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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610505

RESUMO

Background: Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (ONIHL) is one of the most common yet preventable occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden of ONIHL in the Australian working population by quantifying and monetising ONIHL-related loss of Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and Productivity Adjusted Life Years (PALYs). Methods: We simulated the number of moderate-to-severe ONIHL by multiplying the age-specific prevalence of occupational noise exposure by the excess risks of ONIHL. Life table modelling was applied to workers with ONIHL. The QALY and PALY weights attributable to hearing loss were sourced from published data. The 2016 Gross Domestic Product per full-time equivalent worker in Australia was used to estimate the cost of productivity loss due to ONIHL. The cost due to the loss of well-being was quantified using willingness to pay thresholds derived from an Australian longitudinal study. Results: Under current occupational noise exposure levels in Australia, we estimated that over 80,000 male workers and over 31,000 female workers would develop ONIHL over 10 years of exposure. Following this cohort until the age of 65 years, the estimated loss of QALYs and PALYs were 62,218 and 135,561 respectively, with a projected loss of AUD 5.5 billion and AUD 21.3 billion due to well-being and productivity loss, respectively. Reducing noise exposure at work would substantially reduce the economic burden of ONIHL. Conclusion: ONIHL imposes substantial burden on Australian economy. Interventions to reduce occupational noise exposure are warranted.

2.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(2): 376-379, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485733

RESUMO

Most epidemiological studies of disease aetiology do not consider potential risk factors at work. This may be because work is a complex exposure: people usually have a series of different jobs over their working lifetime; within each job there may be a range of different tasks; and there may be a variety of exposures in each job. Because of this complexity, many epidemiologists do not have the expertise or training to assess occupational exposures accurately. Our web-based application, OccIDEAS, manages the process of occupational agent assessment in epidemiological studies. The epidemiologist chooses the agents of interest for the study and OccIDEAS provides an online set of questionnaires that are tailored to those agents. The participant is asked specific questions about their job and evidence-based algorithms provide an assessment of exposure to each agent. OccIDEAS puts the world's best occupational epidemiological expertise within reach of any researcher.

3.
Am J Ind Med ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disparities in exposure to occupational hazards may be linked to social position as well as the type of job a person holds. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of exposure to workplace hazards among three migrant worker groups and to assess whether social disparities in exposure for these groups remain after adjusting for occupational characteristics. METHODS: Data were collected in 2017/2018 from 1630 Australian workers born in New Zealand, India, and the Philippines. Weighted estimated prevalence of exposure to 10 carcinogens and four psychosocial hazards (discrimination, job strain, vulnerability, and insecurity) was calculated for sociodemographics and occupation. Regression estimated the likelihood of exposure by sociodemographics after adjustment for occupational characteristics. RESULTS: Exposure to workplace hazards ranged from 11.7% (discrimination) to 61.2% (exposed to at least one carcinogen). Compared with workers born in India, New Zealand born workers were over twice as likely to be exposed to diesel engine exhaust (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.60) and 60% more likely to be exposed to at least one carcinogen (aOR = 1.60) but less likely to be exposed to any psychosocial hazard. Social disparities by country of birth, sex, age, education, and number of years in Australia, as well as company size, employment type, and hours, worked remained associated with greater likelihood of reporting one or more workplace hazards after adjusting for occupational characteristics. CONCLUSION: Examining sociodemographic as well as occupational characteristics helps to clarify groups most likely to be exposed to workplace hazards who can be hidden when examining occupational characteristics alone.

4.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased mammographic density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Night shiftwork and its related factors, which include light at night, phase shift and sleep disruption, are believed to increase breast cancer risk however, their effects on mammographic density have barely been studied. METHODS: This study included 1821 women enrolled in the Breast Cancer Environment and Employment Study between 2009 and 2011. Mammographic density was measured using the Cumulus software program. The association of night shiftwork factors with square root transformed absolute dense area (DA) and percentage dense area (PDA) were modelled using linear regression adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Ever doing graveyard shiftwork (between 24:00 and 05:00 hours) was not associated with PDA (ß=-0.10; 95% CI -0.27 to 0.08)) and DA (ß=-0.12; 95% CI -0.33 to 0.09)). No association was found between night shiftwork related factors (light at night, phase shift and sleep disturbance) with PDA or DA. CONCLUSIONS: Shiftwork and its related factors are not associated with mammographic density. Using high-quality, comprehensive shiftwork data from a large population-based breast cancer case-control study, this study suggests that mammographic density does not play a role in the relationship between shiftwork and breast cancer risk.

