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J Avian Med Surg ; 35(3): 313-324, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677030


Birds are among the most visually proficient group of animals on the planet; however, their inability to visualize and discriminate translucent glass structures results in an extreme number of deaths worldwide from high-speed collisions. Despite reports of avian glass collisions in North America, only a few studies have been developed to understand this problem in South America, and none evaluated radiographic and postmortem findings. One hundred cadavers were examined radiographically and postmortem, and data from 186 collision reports were analyzed for seasonality (website and manual reports and cadavers). A total of 34 different species of birds within 22 families were evaluated for this study, with the rufous-bellied thrush (Turdus rufiventris; n = 12), eared dove (Zenaida auriculata; n = 12), and ruddy ground dove (Columbina talpacoti; n = 10) being the most common species. Only 6 (27.7%) migratory species were reported: Sick's swift (Chaetura meridionalis), small-billed elaenia (Elaenia parvirostris), Black Jacobin (Florisuga fusca), Great kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus), Double-collared seedeater (Sporophila caerulescens), and Creamy-bellied thrush (Turdus amaurochalinus). Males (51) were more frequently reported than females (5), and 50.1% of the males had active gonads. Sex was unable to be determined in 44 birds. The most common radiographic lesion, noted in 16 of 82 (19.5%) animals, was loss of coelomic definition, suggestive of hemorrhage. Prevalent postmortem findings included skull hemorrhages (58/75, 77.3%) and encephalic contusions (47/73, 64.4%), followed by coelomic hemorrhages (33/81, 40.7%). Most of the window collisions (61/186, 32.8%) occurred during spring, the most common breeding season of avian species in Brazil. Cranioencephalic trauma was identified as the primary cause of mortality associated with birds flying into glass windows. Migration does not appear to be the main predisposing factor for window collisions by birds in Brazil. Increased activity and aggression related to breeding season, especially in males, may be a more important predisposing factor for window collision accidents.

Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Animais , Brasil , Fatores Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Vidro , Masculino
Top Companion Anim Med ; 43: 100505, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346164


The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of congenital heart diseases in dogs attending 2 veterinary hospitals in Brazil and to identify possible associations between these conditions and epidemiological characteristics. A retrospective study was carried out in the cardiology sections of 2 veterinary hospitals during a period of 70 months from January 2012 and October 2017. Of a total of 6710 dogs that attended the cardiology sections of the hospitals, 109 congenital heart diseases were identified in 95 patients, representing a prevalence of 1.6%. Findings consistent with previous literature included subaortic stenosis and pulmonic stenosis as the most commonly diagnosed conditions, in addition to a higher predisposition of females to patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). In contrast, the novel findings included a higher prevalence of atrial septal defect and a lower prevalence of patent ductus arteriosus. The majority of the animals included were over 1 year of age at the time of diagnosis (67%) especially in the subaortic stenosis group. Also, a predisposition of the Maltese to ventricular septal defect was observed. The information obtained in the present study contributes to research that describes epidemiological characteristics of dogs with congenital heart disease in a previously unreported location.

Doenças do Cão , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Comunicação Interventricular , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/veterinária , Comunicação Interventricular/veterinária , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 47(6): 826-834, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981837


OBJECTIVE: To compare between blind and smartphone-based endoscope-assisted techniques for endotracheal intubation in rabbits. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. ANIMALS: A total of 34 rabbits. METHODS: Rabbits were assigned to four groups: intubation by a veterinary anesthesiologist (VA) or an exotic pet medicine specialist (EPS) using blind or endoscope-assisted techniques. Propofol dose, number of attempts until successful intubation, total time for intubation, duration of the successful attempt and occurrence of lingual cyanosis/laryngeal lesions were recorded. Data were analyzed by t test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U test or chi-square test. Pearson correlation for body weight was performed. RESULTS: The success rate of blind intubation was 88.9% and 77.8% for VA and EPS, respectively. Propofol dose, total and median number of attempts, total time for intubation and duration of the successful attempt were 3.1 (0-6.2) mg kg-1, 19, 2 (1-5), 79 ± 65 and 30 ± 20 seconds for VA and 1.5 (0-4.5) mg kg-1, 24, 3 (1-5), 136 ± 92 and 38 ± 16 seconds for EPS. The success rate of endoscope-assisted intubation was 87.5% for both operators. Propofol dose, total and median number of attempts, total time for intubation and duration of the successful attempt were 2.5 (1.3-7.4) mg kg-1, 22, 3 (1-5), 170 (65-368) and 46 (22-150) seconds for VA and 3.2 (0-6) mg kg-1, 11, 1 (1-4), 56 (27-432) and 55 (26-79) seconds for EPS. VA performed blind intubation more quickly, propofol dose was lower and cyanosis was less frequent than in the endoscope-assisted group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Both techniques were reliable for rabbit endotracheal intubation. Best results were achieved when the operator was experienced in the technique. The smartphone-based endoscope is a useful aid for rabbit intubation.

