various populations, because their identification may have implications for diagnostic screening and personalized treatment.


Assuntos
Fator H do Complemento/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Degeneração Macular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Complemento C3/genética , Complemento C3/imunologia , Complemento C9/genética , Complemento C9/imunologia , Fator H do Complemento/imunologia , Fator I do Complemento/genética , Fator I do Complemento/imunologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Geografia , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Degeneração Macular/imunologia , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Masculino
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(5): 929-940, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346644

RESUMO

Family- and population-based genetic studies have successfully identified multiple disease-susceptibility loci for Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), one of the first batch and most successful examples of genome-wide association study. However, most genetic studies to date have focused on case-control studies of late AMD (choroidal neovascularization or geographic atrophy). The genetic influences on disease progression are largely unexplored. We assembled unique resources to perform a genome-wide bivariate time-to-event analysis to test for association of time-to-late-AMD with ∼9 million variants on 2721 Caucasians from a large multi-center randomized clinical trial, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide association study of disease progression (bivariate survival outcome) in AMD genetic studies, thus providing novel insights to AMD genetics. We used a robust Cox proportional hazards model to appropriately account for between-eye correlation when analyzing the progression time in the two eyes of each participant. We identified four previously reported susceptibility loci showing genome-wide significant association with AMD progression: ARMS2-HTRA1 (P = 8.1 × 10-43), CFH (P = 3.5 × 10-37), C2-CFB-SKIV2L (P = 8.1 × 10-10) and C3 (P = 1.2 × 10-9). Furthermore, we detected association of rs58978565 near TNR (P = 2.3 × 10-8), rs28368872 near ATF7IP2 (P = 2.9 × 10-8) and rs142450006 near MMP9 (P = 0.0006) with progression to choroidal neovascularization but not geographic atrophy. Secondary analysis limited to 34 reported risk variants revealed that LIPC and CTRB2-CTRB1 were also associated with AMD progression (P < 0.0015). Our genome-wide analysis thus expands the genetics in both development and progression of AMD and should assist in early identification of high risk individuals.

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