5.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value of bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) for the subsequent development of respiratory symptoms, airflow limitation and decline in lung function among aluminium smelter workers. METHODS: An inception cohort study of new employees at two Australian aluminium smelters was conducted. Participants completed a modified British Medical Research Council respiratory questionnaire, spirometry and a methacholine bronchial challenge test at baseline and at annual follow-up reviews. BHR was defined as PD20 ≤4000 µg. Poisson and mixed effects models were fitted to respiratory symptoms and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC)). RESULTS: Baseline interview and lung function testing were completed by 278 workers, who were followed for a median of 4 years. BHR at baseline, present in 82 workers, was not associated with incident wheeze risk ratio (RR)=1.07 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.55) and cough RR=0.78 (95% CI 0.45, 1.35), but there was some increased risk of chest tightness RR=1.40 (95% CI 0.99, 1.98) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking and atopy. BHR at baseline was associated with lower FEV1 and FVC, although the rate of annual decline in FEV1 or FVC was similar between those with or without BHR. The specificity of BHR was 77% for wheeze, 70% for cough and 77% for chest tightness, but the sensitivity was poor, at 33%, 24% and 39%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Methacholine challenge testing at entry to employment was not sufficiently predictive of later adverse respiratory outcomes, and notwithstanding the study limitations is unlikely to be a useful pre-employment or preplacement screening test in the aluminium smelting industry.

6.
Am J Ind Med ; 63(7): 624-633, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers are occupationally exposed to various hazardous chemicals and agents that can potentially result in long-term adverse health effects. These exposures have not been comprehensively examined at a population level. The aim of this study was to examine occupational exposures to a wide range of asthmagens, carcinogens, and ototoxic agents among healthcare workers in Australia. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Australian Work Exposures Studies, which were computer-assisted telephone surveys conducted in 2011, 2014, and 2016 to assess the prevalence of occupational exposures to carcinogens, asthmagens, and ototoxic agents, respectively, among Australian workers. Using data on healthcare workers, the prevalence of exposures to these agents was calculated and associations of demographic variables and occupation groups with exposure status were examined. RESULTS: The prevalence of exposure to at least one asthmagen, carcinogen, and ototoxic agent was 92.3%, 50.7%, and 44.6%, respectively. The most common exposures were to (a) cleaning and sterilizing agents in the asthmagen group; (b) shift work in the carcinogen group; and (c) toluene and p-xylene among ototoxic agents. Exposure varied by occupation, with exposure to carcinogens and ototoxic agents highest among personal carers and exposure to carcinogens most likely among nursing professionals and health and welfare support workers. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that a substantial proportion of Australian healthcare workers are occupationally exposed to asthmagens, carcinogens, and ototoxic agents. These exposures are more common among certain occupational groups. The information provided by this study will be useful in prioritizing and implementing control strategies.

7.
Chronobiol Int ; : 1-14, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233647

RESUMO

Experimental evidence suggests that perinatal light imprinting of circadian clocks and systems may affect downstream physiology and cancer risk in later life. For humans, the predominant circadian stimulus is the daily light-dark cycle. Herein, we explore associations between perinatal photoperiod characteristics (photoperiod: duration of daylight as determined by time-of-year and location) and childhood cancer risk. We use pooled data on 182,856 mothers and babies from prospective birth cohorts in six countries (Australia, Denmark, Israel, Norway, UK, USA) within the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium (I4C). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In line with predicted differential dose-responses, restricted cubic splines indicate a potential non-linear, non-monotonic relationship between perinatal mean daily photoperiod (0-24 h) and childhood cancer risk. In a restricted analysis of 154,121 individuals who experienced third trimester photoperiods exclusively within the 8-16-h range, the relative risk of developing childhood cancer decreased by 9% with every hour increase in third trimester mean daily photoperiod [HR: 0.91 (95%CIs: 0.84-0.99)]. In conclusion, in this first study of perinatal photoperiod and childhood cancer, we detected an inverse ["protective"] linear association between third trimester mean daily photoperiod and childhood cancer risk in the 8-16-h set of the total study population. Limited statistical power impeded the investigation of risks with individuals exposed to more extreme photoperiods. Future studies are needed to confirm differential photoperiod-associated risks and further investigations into the hypothesized circadian imprinting mechanism are warranted.