Endoscopia/veterinária , Intubação Intratraqueal/veterinária , Smartphone , Animais , Endoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Masculino , Coelhos , Método Simples-Cego
J Vet Intern Med ; 34(1): 45-52, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875342


BACKGROUND: Spectral Doppler assessment of hepatic veins may provide information on heart function. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To assess the normal pattern of hepatic venous flow using spectral Doppler ultrasound examination; to correlate this information with structural and functional variables of the right ventricle (RV), and to analyze the impact of age, sex, body weight quartiles, heart rate, cardiac rhythm, and systolic arterial pressure on the results in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: Sixty-five healthy dogs. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational study. The direction and maximum velocity of each of the 4 possible components of venous flow were determined from pulsed-wave Doppler examination of the hepatic veins. In addition, structural and functional parameters (TAPSE, longitudinal strain, FAC%, S', Et /At, and E't / A't ) of the RV were evaluated. RESULTS: The same phase patterns for different waves were seen in all animals: A and V were retrograde waves, and S and D were anterograde waves. The velocity of the spectral waves increased with body weight (P < .05) and could be correlated with functional indices of the RV. A significant difference was found when comparing morphometric indices with body weight quartiles (P < .05). In addition, intra-and inter-observer assessments showed low variability. The mean duration of the examinations was 5.2 minutes. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Hepatic spectral Doppler findings can be correlated with systolic and diastolic indices of the RV and vary with body weight.

Cães/anatomia & histologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Ultrassonografia Doppler/veterinária , Função Ventricular/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Masculino
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(4): 696-702, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955374


Fungal pneumonia has been a differential diagnosis in dogs and cats with pulmonary clinical signs, posting also a public health risk to respective owners. Since a common-source environmental exposure may result in infection, dogs and cats may also act as sentinels for both animal and human disease. Accordingly, the present study has aimed to evaluate the occurrence of fungal pneumonia in dogs and cats with pulmonary clinical signs from May 2013 to February 2015 in southern Brazil. Thoracic radiographs, blood work and non-bronchoscopic Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL), followed by cytology and microbiologic analysis were performed in all animals. One dog was positive in the BAL fluid culture for a pathogenic fungus (Cryptococcus neoformans) and another dog to an opportunistic fungus (Candida parapsilosis). Both dogs have presented cough as the prior clinical sign and showed thoracic radiographic changes. In conclusion, the occurrence of fungal pneumonia in southern Brazil in dogs and cats through of this study was relatively low. The BAL fluid culture may allow diagnosis of fungal pneumonia caused by opportunistic or pathogenic fungi and this diagnosis should be a concern in dogs and cats with pulmonary clinical signs.(AU)

