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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19446, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857651

RESUMO

Music is organised both spectrally and temporally, determining musical structures such as musical scale, harmony, and sequential rules in chord progressions. A number of human neuroimaging studies investigated neural processes associated with emotional responses to music investigating the influence of musical valence (pleasantness/unpleasantness) comparing the response to music and unpleasantly manipulated counterparts where harmony and sequential rules were varied. Interactions between the previously applied alterations to harmony and sequential rules of the music in terms of emotional experience and corresponding neural activities have not been systematically studied although such interactions are at the core of how music affects the listener. The current study investigates the interaction between such alterations in harmony and sequential rules by using data sets from two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments. While replicating the previous findings, we found a significant interaction between the spectral and temporal alterations in the fronto-limbic system, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen. We further revealed that the functional connectivity between the vmPFC and the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was reduced when listening to excerpts with alterations in both domains compared to the original music. As it has been suggested that the vmPFC operates as a pivotal point that mediates between the limbic system and the frontal cortex in reward-related processing, we propose that this fronto-limbic interaction might be related to the involvement of cognitive processes in the emotional appreciation of music.

2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2000: 235-245, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148019

RESUMO

Surface modification of nanocarriers offers the possibility of targeted drug delivery, which is of major interest in modern pharmaceutical science. Click-chemistry affords an easy and fast way to modify the surface with targeting structures under mild reaction conditions. Here we describe our current method for the post-preparational surface modification of multifunctional sterically stabilized (stealth) liposomes via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) and inverse electron demand Diels-Alder norbornene-tetrazine cycloaddition (IEDDA). We emphasize the use of these in a one-pot orthogonal reaction for deep investigation on stability and targeting of nanocarriers. As the production of clickable amphiphilic polymers is a limiting factor in most cases, we also describe our nanocarrier preparation technique called dual centrifugation, which enables the formulation of liposomes on a single-digit milligram scale of total lipid mass.

3.
Brain Lang ; 190: 10-15, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665002

RESUMO

Musical excerpts have been shown to have the capacity to prime the processing of target words and vice versa, strongly suggesting that music can convey concepts. However, to date no study has investigated an influence of musical semantics on novel word acquisition, thus corroborating evidence for a similarity of underlying semantic processing of music and words behaviourally. The current study investigates whether semantic content of music can assist the acquisition of novel words. Forty novel words and their German translation were visually presented to 26 participants accompanied by either semantically congruent or incongruent music. Semantic congruence between music and words was expected to increase performance in the subsequent forced-choice recognition test. Participants performed significantly better on the retention of novel words presented with semantically congruent music compared to those presented with semantically incongruent music. This provides first evidence that semantic "enrichment" by music during novel word learning can augment novel word acquisition. This finding may lead to novel approaches in foreign language acquisition and language rehabilitation, and further strongly supports the concept that music has a strong capacity to iconically convey meaning.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/psicologia , Música , Semântica , Aprendizagem Verbal , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Música/psicologia , Comportamento Verbal , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 108(4): 411-429, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold standard for the quantitative assessment of cardiac volumes, mass and function. There are, however, various strategies for establishing endocardial borders, the cardiac phase used for measurements and the body dimensions used for indexing these results. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of different strategies on reference values. METHODS AND RESULTS: 362 healthy volunteers (190 men, mean age 51 ± 13 years) underwent a standard CMR protocol. Left ventricular end-diastolic (LV-EDV) and end-systolic (LV-ESV) volumes and LV mass (LV-M) were measured at end systole and end diastole in SSFP sequences using two methods, one of which included papillary muscles and trabecular tissue in the LV-M ("include" approach), while the other excluded this tissue ("exclude" approach). There was a strong correlation between the results for LV volumes and LV ejection fraction (LV-EF) between the "include" and the "exclude" approach, while the mean values were different: LV-EDV: 149.7 ± 32.5 ml vs 160.5 ± 35.0 ml, p < 0.0001; LV-ESV: 48.7 ± 14.5 ml vs 56.4 ± 16.7 ml, p < 0.0001; LV-EF: 67.7 ± 5.4% vs 65.1 ± 5.6%, p < 0.0001. When comparing end-systolic with end-diastolic data, values for LV-M were significantly higher in end systole irrespective of whether papillary muscles and trabecular tissues were included or not. Furthermore, LV-M missed overweight-induced LV hypertrophy when indexed to body surface area (BSA) instead of height. CONCLUSION: Quantitative assessment of LV volumes and mass with inclusion of papillary muscles and trabeculae to myocardial mass resulted in significantly different values, while indexing to BSA and not height may miss LV hypertrophy in terms of overweight.