8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(1): 30-37, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498409

RESUMO

The Monographs produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) apply rigorous procedures for the scientific review and evaluation of carcinogenic hazards by independent experts. The Preamble to the IARC Monographs, which outlines these procedures, was updated in 2019, following recommendations of a 2018 expert advisory group. This article presents the key features of the updated Preamble, a major milestone that will enable IARC to take advantage of recent scientific and procedural advances made during the 12 years since the last Preamble amendments. The updated Preamble formalizes important developments already being pioneered in the Monographs program. These developments were taken forward in a clarified and strengthened process for identifying, reviewing, evaluating, and integrating evidence to identify causes of human cancer. The advancements adopted include the strengthening of systematic review methodologies; greater emphasis on mechanistic evidence, based on key characteristics of carcinogens; greater consideration of quality and informativeness in the critical evaluation of epidemiological studies, including their exposure assessment methods; improved harmonization of evaluation criteria for the different evidence streams; and a single-step process of integrating evidence on cancer in humans, cancer in experimental animals, and mechanisms for reaching overall evaluations. In all, the updated Preamble underpins a stronger and more transparent method for the identification of carcinogenic hazards, the essential first step in cancer prevention.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817396

RESUMO

Asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) were used extensively throughout much of the 20th century and can still be found in many Australian homes. Therefore, we developed a mobile application ("app"), called ACM Check, which guides users through a home inspection to identify and assess certain types of in situ ACM. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the app to collect data on the type and condition of in situ asbestos in Australian residential settings. Since being released in June 2017, we have received data for 702 home inspections. Of these, 578 (82.3%) houses contained a total of 1895 in situ materials categorised as positive for asbestos by the app. The most prevalent ACMs were used for the backing board to electrical meter boxes (50% of homes), eaves and soffit linings (44.2% of homes), and fencing (28.1% of homes). While the majority of ACMs were categorised as 'very low' or 'low' priority for removal or remediation, 6.6% of all ACMs were considered to be of 'high' priority. Mobile apps offer a platform to help increase people's awareness of possible health hazards found in the residential environment, such as asbestos, while also being used to collect data for public and environmental health research.


Assuntos
Asbestos/análise , Telefone Celular , Aplicativos Móveis , Características de Residência , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 10(4): 159-173, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The palm oil industry is the largest contributor to global production of oils and fats. Indonesia and Malaysia are the largest producers of palm oil. More than a million workers are employed in this industry, yet there is a lack of information on their occupational health and safety. OBJECTIVE: To identify and summarize occupational hazards among oil palm plantation workers. METHODS: A search was carried out in June 2018 in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Ovid. Relevant publications were identified by a systematic search of four databases and relevant journals. Publications were included if they examined occupational hazards in oil palm plantation workers. RESULTS: 941 publications were identified; of these, 25 studies were found eligible to be included in the final review. Of the 25 studies examined, 19 were conducted in Malaysia, 2 in Costa Rica, and one each in Ghana, Indonesia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, and Cameroon. Oil palm plantation workers were found to be at risk of musculoskeletal conditions, injuries, psychosocial disorders, and infectious diseases such as malaria and leptospirosis. In addition, they have potential exposure to paraquat and other pesticides. CONCLUSION: In light of the potential of palm oil for use as a biofuel, this is an industry with strong growth potential. The workers are exposed to various occupational hazards. Further research and interventions are necessary to improve the working conditions of this already vast and growing workforce.


Assuntos
Indústria Alimentícia , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Óleo de Palmeira , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/epidemiologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Indústria Alimentícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Óleo de Palmeira/efeitos adversos , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Óleos Vegetais/efeitos adversos
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12524, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467304

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.

14.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(6): 617-625, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963392