Pneumonia fúngica tem sido um diagnóstico diferencial em cães e gatos com sinais clínicos pulmonares, sendo também um risco de saúde pública para seus respectivos proprietários. Uma vez que uma fonte comum de exposição ambiental pode resultar em infecção, cães e gatos podem agir como sentinelas da doença para ambos, pessoas e animais. Assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência de pneumonia fúngica em cães e gatos com sinais clínicos pulmonares, de maio de 2013 a fevereiro 2015 no sul do Brasil. Radiografias torácicas, exame de sangue e lavado broncoalveolar (LBA) não broncoscópico seguido de análise citológica e microbiológica foram realizados em todos os animais. Um cão foi positivo na cultura do fluido do LBA para um fungo patogênico (Cryptococcus neoformans) e outro cão para um fungo oportunista (Candida parapsilosis). Ambos os cães apresentaram tosse como sinal clínico principal e alterações radiológicas torácicas. Em conclusão, a ocorrência de pneumonia fúngica no sul do Brasil em cães e gatos por meio deste estudo foi relativamente baixa. A cultura do LBA pode possibilitar o diagnóstico de pneumonia fúngica causada por fungos oportunistas ou patogênicos e este diagnóstico diferencial deve ser uma preocupação em cães e gatos com sinais clínicos pulmonares.(AU)

Animais , Gatos , Cães , Gatos/microbiologia , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Cães/microbiologia , Criptococose
Theriogenology ; 107: 180-187, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169145


To date there have been no studies that describe the ultrasonographic evaluation of kidney development in canine fetuses. The aim of this prospective and longitudinal study was to monitor fetal kidney development with ultrasound and use fetal kidney measurements as a complementary biometric index for estimation of gestational age. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed on 15 clinically healthy pregnant bitches every four days from 30th day of pregnancy, until visualization of the fetal renal pelvis was no longer possible. Four distinct periods of ultrasonographic canine fetal kidney development were defined. Kidney length and renal pelvis distention were measured on longitudinal plane images. The fetal kidney ranged from 0.40 cm to 2.30 cm in length, and diameter of the pelvis ranged from 0.06 cm to 0.17 cm, however by the end of gestation the renal pelvis was no longer dilated and so its diameter could not be measured. Statistical analysis confirmed a relationship between gestational age and fetal kidney growth. Ultrasonographic evaluation of fetal kidney development is simple to perform. There is a strong correlation between gestational age and kidney length, which allowed generation of an equation to estimate delivery date with high sensitivity between 48 and 52 days of pregnancy. Fetal organ development can be considered complete when the renal pelvis is no longer dilated, this finding can assist the ultrasonographer in staging the gestation by prompting examination for fetal intestinal motility which begins at the same gestational age. Measurement of fetal kidney length can be used in conjunction with other methods to estimate gestational age and predict delivery time.

Cães/embriologia , Idade Gestacional , Rim/embriologia , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/veterinária , Animais , Cães/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Rim/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gravidez
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(4): 415-423, Apr. 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895422


O presente trabalho descreveu características e comparou mensurações do fígado, vesícula biliar, rins, vesícula urinária e jejuno de coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco (NZB) jovens e adultos. O grupo dos jovens foi composto por 39 coelhos de ambos os sexos (20 machos e 19 fêmeas), desmamados aos 30-31 dias de idade, sendo as avaliações realizadas aos 35, 56 e 77 dias de idade. O grupo dos adultos foi composto por 23 fêmeas e 15 machos, com idade superior a 6 meses, sendo realizada uma avaliação ultrassonográfica por animal. O exame consistiu na avaliação do fígado, vesícula biliar, rins direito e esquerdo, jejuno e vesícula urinária. Todos os animais foram pesados antes dos exames. O peso médio dos animais aumentou (p<0,05) dos 35 dias até a idade adulta. Tanto nos adultos quanto nos jovens, o fígado apresentou-se predominantemente isoecogênico ao rim direito e com textura homogênea. A vesícula biliar apresentou-se em formato ovoide alongado, variando de piriforme à amendoado, com conteúdo anecogênico, não sendo visível em 2,6% dos coelhos jovens e em 26,3% dos adultos. O comprimento e a largura da vesícula biliar nas idades de 35, 56, 77 dias e adultos foram: 1,06 e 0,39; 1,44 e 0,53; 1,41 e 0,58; 1,57 e 0,67cm, respectivamente. Considerando jovens e adultos, as mensurações da vesícula biliar e dos rins esquerdo e direito apresentaram correlação positiva (p<0,05) com o peso. Os rins apresentaram-se no formato de elipse e com superfície regular, com aumento (p<0,05) dos 35 dias à idade adulta. Houve correlação positiva (p<0,05) entre os volumes renais direito e esquerdo. A descrição da vesícula urinária mais encontrada (86%) foi a com conteúdo anecogênico, com pequenas estruturas ecogênicas livres no lúmen, tanto em jovens quanto em adultos. Não houve diferença (p>0,05) da espessura das camadas do jejuno entre as idades, apresentando média de 0,23 cm para todos os animais. Estes são os primeiros dados brasileiros de características ultrassonográficas de fígado, vesícula biliar, rins, jejuno e vesícula urinária para coelhos NZB de 35, 56 e 77 dias de vida e adultos.(AU)