Assuntos
Volume Cardíaco/fisiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
5.
Neuropsychologia ; 111: 145-150, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29366950

RESUMO

Accurate perception of the emotional content of vocalisations is essential for successful social communication and interaction. However, it is not clear whether our ability to perceive emotional cues from vocal signals is specific to human signals, or can be applied to other species' vocalisations. Here, we address this issue by evaluating the perception and neural response to affective vocalisations from different primate species (humans, chimpanzees and macaques). We found that the ability of human participants to discriminate emotional valence varied as a function of phylogenetic distance between species. Participants were most accurate at discriminating the emotional valence of human vocalisations, followed by chimpanzee vocalisations. They were, however, unable to accurately discriminate the valence of macaque vocalisations. Next, we used fMRI to compare human brain responses to human, chimpanzee and macaque vocalisations. We found that regions in the superior temporal lobe that are closely associated with the perception of complex auditory signals, showed a graded response to affective vocalisations from different species with the largest response to human vocalisations, an intermediate response to chimpanzees, and the smallest response to macaques. Together, these results suggest that neural correlates of differences in the perception of different primate affective vocalisations are found in auditory regions of the human brain and correspond to the phylogenetic distances between the species.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Emoções , Comportamento Verbal , Vocalização Animal , Adulto , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Humanos , Macaca , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pan troglodytes , Reconhecimento Fisiológico de Modelo/fisiologia
6.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 19(1): 87, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29121956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the prognostic value of cardiac valve plane displacement (CVPD) on various locations in cardiac light chain (AL) amyloidosis. METHODS: Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven cardiac involvement in AL amyloidosis who had undergone cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) between 2005 and 2014 in our institution, were retrospectively identified and data analyzed. The primary combined endpoint was all-cause mortality or heart transplantation. Systolic CVPD were obtained from standard cine bSSFP in 2-, 3- and 4-chamber views at anterior aortic plane systolic excursion (AAPSE); anterior, anterolateral, inferolateral, inferior, inferoseptal mitral (MAPSE); and lateral tricuspid (TAPSE) annular segments. RESULTS: We identified 68 patients (58 ± 10 years; 59% male). Median follow-up period was 1.2 years (IQR, 0.3-4.1). Significant differences in CVPD between patients who reached a primary endpoint (n = 44) and transplant-free survivors were found only for AAPSE (6.1 mm (IQR, 4.6-9.4) vs. 8.8 mm (IQR, 6.9-10.4); p = 0.02) and MAPSEanterolateral (7.3 mm (IQR, 5.4-11.7) vs. 10.5 mm (IQR, 8.1-13.4); p = 0.03). AAPSE (χ2 = 15.6; p = 0.0002) provided the best predictive value for transplant-free survival compared to all other valvular plane locations. A high-risk cutoff (AAPSE ≤ 7.6 mm) was calculated by ROC analysis to predict all-cause death or heart transplantation within 6 months from index examination (AUC = 0.80; CI: 0.68 to 0.89; p < 0.0001). AAPSE added incremental prognostic power to an imaging prediction model of late gadolinium enhancement and global longitudinal strain (GLS) (∆χ2 = 5.8, p = 0.02) as well as to a clinical model including Karnofsky index and NT-proBNP (∆χ2 = 6.2, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: In patients with cardiac involvement in AL amyloidosis, systolic CVPD obtained from standard long axis cine views appear to indicate outcome better, when obtained in the anterior aortic plane (AAPSE) and provide incremental prognostic value to LGE and strain measurements.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Contração Miocárdica , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Biópsia , Cardiomiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatias/cirurgia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Alemanha , Transplante de Coração , Humanos , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/mortalidade , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/fisiopatologia , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/cirurgia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Avaliação de Estado de Karnofsky , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 146(9): 1360-1365, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28846006

