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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The lack of a validated and cross-culturally equivalent scale for measuring individual-level water insecurity has prevented identification of those most vulnerable to it. Therefore, we developed the 12-item Individual Water InSecurity Experiences (IWISE) Scale to comparably measure individual experiences with access, use, and stability (reliability) of water. Here, we examine the reliability, cross-country equivalence, and cross-country and within-country validity of the scale in a cross-sectional sample. METHODS: IWISE items were implemented by the Gallup World Poll among nationally representative samples of 43 970 adults (>15 y) in 31 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach's alpha. Equivalence was tested using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA), the alignment method, and item response theory. Cross-country validity was assessed by regressing mean national IWISE scores on measures of economic, social, and water infrastructure development. Within-country validity was tested with logistic regression models of dissatisfaction with local water quality by IWISE score and regressing individual IWISE scores on per capita household income and difficulty getting by on current income. FINDINGS: Internal consistency was high; Cronbach's alpha was ≥0.89 in all countries. Goodness-of-fit statistics from MGCFA, the proportion of equivalent item thresholds and loadings in the alignment models, and Rasch output indicated equivalence across countries. Validity across countries was also established; country mean IWISE scores were negatively associated with gross domestic product and percentage of the population with access to basic water services, but positively associated with fertility rate. Validity within countries was also demonstrated; individuals' IWISE scores were positively associated with greater odds of dissatisfaction with water quality and negatively associated with lower financial standing. CONCLUSIONS: The IWISE Scale provides an equivalent measure of individual experiences with water access and use across LMICs. It will be useful for establishing and tracking changes in the prevalence of water insecurity and identifying groups who have been 'left behind'.


Assuntos
Insegurança Hídrica , Água , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Abastecimento de Água
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal child growth and development are significant problems in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal resources for care may help to improve growth and development. This study examined the association of maternal resources for care on child length, motor development and language development of children 12-23.9 months old. METHODS: We used baseline data from the Alive & Thrive household surveys collected in Bangladesh (n = 803) and Vietnam (n = 635). Resources for care were represented by maternal education, knowledge, height, well-nourishment, mental well-being, decision-making, employment, support in chores and perceived support. The regression analyses were adjusted for household wealth and other covariates on households, children and parents and accounted for geographical clustering. RESULTS: Maternal height (Bangladesh ß = 0.150 p < 0.001, Vietnam ß = 0.156 p < 0.001), well-nourishment (Vietnam ß = 0.882 p = 0.007) and mental well-being (Bangladesh ß = 0.0649 p = 0.008, Vietnam ß = 0.0742 p = 0.039) were associated with child length. Well-nourishment (Vietnam ß = 0.670 p = 0.042) and support in chores (Bangladesh ß = 0.0983 p = 0.021) were associated with child motor development. Mental well-being (Vietnam ß = 0.0735 p = 0.013), decision-making autonomy (Bangladesh ß = 0.0886 p = 0.029) and perceived support (Vietnam ß = 0.445 p = 0.003) were associated with child language development. CONCLUSION: Maternal height, well-nourishment, mental well-being, decision-making, support in chores and perceived social support were associated with child outcomes. Interventions that help to improve resources among mothers have potential to foster child growth and development.

3.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e13263, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505343

RESUMO

Food choice for children has important implications in establishing early-life dietary habits and preferences. Food choice for children has been studied as parent-child dyad dynamics, but little is known about the extended system of relationships in maternal food choice for children. The objective of this study was to understand the functions of mothers' social networks in the food choices that mothers make for their children ages 1 to 5 years old in rural Mexico. In-depth interviews were conducted with 46 participants in three rural communities. The interviews inquired about participants' child-feeding practices, personal and local beliefs about child feeding and the individuals with whom they had conversations about food and child feeding. All interviews were conducted in Spanish, audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, verified for quality and analysed using the constant comparative method. Five interconnected networks emerged, consisting of household family, non-household family, community, children's initial school and health and nutritional programme personnel. Each network had functions in food choice that ranged from shared food decision-making in the household family network to imparting formal dietary guidance in the health and nutritional programme personnel network. Across the networks, professionals, participants' mothers and mothers-in-law, community senior women and other women with children emerged as prominent figures whom participants would turn to for child-feeding advice. These findings provide empirical evidence that social networks, as an organized system of interconnected relationships, have vital functions in establishing social norms for food choices made for children that can be leveraged to promote healthy food choices.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e054903, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: People living with HIV (PLHIV) in the USA, particularly women, have a higher prevalence of food insecurity than the general population. Cigarette smoking among PLHIV is common (42%), and PLHIV are 6-13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than AIDS-related causes. This study sought to investigate the associations between food security status and smoking status and severity among a cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with and without HIV in the USA. DESIGN: Women enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study from 2013 to 2015. SETTING: Nine participating sites across the USA. PARTICIPANTS: 2553 participants enrolled in the Food Insecurity Sub-Study of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite cohort study of US women living with HIV and demographically similar HIV-seronegative women. OUTCOMES: Current cigarette smoking status and intensity were self-reported. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal logistic and Tobit regressions to assess associations of food security status and changes in food security status with smoking status and intensity. RESULTS: The median age was 48. Most respondents were African-American/black (72%) and living with HIV (71%). Over half had annual incomes ≤US$12 000 (52%). Food insecurity (44%) and cigarette smoking (42%) were prevalent. In analyses adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of food insecurity were associated with greater odds of current smoking compared with food-secure women. Changes in food insecurity were also associated with increased odds of smoking. Any food insecurity was associated with higher smoking intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity over time was associated with smoking in this cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with or at risk of HIV. Integrating alleviation of food insecurity into smoking cessation programmes may be an effective method to reduce the smoking prevalence and disproportionate lung cancer mortality rate particularly among PLHIV.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Infecções por HIV , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Ann Behav Med ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic health inequities have been well-documented among youth and young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet little is known about how socioeconomic position (SEP) intersects with the risk marker of race/ethnicity to predict inequities in longitudinal glycemic control. PURPOSE: To identify patterns of SEP, race/ethnicity, and clinical characteristics that differentiate hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) trajectories among youth and young adults after T1D diagnosis. METHODS: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth cohort includes youth with diabetes diagnosed from 2002 to 2006 and 2008 who were followed through 2015. We analyzed data from 1,313 youth and young adults with T1D with ≥3 HbA1c measures. Classification tree analysis identified patterns of baseline demographic, SEP, and clinical characteristic that best predicted HbA1c trajectories over an average of 8.3 years using group-based trajectory modeling. RESULTS: Two HbA1c trajectories were identified: Trajectory 1 (77%) with lower baseline HbA1c and mild increases (from mean 7.4% to 8.4%) and Trajectory 2 (23%) with higher baseline HbA1c and major increases (from 8.5% to 11.2%). Race/ethnicity intersected with different SEP characteristics among non-Hispanic white (NHW) than in non-whites. Public health insurance predicted high-risk Trajectory 2 membership in non-whites, whereas parental education, household structure, diagnosis age and glucose checking frequency predicted membership for NHW youth and young adults. Two characteristics, race/ethnicity and parental education alone identified 80% of the Trajectory 2 members. CONCLUSIONS: Race/ethnicity intersects with multiple SEP and clinical characteristics among youth and young adults with T1D, which is associated with particularly high risk of poor long-term glycemic control.