This study described characteristics and measurements of the liver, gallbladder, kidney, urinary bladder and jejunum of young and adults New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. The young rabbits's group was composed of 39 rabbits of both sexes (20 males and 19 females), weaned at 30-31 days of age, and the evaluations carried out at 35, 56 and 77 days of age. The adults group was composed of 23 females and 15 males, with more than 6 months of age, and one ultrasonographic evaluation per animal. The exam consisted in the evaluation of liver, gallbladder, right and left kidneys, jejunum and urinary bladder. All the animals were weighed before the evaluations. The average weight increased (p<0.05) from 35 days to adults. Both in adult and in young rabbits, the liver presented predominantly isoechogenic in relation of right kidney and with homogeneous texture. The gallbladder had an elongated ovoid shape, ranging for pear-shaped to almond, with anechogenic content, not being visible in 2.6% of young rabbits and 26.3% of adults. The length and width were 1.06 and 0.39; 1.44 and 0.53; 1.41 and 0.58; 1.57 and 0.67cm, respectively at 35, 56, 77 days and adults. For young and adults rabbits, the gallbladder and the left and right kidneys were positively correlated (p<0.05) with weight. The kidneys had an ellipse shape with smooth surface, increasing (p>0.05) from 35 days to adulthood. There was a positive correlation (p<0.05) between the right and left kidney volumes. The description of urinary bladder more frequently (86%) observed was anechogenic content, with small free echogenic structure within the lumen, both in young and in adult rabbits. There was no difference (p>0.05) in the thickness of the layers of the jejunum among ages, with the mean of 0.23cm for all animals. With the results, the first Brazilian ultrasonographic data for liver, gallbladder, kidney, jejunum and urinary bladder were defined to NZW rabbits in 35, 56 and 77days of life, as well as adults.(AU)

Animais , Coelhos , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Jejuno/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Abdome
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 47(9): e20151532, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1044952


ABSTRACT: Intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) is used in medicine for diagnosis and guidance during oncologic surgery. The aims of this study were to assess the performance, feasibility, advantages and difficulties of the IOUS technique in dogs with suspected intra-abdominal tumors. The study included nine client-owed dogs that had suspected intra-abdominal tumors (spleen, liver or bowel) based on transabdominal ultrasound examination and that were subsequently referred for exploratory laparotomy surgery. During surgery, IOUS was performed; results of preoperative transabdominal ultrasonography, inspection by the surgeon and IOUS were compared on a case-by-case basis. IOUS was helpful in determining lesion resection in all cases. Lesions detected solely by the use of IOUS were observed in seven out of nine cases. Analysis of these cases demonstrated that IOUS can be a tool to assist during oncology surgery on the liver, spleen or bowel. Dogs with hepatic tumors can have small non-palpable intraparenchymal nodules, which may be visible by IOUS.

RESUMO: A ultrassonografia intraoperatória (USIO) é usada na medicina como método de diagnóstico e orientação para procedimentos em cirurgia oncológica. Os objetivos desse estudo foram avaliar a performance, viabilidade, vantagens e dificuldades da técnica de USIO em cães com suspeita de neoplasia intra-abdominal. O estudo incluiu nove cães com suspeita de neoplasia intra-abdominal (baço, fígado ou intestino) baseada em exame ultrassonográfico transabdominal e que foram subsequentemente encaminhados para laparotomia exploratória. Durante o procedimento cirúrgico, a USIO foi realizada e os resultados da ultrassonografia transabdominal pré-operatória, inspeção e palpação realizada pelo cirurgião e USIO foram comparados com base em uma avaliação caso-a-caso. A USIO contribuiu para determinar a área de ressecção das lesões em todos os casos. Lesões detectadas somente pela USIO foram observadas em sete dos nove casos. A análise dos casos demostrou que a USIO pode auxiliar durante a cirurgia oncológica do fígado, baço e intestino. Cães com neoplasia hepática podem ter lesões pequenas intraparenquimatosas e não palpáveis pelo cirurgião, mas que podem ser verificadas pela USIO.