RESUMO

Emotion elicited through music transfers to subsequent processing of facial expressions. Music may accordingly function as a social technology by promoting social bonding. Here, we investigated whether music would cross-modally influence the perception of sensual touch, a behavior related to mating. A robot applied precisely controlled gentle touch to a group of healthy participants while they listened to music that varied with respect to its perceived sexiness. As the perceived sexiness of the music increased, so did the subjective sexiness of the touch stimulations. In short, the perception of sexiness transferred from music to touch. Because sensual touch is key to mating behavior and relates to procreation, this association has implications for the universality and evolutionary significance of music. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Música/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Tato/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 5726, 2017 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720776

RESUMO

Harmony is one of the most fundamental elements of music that evokes emotional response. The inferior colliculus (IC) has been known to detect poor agreement of harmonics of sound, that is, dissonance. Electrophysiological evidence has implicated a relationship between a sustained auditory response mainly from the brainstem and unpleasant emotion induced by dissonant harmony. Interestingly, an individual's dislike of dissonant harmony of an individual correlated with a reduced sustained auditory response. In the current paper, we report novel evidence based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for such a relationship between individual variability in dislike of dissonance and the IC activation. Furthermore, for the first time, we show how dissonant harmony modulates functional connectivity of the IC and its association with behaviourally reported unpleasantness. The current findings support important contributions of low level auditory processing and corticofugal interaction in musical harmony preference.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Emoções , Individualidade , Colículos Inferiores/fisiologia , Música , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Colículos Inferiores/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 44(6): 1025-1032, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28197685

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of dopamine D1-type receptor (D1R)-expressing neurons in the regulation of motivated behavior and reward prediction has not yet been fully established. As a prerequisite for future research assessing D1-mediated neuronal network regulation using simultaneous PET/MRI and D1R-selective [11C]SCH23390, this study investigated the stability of central D1R measurements between two independent PET/MRI sessions under baseline conditions. METHODS: Thirteen healthy volunteers (7 female, age 33 ± 13 yrs) underwent 90-min emission scans, each after 90-s bolus injection of 486 ± 16 MBq [11C]SCH23390, on two separate days within 2-4 weeks using a PET/MRI system. Parametric images of D1R distribution volume ratio (DVR) and binding potential (BPND) were generated by a multi-linear reference tissue model with two parameters and the cerebellar cortex as receptor-free reference region. Volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis was performed with manual VOIs drawn on consecutive transverse MRI slices for brain regions with high and low D1R density. RESULTS: The DVR varied from 2.5 ± 0.3 to 2.9 ± 0.5 in regions with high D1R density (e.g. the head of the caudate) and from 1.2 ± 0.1 to 1.6 ± 0.2 in regions with low D1R density (e.g. the prefrontal cortex). The absolute variability of the DVR ranged from 2.4% ± 1.3% to 5.1% ± 5.3%, while Bland-Altman analyses revealed very low differences in mean DVR (e.g. 0.013 ± 0.17 for the nucleus accumbens). Intraclass correlation (one-way, random) indicated very high agreement (0.93 in average) for both DVR and BPND values. Accordingly, the absolute variability of BPND ranged from 7.0% ± 4.7% to 12.5% ± 10.6%; however, there were regions with very low D1R content, such as the occipital cortex, with higher mean variability. CONCLUSION: The test-retest reliability of D1R measurements in this study was very high. This was the case not only for D1R-rich brain areas, but also for regions with low D1R density. These results will provide a solid base for future joint PET/MRI data analyses in stimulation-dependent mapping of D1R-containing neurons and their effects on projections in neuronal circuits that determine behavior.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Multimodal , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Receptores de Dopamina D1/metabolismo , Adulto , Benzazepinas , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Radiology ; 283(3): 681-691, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28156200