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Research on the association between physical activity and the risk of prostate cancer is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the timing, intensity, and type of recreational physical activity influence prostate cancer risk. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Western Australia in 2001-2002. Data were collected on lifetime recreational physical activity from a self-reported questionnaire. The estimated effects of recreational physical activity on prostate cancer risk were analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors. This analysis included 569 incident cases and 443 controls. RESULTS: There was a significant, inverse dose-response relationship between vigorous-intensity recreational physical activity between the ages 19 and 34 years and the risk of prostate cancer (pTrend = 0.013). Participants in the most active quartile of vigorous-intensity physical activity in this age period had a 33% lower risk of prostate cancer than participants in the least active quartile (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval = 0.45-1.01). Moderate-intensity recreational physical activity was not associated with the risk of prostate cancer. Recreational physical activity performed over the lifetime showed no association with prostate cancer risk. Weight training performed from early adulthood onwards showed a non-significant but consistent inverse association with prostate cancer risk. There was no strong evidence that physical activity was differentially associated with the risks of low-grade and medium-to-high grade prostate cancers. CONCLUSIONS: A high level of vigorous recreational physical activity in early adulthood may be required to reduce the risk of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
18.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(5): 341-348, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the current prevalence of exposure to workplace noise and ototoxic chemicals, including co-exposures. METHOD: A cross-sectional telephone survey of nearly 5000 Australian workers was conducted using the web-based application, OccIDEAS. Participants were asked about workplace tasks they performed and predefined algorithms automatically assessed worker's likelihood of exposure to 10 known ototoxic chemicals as well as estimated their full shift noise exposure level (LAeq,8h) of their most recent working day. Results were extrapolated to represent the Australian working population using a raked weighting technique. RESULTS: In the Australian workforce, 19.5% of men and 2.8% of women exceeded the recommended full shift noise limit of 85 dBA during their last working day. Men were more likely to be exposed to noise if they were younger, had trade qualifications and did not live in a major city. Men were more likely exposed to workplace ototoxic chemicals (57.3%) than women (25.3%). Over 80% of workers who exceeded the full shift noise limit were also exposed to at least one ototoxic chemical in their workplace. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that exposures to hazardous noise and ototoxic chemicals are widespread in Australian workplaces and co-exposure is common. Occupational exposure occurs predominantly for men and could explain some of the discrepancies in hearing loss prevalence between genders.


Assuntos
Ruído , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ototoxicidade/etiologia , Local de Trabalho/normas , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Perda Auditiva/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Ototoxicidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(1): 13-20, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352840

RESUMO

Exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE) contributes appreciably to the burden of occupational cancer. This study aims to estimate the potential impact of a range of interventions on the future burden of cancer from occupational exposure to DEE in Australia. The future excess fraction method, a novel method based on the lifetime risk approach, was used to model changes in the future burden of cancer among the Australian working age population exposed to DEE at work in 2012 under various intervention strategies. The interventions modeled were based on the widely accepted hierarchy of control model. At baseline, 600 (0.4%) future bladder and 4,450 (0.6%) future lung cancer cases over the lifetime of the cohort were estimated to be attributable to occupational exposure to DEE in those exposed in 2012. Up to 2,000 of these cases were estimated to be avoidable through the use of various interventions. Exhaust hoses (engineering controls) were estimated to be particularly effective. This study provides an indication of which intervention strategies may be most useful in reducing the future burden of cancer associated with occupational DEE exposure. These results show the potential effect of changing current exposure, rather than focusing on past exposures, and thus provide relevant information for policy planning.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 63(1): 45-53, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304470

RESUMO

Objectives: To estimate the inter-rater agreement between exposure assessment to asthmagens in current jobs by algorithms based on task-based questionnaires (OccIDEAS) and by experts. Methods: Participants in a cross-sectional national survey of exposure to asthmagens (AWES-Asthma) were randomly split into two subcohorts of equal size. Subcohort 1 was used to determine the most common asthmagen groups and occupational groups. From subcohort 2, a random sample of 200 participants was drawn and current occupational exposure (yes/no) was assessed in these by OccIDEAS and by two experts independently and then as a consensus. Inter-rater agreement was estimated using Cohen's Kappa coefficient. The null hypothesis was set at 0.4, because both the experts and the automatic algorithm assessed the exposure using the same task-based questionnaires and therefore an agreement better than by chance would be expected. Results: The Kappa coefficients for the agreement between the experts and the algorithm-based assessments ranged from 0.37 to 1, while the agreement between the two experts ranged from 0.29 to 0.94, depending on the agent being assessed. After discussion by both experts the Kappa coefficients for the consensus decision and OccIDEAS were significantly larger than 0.4 for 7 of the 10 asthmagen groups, while overall the inter-rater agreement was greater than by chance (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The web-based application OccIDEAS is an appropriate tool for automated assessment of current exposure to asthmagens (yes/no), and requires less time-consuming work by highly-qualified research personnel than the traditional expert-based method. Further, it can learn and reuse expert determinations in future studies.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Alérgenos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Asma/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisadores , Adulto Jovem
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