Theriogenology ; 86(7): 1654-61, 2016 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543362


The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the oscillation of the fetal heart rate (HR) in advance of normal delivery and whether this index could be used to indicate impending delivery. In addition, fetal HR oscillation and umbilical artery resistive index (RI) were correlated to determine if the combination of these parameters provided a more accurate prediction of the time of delivery. Sonographic evaluation was performed in 11 pregnant bitches to evaluate the fetal HR and umbilical artery RI at the following antepartum times: 120 to 96 hours, 72 to 48 hours, 24 to 12 hours, and 12 to 1 hours. Statistical analysis indicated a correlation between the oscillation of fetal HR and the umbilical artery RI. As delivery approached a considerable reduction in the umbilical artery RI was documented and greater oscillations between maximum and minimum HRs occurred. We conclude that the quantitative analysis of fetal HR oscillations may be used to predict the time of delivery in bitches. The combination of fetal HR and umbilical artery RI together may provide more accurate predictions of time of delivery.

Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Cães/fisiologia , Feto/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca Fetal/fisiologia , Parto/fisiologia , Artérias Umbilicais/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 79(1): 33-6, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26840164


PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prostaglandin analogs on blood flow in the ophthalmic artery of clinically healthy rabbits. METHODS: Fifty-five clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were divided into six groups, and the left eyes were treated for four weeks with the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK) only or a topical formulation of different prostaglandin analogs (bimatoprost BAK, tafluprost BAK-free, travoprost BAK, travoprost POLYQUAD, and latanoprost BAK). Color Doppler imaging was performed before and after the treatments. The mean values of the peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity and the resistive index (RI) were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the differences pre- and post-treatment for each drug and post-treatment among the drugs. RESULTS: The prostaglandin analogs did not affect PSV. Bimatoprost BAK, travoprost POLYQUAD, and latanoprost BAK did not change RI. Tafluprost BAK-free and travoprost BAK therapy resulted in similar reductions in RI. No significant differences pre- and post-treatment were found when BAK was administered alone. CONCLUSION: The prostaglandin analogs tafluprost BAK-free and travoprost BAK improved blood flow in the ophthalmic artery in healthy New Zealand white rabbits, which suggests that these drugs enhance the prevention of the progression the progression of glaucoma.

Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , Artéria Oftálmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/farmacologia , Prostaglandinas F Sintéticas/farmacologia , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Bimatoprost/farmacologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Glaucoma/prevenção & controle , Latanoprosta , Masculino , Artéria Oftálmica/diagnóstico por imagem , Prostaglandinas F/farmacologia , Coelhos , Distribuição Aleatória , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Travoprost/farmacologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(1): 33-36, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-771904


ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prostaglandin analogs on blood flow in the ophthalmic artery of clinically healthy rabbits. Methods: Fifty-five clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were divided into six groups, and the left eyes were treated for four weeks with the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK) only or a topical formulation of different prostaglandin analogs (bimatoprost BAK, tafluprost BAK-free, travoprost BAK, travoprost POLYQUAD, and latanoprost BAK). Color Doppler imaging was performed before and after the treatments. The mean values of the peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity and the resistive index (RI) were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the differences pre- and post-treatment for each drug and post-treatment among the drugs. Results: The prostaglandin analogs did not affect PSV. Bimatoprost BAK, travoprost POLYQUAD, and latanoprost BAK did not change RI. Tafluprost BAK-free and travoprost BAK therapy resulted in similar reductions in RI. No significant differences pre- and post-treatment were found when BAK was administered alone. Conclusion: The prostaglandin analogs tafluprost BAK-free and travoprost BAK improved blood flow in the ophthalmic artery in healthy New Zealand white rabbits, which suggests that these drugs enhance the prevention of the progression the progression of glaucoma.

RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos dos análogos da prostaglandina (PGAs) no fluxo sanguíneo da artéria oftálmica em coelhos. Métodos: Cinquenta e cinco coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia clinicamente saudáveis foram divididos em seis grupos para tratamento com formulação tópica de diferentes APGs (bimatoprosta BAK, tafluprosta BAK-free, travoprosta BAK, travoprosta POLYQUAD e latanoprosta BAK) e formulações contendo apenas o conservante cloreto de benzalcônio (BAK). Foi realizada ultrassonografia com Doppler antes e após os tratamentos. Os valores do pico da velocidade sistólica (PSV) e da velocidade diastólica final foram obtidos e o índice de resistência (RI) foi então calculado. A análise estatística foi realizada para comparar as diferenças entre cada droga no pré e pós-tratamento, além das diferenças no pós-tratamento entre as drogas. Resultados: Estes colírios PGAs não afetaram o PSV. A bimatoprosta com o conservante BAK, travoprosta com o conservante POLYQUAD e latanoprosta com o conservante BAK não alteraram o RI. Já o tratamento com tafluprosta sem conservante (BAK-free) e travoprosta com o conservante BAK promoveram redução similar dos valores do RI. Não houve diferença significativa na comparação entre valores pré e pós-tratamento quando BAK foi administrado isoladamente. Conclusão: Os PGAs tafluprosta BAK-free e travoprosta BAK melhoraram o fluxo sanguíneo na artéria oftálmica em coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia sugerindo que estes medicamentos possam contribuir na prevenção da progressão do glaucoma.

Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Coelhos , Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , Artéria Oftálmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/farmacologia , Prostaglandinas F Sintéticas/farmacologia , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Bimatoprost/farmacologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/efeitos dos fármacos , Glaucoma/prevenção & controle , Artéria Oftálmica , Prostaglandinas F/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Travoprost/farmacologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores
Vet Res Commun ; 40(1): 11-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26689920


The aim of this study was to develop regression models for correlation of canine fetal heart development with body size to characterize normal development or suggest cardiac anomalies. Twenty clinically healthy pregnant bitches, either brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic, were examined ultrasonographically. Transabdominal fetal echocardiography was conducted every 4 days from the beginning of cardiac chambers differentiation until parturition. Ten cardiac parameters were measured: length, width and diameter of the heart; heart area; left and right ventricular dimensions; left and right atrial dimensions; and aortic and pulmonary artery diameter. Femoral length, biparietal diameter and abdominal cross-sectional area were also recorded. Regression equations were developed for each parameter of fetal body size, and linear and logarithmic models were compared. The model with the highest correlation coefficient was chosen to produce equations to calculate relative dimensions based on the correlations. Only the left-ventricular chamber differed between the two racial groups. Biparietal diameter was the independent parameter that produced the highest correlation coefficient for the most fetal cardiac dimensions, although good correlations were also observed using femoral length and abdominal cross-sectional area. Heart width and heart diameter were used as surrogates of cardiac development, as these measurements showed the best statistical correlation. Quantitative evaluation of fetal cardiac structures can be used to monitor normal and abnormal cardiac development.

Cães/anatomia & histologia , Cães/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Coração Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Cruzamento , Feminino , Coração Fetal/anatomia & histologia , Coração Fetal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão
Theriogenology ; 84(5): 681-6, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26025243


Modern high-resolution ultrasound images enable earlier assessment of measures of fetal development, including identification of the bowel. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic development of fetal bowel and correlate this with gestational age; define whether ultrasonographic visualization of fetal intestinal peristalsis in utero is associated with fetal maturation and determine whether there is a difference in fetal intestinal peristalsis detection time between fetuses delivered by normal delivery and cesarean. A cohort study was conducted in pregnant bitches presented to a veterinary hospital, to assess fetal bowel development. Statistical analysis was used to establish the correlation of the stage of fetal bowel development, as recorded by ultrasound, with outcomes of normal delivery and cesarean section. The study was broken down into three stages: the first stage was a descriptive analysis of fetal bowel development by ultrasound; the second stage compared time (in days) of bowel development between groups (normal delivery vs. cesarean); and the third stage was correlated survival probability for fetuses born on any day after detection of intestinal peristalsis with fetal maturity. All statistical analyses were significant. It is possible to monitor pregnancy progression using ultrasonographic evaluation of bowel development and this can reliably identify the end of fetal organogenesis. However, ultrasonographic detection of bowel segments with visualization of wall layers and associated peristalsis should not be used as the sole indicator for cesarean section planning because it is not possible to determine ultrasonographically whether the bowel is functional (mature).