RESUMO

Purpose To assess the utility of established functional markers versus two additional functional markers derived from standard cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) images for their incremental diagnostic and prognostic information in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). Materials and Methods Approval was obtained from the local ethics committee. MR images from 453 patients with NIDCM and 150 healthy control subjects were included between 2005 and 2013 and were analyzed retrospectively. Myocardial contraction fraction (MCF) was calculated by dividing left ventricular (LV) stroke volume by LV myocardial volume, and long-axis strain (LAS) was calculated from the distances between the epicardial border of the LV apex and the midpoint of a line connecting the origins of the mitral valve leaflets at end systole and end diastole. Receiver operating characteristic curve, Kaplan-Meier method, Cox regression, and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were performed for diagnostic and prognostic performances. Results LAS (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.93, P < .001) and MCF (AUC = 0.92, P < .001) can be used to discriminate patients with NIDCM from age- and sex-matched control subjects. A total of 97 patients reached the combined end point during a median follow-up of 4.8 years. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, only LV ejection fraction (EF) and LAS independently indicated the combined end point (hazard ratio = 2.8 and 1.9, respectively; P < .001 for both). In a risk stratification approach with classification and regression tree analysis, combined LV EF and LAS cutoff values were used to stratify patients into three risk groups (log-rank test, P < .001). Conclusion Cardiovascular MR-derived MCF and LAS serve as reliable diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with NIDCM. LAS, as a marker for longitudinal contractile function, is an independent parameter for outcome and offers incremental information beyond LV EF and the presence of myocardial fibrosis. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Contração Miocárdica , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Eur Radiol ; 27(9): 3913-3923, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28188427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of right ventricular long axis strain (RV-LAS), a parameter of longitudinal function, with outcome in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). METHODS: In 441 patients with NIDCM, RV-LAS was analysed retrospectively by measuring the length between the epicardial border of the left ventricular apex and the middle of a line connecting the origins of the tricuspidal valve leaflets in end-diastole and end-systole on non-contrast standard cine sequences. RESULTS: The primary endpoint (cardiac death or heart transplantation) occurred in 41 patients, whereas 95 reached the combined endpoint (including cardiac decompensation and sustained ventricular arrhythmias) during a median follow-up of 4.2 years. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a poor outcome in patients with RV-LAS values below -10% (log-rank, p < 0.0001). In a risk stratification model RV-LAS improved prediction of outcome in addition to RV ejection fraction (RVEF) and presence of late gadolinium enhancement. Assessment of RV-LAS offered incremental information compared to clinical symptoms, biomarkers and RVEF. Even in the subgroup with normal RVEF (>45%, n = 213) reduced RV-LAS was still associated with poor outcome. CONCLUSION: Assessment of RV-LAS is an independent indicator of outcome in patients with NIDCM and offers incremental information beyond clinical and cardiac MR parameters. KEY POINTS: • Impaired right ventricular longitudinal function (RV-LAS) is associated with poorer cardiac outcomes. • Poor outcome is associated with decreased RV-LAS even in patients with RVEF >45%. • Addition of RV-LAS to known risk factors enhances the power prognostic information.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/cirurgia , Feminino , Gadolínio , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/mortalidade
12.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 18(12): 1414-1422, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28165128