Cães/embriologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Intestinos/embriologia , Animais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/veterinária
Anim Reprod Sci ; 154: 105-12, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25596637


The aim of this study was to describe changes in umbilical artery blood flow in the later stages of canine pregnancy. Seventeen pregnant bitches were examined sonographically to evaluate umbilical artery blood flow at the following antepartum times: 120-96, 96-72, 72-48, 48-24, 24-12, 12-6 and 6-1h. The peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity were measured to calculate the resistive index (RI). Bitches were classified into two groups according to delivery method: normal delivery (Group 1, n=11) and Cesarean section, due to fetal distress, (Group 2, n=6). During the study, the RI of the umbilical artery in bitches in Group 1 significantly declined in the time periods 72-48, 24-12, 12-6 and 6-1h before delivery when compared to the reference RI (120-96h antepartum period), with values ​​below 0.7 in the 12-6 and 6-1h periods. In Group 2, the RI decreased significantly in the antepartum periods 96-72, 72-48, 48-24h with respect to the period 120-96h, and increased in the periods from 24-12, 12-6 and 6-1h (being significantly higher in this last period) until the time of Cesarean section. Therefore monitoring of changes in umbilical artery RI in the pre-partum period may provide information about time of delivery in bitches and also assist in the diagnosis of possible dystocia and fetal distress.

Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Cães/embriologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Artérias Umbilicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Umbilicais/fisiologia , Animais , Cães/fisiologia , Feminino , Gravidez
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(9): 903-910, set. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-728830


As glândulas adrenais possuem funções endócrinas relacionadas a múltiplas funções vitais, estando intimamente relacionadas à capacidade do animal em se adaptar ao estresse. O exame ultrassonográfico é o método diagnóstico de escolha para avaliação das glândulas em diferentes espécies. Considerando a escassa literatura, questiona-se se as doenças adrenais em primatas não humanos são incomuns ou subdiagnosticadas, havendo a hipótese desse fato ser determinado pela falta de parâmetros. Objetivou-se descrever as características ultrassonográficas das glândulas adrenais para três espécies de primatas não humanos mantidas em cativeiro: Saimiri sciureus (mico-de-cheiro), Aotus azarae infulatus (macaco-da-noite) e Alouatta guariba clamitans (bugio-ruivo). Conclui-se que é possível a identificação das glândulas adrenais por meio de exame ultrassonográfico, sendo que os padrões de referência foram estabelecidos com sucesso para as espécies em questão. Ressalta-se que a adequação de animais em ambientes estressantes é frequentemente acompanhada por uma hipertrofia das glândulas adrenais, portanto deve-se levar em consideração que as mensurações realizadas nesse estudo foram estabelecidas em animais de cativeiro...

The adrenal glands have endocrine functions related to multiple vital functions and are closely related to the animal's ability to adapt to stress. The ultrasound is the diagnostic method of choice for evaluation of glands in different species. Considering the scarce literature, one may question whether the adrenal disorders in nonhuman primates are uncommon or underdiagnosed, and a hypothesis exists that this fact is determined by the lack of parameters. The goal is to describe the sonographic features of the adrenal glands for three species of nonhuman primates kept in captivity: squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), owl monkey (Aotus azarae infulatus) and howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans). It is concluded that it is possible to identify the adrenal glands by ultrasound, and the reference standards have been established successfully for the species in question. It is noteworthy that the adaptation of animals in many stressful environments is often accompanied by a hypertrophy of the adrenal glands, so one should take into account that the measurements performed in this study were established in captive animals...