RESUMO

Aims: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has strong prognostic implications and is associated with heart failure. Recently, myocardial contraction fraction (MCF) was identified as a useful marker for specifically identifying cardiac amyloidosis (CA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MCF for the discrimination of different forms of LVH. Methods and results: We analysed cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scans of patients with CA (n = 132), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, n = 60), hypertensive heart disease (HHD, n = 38) and in 100 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. MCF was calculated by dividing left ventricular (LV) stroke volume by LV myocardial volume. The diagnostic accuracy of MCF was compared to that of LV ejection fraction (EF) and the mass index (MI). Compared with controls (136.3 ± 24.4%, P < 0.05), mean values for MCF were significantly reduced in LVH (HHD:92.6 ± 20%, HCM:80 ± 20.3%, transthyretin CA:74.9 ± 32.2% and light-chain (AL) CA:50.5 ± 21.4%). MCF performed better than LVEF (AUC = 0.96 vs. AUC = 0.6, P < 0.001) and was comparable to LVMI (AUC = 0.95, P = 0.4) in discriminating LVH from controls. There was a significant yet weak correlation between MCF and LVEF (r = 0.43, P < 0.0001). MCF outperformed LVEF and LVMI in discriminating between different etiologies of LVH and between AL and other forms of LVH (AUC = 0.84, P < 0.0001). Moreover, cut-off values for MCF <50% and LVEF <60% allowed to identify patients with high probability for CA. Conclusion: In patients with heart failure MCF discriminates CA from other forms of LVH. As it can easily be derived from standard, non-contrast cine images, it may be a very useful marker in the diagnostic workup of patients with LVH.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Amiloidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Amiloidose/epidemiologia , Amiloidose/fisiopatologia , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
13.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 106(7): 485-492, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28168514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The usage of coronary CT angiography (CTA) is appropriate in patients with acute or chronic chest pain; however the diagnostic accuracy may be challenged with increased Agatston score (AS), increased heart rate, arrhythmia and severe obesity. Thus, we aim to determine the potential of the recently introduced third-generation dual-source CT (DSCT) for CTA in a 'real-life' clinical setting. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-eight consecutive patients (age: 67 ± 10 years; BMI: 27 ± 5 kg/m²; 61% male) undergoing clinically indicated CTA with DSCT were included in the retrospective single-center analysis. A contrast-enhanced volume dataset was acquired in sequential (SSM) (n = 151) or helical scan mode (HSM) (n = 117). Coronary segments were classified in diagnostic or non-diagnostic image quality. A subset underwent invasive angiography to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CTA. RESULTS: SSM (96.8 ± 6%) and HSM (97.5 ± 8%) provided no significant differences in the overall diagnostic image quality. However, AS had significant influence on diagnostic image quality exclusively in SSM (B = 0.003; p = 0.0001), but not in HSM. Diagnostic image quality significantly decreased in SSM in patients with AS ≥2,000 (p = 0.03). SSM (sensitivity: 93.9%; specificity: 96.7%; PPV: 88.6%; NPV: 98.3%) and HSM (sensitivity: 97.4%; specificity: 94.3%; PPV: 86.0%; NPV: 99.0%) provided comparable diagnostic accuracy (p = n.s.). SSM yielded significantly lower radiation doses as compared to HSM (2.1 ± 2.0 vs. 5.1 ± 3.3 mSv; p = 0.0001) in age and BMI-matched cohorts. CONCLUSION: SSM in third-generation DSCT enables significant dose savings and provides robust diagnostic image quality in patients with AS ≤2000 independent of heart rate, heart rhythm or obesity.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Doses de Radiação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 33(5): 721-729, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28110433

RESUMO

Cardiac valve plane displacement (CVPD) reflects longitudinal LV function. The purpose of the present study was to determine regional heterogeneity of CVPD in healthy adults to provide normal values by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). We measured the anterior aortic plane systolic excursion (AAPSE); the anterior, anterolateral, inferolateral, inferior, and inferoseptal mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE); and the lateral tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). Systolic excursion was measured as the distance from peak end-diastolic to peak end-sysstolic annular position (peak-to-peak) in cine images acquired in 2-, 3- and 4-chamber views. Echocardiographic measurements of CVPD were performed in M-Mode as previously described. We retrospectively analyzed 209 healthy Caucasians (57% men), who participated in the Heidelberg normal cohort between March 2009 and September 2014. The analysis was possible in all participants. Mean values were: AAPSE = 14 ± 3 mm (8-20); MAPSEanterior = 14 ± 3 mm (8-20); MAPSEanterolateral = 16 ± 3 mm (10-22); MAPSEinferolateral = 16 ± 3 mm (10-22); MAPSEinferior = 17 ± 3 mm (11-23); MAPSEinferoseptal = 13 ± 3 mm (7-19) and TAPSE = 26 ± 4 mm (18-34) respectively. MAPSE was significantly elevated in lateral compared to septal regions (p = 0.0001). Sex-differences for CVPD were not found. Age-dependency of CVPD revealed distinct regional differences. AAPSE decreased the most with age (B=-0.48; p = 0.0001), whereas MAPSEinferior was the least age-dependent site (B=-0.17; p = 0.01). AAPSE revealed favorable intra-/interobserver reproducibility and interstudy agreement. Intermethod-comparison of CMR and M-Mode echocardiography showed good agreement between both measurements of CVPD. Age-stratified normal values of regional CVPD are provided. AAPSE revealed the most pronounced age-related decrease and provided favorable reproducibility compared to other regions of cardiac valve plane.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Valva Aórtica/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Alemanha , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/fisiologia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Valva Tricúspide/fisiologia
15.
Front Psychol ; 8: 2312, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387030

RESUMO

Objectives: When physical exercise is systematically coupled to music production, exercisers experience improvements in mood, reductions in perceived effort, and enhanced muscular efficiency. The physiology underlying these positive effects remains unknown. Here we approached the investigation of how such musical agency may stimulate the release of endogenous opioids indirectly with a pain threshold paradigm. Design: In a cross-over design we tested the opioid-hypothesis with an indirect measure, comparing the pain tolerance of 22 participants following exercise with or without musical agency. Method: Physical exercise was coupled to music by integrating weight-training machines with sensors that control music-synthesis in real time. Pain tolerance was measured as withdrawal time in a cold pressor test. Results: On average, participants tolerated cold pain for ~5 s longer following exercise sessions with musical agency. Musical agency explained 25% of the variance in cold pressor test withdrawal times after factoring out individual differences in general pain sensitivity. Conclusions: This result demonstrates a substantial pain reducing effect of musical agency in combination with physical exercise, probably due to stimulation of endogenous opioid mechanisms. This has implications for exercise endurance, both in sports and a multitude of rehabilitative therapies in which physical exercise is effective but painful.

16.
Front Neurosci ; 10: 448, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27799893

RESUMO

The esthetic appreciation of music is strongly influenced by cultural background and personal taste. One would expect that this would complicate the utilizability of musical feedback in paradigms, such that music would only be perceived as a reward if it complies to personal esthetic appreciation. Here we report data where we assessed esthetic appreciation of music after 1. a physically strenuous music improvisation and 2. after passive music listening (where participants esthetically assessed similar music). Data are reported from two experiments with different patient groups: 1. Drug abuse patients, and 2. Chronic pain patients. Participants in both experiments performed Jymmin, a music feedback method where exercise equipment is modified in such a way that it can be played like musical instruments by modulating musical parameters in a composition software. This combines physical exertion with musical performance in a fashion that has previously been shown to have a number of positive psychological effects such as enhanced mood and reduced perceived exertion. In both experiments esthetic appreciation of musical presentations during Jymmin and a control condition without musical agency were compared. Data show that both patient groups perceived the musical outcome of their own performance as more esthetically pleasing than similar music they listened to passively. This suggests that the act of making music (when combined with physical exertion) is associated with a positivity bias about the perceived esthetical quality of the musical outcome. The outcome of personal musical agency thus tends to be perceived as rewarding even if it does not comply with personal esthetic appreciation. This suggests that musical feedback interventions may not always have to be highly individualized because individual taste may not always be crucial. The results also suggest that the method applied here may be efficient at encouraging music listeners to actively explore new musical styles that they might otherwise be reluctant to listen to (e.g., avant-garde music). The results also hint toward a deeper understanding of why musicians, who exert themselves physically during musical performances to generate music and regardless of the type of music they are playing, typically find the physically demanding experience esthetically satisfying.

17.
Chemistry ; 22(33): 11578-82, 2016 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27403892

RESUMO

Synthetic access to multiple surface decorations are a bottleneck in the development of liposomes for receptor mediated targeting. This opens a complex multiparameter space, exploration of which is severely limited in terms of sample numbers and turnaround times. Here, we unlock this technological barrier by a combination of a milligram-scale liposome formulation using dual centrifugation and orthogonal click chemistry on the liposomal surface. Application of these techniques to conceptually new amphiphilic compounds, which feature norbornene and alkyne groups at the apex of sterically stabilizing, hyperbranched polyglycerol moieties, revealed a particular influence of the membrane anchor of functional amphiphiles. Folic acid residues clicked to cholesterol-based amphiphiles were inefficient in folate-mediated cell targeting, while dialkyl-anchored amphiphiles remained stable in the liposomal membrane and imparted efficient targeting properties. These findings are of specific importance considering the popularity of cholesterol as a lipophilic anchor.