Animais , Alouatta/anatomia & histologia , Aotidae/anatomia & histologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais , Saimiri/anatomia & histologia , Biometria , Hipertrofia , Estresse Psicológico
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24515628


Tonic immobility (TI) is a response to fear or threat by remaining motionless, principally when attacked by predators from which there is no possibility of escape. Thus, here we demonstrate a way of easily reproducing this phenomenon in a laboratory setting and characterize the cardiac electromechanical alterations during TI. We observed a significant decrease in heart rate (HR) and changes of rhythm in electrocardiogram during TI in rabbits. Echocardiogram showed a significant increase in the left ventricle chamber diameter during systole and a consequent decrease in fractional shortening and ejection fraction, in addition to the HR and rhythm changes. There was also a significant decrease in aortic and pulmonary artery blood flow. Diastolic functional changes included a significant decrease of the peak atrial contraction velocity (A peak) and consequent increase in the ratio of peak early diastolic velocity to A peak and increased isovolumetric relaxation time. We were able to prove that TI changes the cardiac function considerably. Although the "fight-or-flight" response is the most common response to fear, which is characterized by the action of sympathetic nervous system with tachycardia and increased physical activity, TI is an alternative anti-predator behavior causing cardiac changes opposite to the "fight-or-flight" phenomenon.

Reação de Congelamento Cataléptica/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia , Animais , Aorta/fisiologia , Diástole/fisiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiologia , Coelhos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Sístole/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(10): 1275-1289, Oct. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-697168


Objetivou-se relatar características morfológicas do bulbo ocular e determinar valores de referência para testes oftálmicos selecionados em corujas-orelhudas (Asio clamator). Foram estudados 32 olhos de 16 corujas (Asio clamator), adultas e jovens, machos e fêmeas, de vida livre. Sendo compilados dados referentes a observações morfológicas do crânio, bulbo ocular e anexos, além de mensuração de testes oftálmicos, incluindo, Teste Lacrimal de Schirmer (TLS), cultura da microbiota normal da conjuntiva, estesiometria, pressão intraocular (PIO), espessura de córnea central (ECC), diâmetro horizontal da rima palpebral, diâmetro horizontal da córnea e oftalmoscopia indireta. Vinte e dois tipos de bactérias foram identificados em 12 corujas havendo predominância de microrganismos Gram-positivos. A média encontrada para o TLS foi de 5,03±3,28mm/min, para o diâmetro horizontal da rima palpebral em 16 corujas foi 21,24±1,17mm, e 15,7±2,74mm para o diâmetro horizontal da córnea. O valor médio para o teste de estesiometria foi de 0,80±0,59cm, a PIO média de 13,81±5,62mmHg e ECC média de 0,28±0,03cm. O estudo contribuiu para a caracterização da morfologia ocular e para o estabelecimento de valores de referências de testes diagnósticos oftálmicos em corujas-orelhudas, sendo necessário ainda o desenvolvimento de estudos complementares sobre histologia ocular desta espécie.

The investigation aimed to describe the most relevant morphological characteristics of the eyes of the striped owl (Asio clamator) and determine normal values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests. A total of 32 eyes of 16 young and adult free-ranging healthy striped owls of both sexes were investigated. Data of different morphological observations of the skull, eye globe and adnexa, clinical tests and parameters were collected, including Schirmer Tear Test (STT), normal conjunctival bacterial microbiota, esthesiometry, intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), horizontal palpebral fissure length, horizontal, corneal diameter and fundoscopy. Twenty two types of bacteria were identified in twelve owls, the most frequent bacteriae were the Gram-positive. The mean value found for the STT was 5.03±3.28mm/min; horizontal palpebral fissure lengths was 21.24±1.17mm, and 15.7±2.74mm for horizontal corneal diameter. The mean value for the esthesiometry was 0.80±0.59cm, IOP was 13.81±5.62mmHg and CCT was 0.28±0.03cm. This study contributes to establish reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in the striped owl, as well as for morphological characterization of the eyeball of Asio clamator; but it is still necessary to characterize furthermore its histologic features.

Animais , Estrigiformes/anatomia & histologia , Oftalmoscopia/veterinária , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/veterinária