Assuntos
Colesterol/química , Ácido Fólico/química , Glicerol/química , Lipídeos/química , Lipossomos/química , Polímeros/química , Colesterol/sangue , Química Click , Humanos
18.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 18(1): 36, 2016 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27268238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long axis strain (LAS) has been shown to be a fast assessable parameter representing global left ventricular (LV) longitudinal function in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). However, the prognostic value of LAS in cardiomyopathies with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has not been evaluated yet. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 146 subjects with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM, LVEF ≤45 %) LAS was assessed retrospectively from standard non-contrast SSFP cine sequences by measuring the distance between the epicardial border of the left ventricular apex and the midpoint of a line connecting the origins of the mitral valve leaflets in end-systole and end-diastole. The final values were calculated according to the strain formula. The primary endpoint of the study was defined as a combination of cardiac death, heart transplantation or aborted sudden cardiac death and occurred in 24 subjects during follow-up. Patients with LAS values > -5 % showed a significant higher rate of cardiac events independent of the presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). The multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that LVEDV/BSA (HR: 1.01, p < 0.05), presence of LGE (HR: 2.51, p < 0.05) and LAS (HR: 1.28, p < 0.05) were independent predictors for cardiac events. In a sequential cox regression analysis LAS offered significant incremental information (p < 0.05) for the prediction of outcome in addition to LGE and LVEDV/BSA. Using a dichotomous three point scoring model for risk stratification, including LVEF <35 %, LAS > -10 % and the presence of LGE, patients with 3 points had a significantly higher risk for cardiac events than those with 2 or less points. CONCLUSION: Assessment of long axis function with LAS offers significant incremental information for the prediction of cardiac events in NIDCM and improves risk stratification beyond established CMR parameters.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/cirurgia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Feminino , Transplante de Coração , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Análise Multivariada , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/cirurgia
19.
Eur J Radiol ; 85(7): 1322-8, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27235880

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Right ventricular longitudinal axis strain (RV-LAS) is a simple measure of RV longitudinal function. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of its diagnostic performance in non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and the determination of reference values in controls. METHODS: 217 NIDCM patients and 200 healthy controls were analysed retrospectively regarding the diagnostic performance of RV-LAS using receiver operating characteristic curves in comparison with RV ejection fraction (RVEF), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and global longitudinal strain (RV-GLS). Hereby, four different approaches were evaluated to assess RV-LAS based on different reference points. RV-LAS LVapex/mid was defined as the change in distance between the LV apex and the middle of a line connecting the origins of the tricuspidal valve leaflets in systole and diastole. The ethical approval was obtained in all participants. RESULTS: NIDCM and controls were 48 years in mean. Controls were equally gender distributed, while the proportion of men with NIDCM was higher with 77%. Among the four approaches RV-LAS LVapex/mid provided the highest diagnostic performance for discrimination between NIDCM and controls (AUC=0.94). Of all RV functional parameters RV-LAS LVapex/mid preformed significantly better than RVEF (delta AUC=0.05; p=0.003), TAPSE (delta AUC=0.23; p<0.0001) and RV-GLS (delta AUC=0.31; p<0.0001). A significant correlation was found between RV-LAS LVapex/mid and RVEF (r=-0.65; p<0.0001). The reference mean values for RV-LAS LVapex/mid were -17.4±3.5 for men and -18.5±3.7 for women. CONCLUSION: RV-LAS showed better diagnostic accuracy for RV dysfunction than RVEF, TAPSE and RV-GLS. Furthermore, it has a rapid accessibility and low intra- and interobserver variability.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 37(1): 60-66, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26480295

RESUMO

In this work, activated ester chemistry is employed to synthesize biocompatible and readily functionalizable polymersomes. Via aminolysis of pentafluorophenyl methacrylate-based precursor polymers, an N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA)-analog hydrophilic block is obtained. The precursor polymers can be versatile functionalized by simple addition of suitable primary amines during aminolysis as demonstrated using a fluorescent dye. Vesicle formation is proven by cryoTEM and light scattering. High encapsulation efficiencies for hydrophilic cargo like siRNA are achieved using dual centrifugation and safe encapsulation is demonstrated by gel electrophoresis. In vitro studies reveal low cytotoxicity and no protein adsorption-induced aggregation in human blood serum occurs, making the vesicles interesting candidates as nanosized drug carriers.

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