6.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-11, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551852

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, socio-economic factors associated with Afghan refugee households' food insecurity, anxiety and uncertainty, insufficient quality and food intake were determined. DESIGN: Household Food Insecurity Assess Scale measurement was applied to assess food insecurity, anxiety and uncertainty, insufficient quality and insufficient food intake. Descriptive analysis and multivariable regression models were used to determine the associated factors. SETTING: The study was carried out in urban areas of Tehran province in Iran. PARTICIPANTS: To collect data, interviews were conducted among 317 Afghan households. The questionnaire was administered via face-to-face interviews to either the breadwinner of the selected households or a member who could respond on behalf of the household. RESULTS: About 11·3 % of Afghan households who resettled in Tehran province were food secure, while 11·7 % were marginally, 40·7 % moderately and 36·3 % severely food insecure. Economic and financial factors were inversely and significantly associated with food insecurity. Employment, income, distance from the central market and personal saving were inversely associated with food insecurity, while other determinants, including the length of living time in Tehran, house type and the number of male and female children, had a direct association with food insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: The associations of socio-economic factors with three categories of food insecurity differed. Elimination of occupation bans that the Iranian government imposes on refugees provides simple access to financial supports like long-term loans, and opening a bank account for refugees will benefit both Iranians and refugees.

7.
Infant Behav Dev ; 65: 101628, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392076

RESUMO

This study examined associations between objectively-measured nighttime sleep duration and physical activity in a sample of 6-7 month-old infants (N=93). The study also investigated relationships between infant sleep and demographic and environmental characteristics. Cross-sectional relationships were assessed using linear regression analyses. Nighttime sleep duration was positively associated with physical activity levels. Nighttime sleep duration was greater when infants had a consistent bedtime, slept in a separate room, were male, and had mothers who reported having a college education or greater. These findings can inform the development of interventions that aim to improve infant sleep.

8.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-13, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent to which mandatory Guidelines to improve the school food environment were being implemented in Costa Rican high schools and to explore the perspectives of key policy actors towards the Guidelines. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews and site observations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and imported to NVivo 12 for analysis. Inductive and deductive themes were identified, and elements of the RE-AIM framework and the social process framework were used when classifying these themes. SETTING: Sixteen public high schools in San José, Costa Rica. PARTICIPANTS: High school principal and kiosk concessionaires. RESULTS: Products that did not adhere to the Guidelines were still widely available in schools, and amongst the most prevalent challenges to implementation that emerged from our interviews, were a lack of understanding of the policy content, a lack of monitoring and accountability, and competing values amongst actors which affected their views on the role that the school must have in offering a healthy food environment. CONCLUSION: Most products offered in high schools did not meet the criteria required by the mandatory Guidelines, and several contextual factors were found to influence implementation. Strengthening the implementation of the Costa Rican Guidelines will require further actions at the governmental and school levels.

9.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373987

RESUMO

Reliable access to safe and acceptable water in sufficient quantities (i.e., water security) is important for medication adherence and limiting pathogen exposure, yet prior studies have only considered the role of food security as a social determinant of HIV-related health. Therefore, the objective of this analysis was to assess the relationships between household water insecurity and HIV-related outcomes among adults living with HIV in western Kenya (N = 716). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from Shamba Maisha (NCT02815579), a cluster randomized controlled trial of a multisectoral agricultural and asset loan intervention. Baseline data were collected from June 2016 to December 2017. We assessed associations between water insecurity and HIV-related outcomes, adjusting for clinical and behavioral confounders, including food insecurity. Each five-unit higher household water insecurity score (range: 0-51) was associated with 1.21 higher odds of having a viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mL (95% CI 1.07, 1.36) and 1.26 higher odds of AIDS-defining illness (95% CI 1.11, 1.42). Household water insecurity was not associated with CD4 cell count (B: 0.27; 95% CI -3.59, 13.05). HIV treatment and support programs should consider assessing and addressing water insecurity in addition to food insecurity to optimize HIV outcomes.

10.
Ecol Food Nutr ; : 1-17, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319185

RESUMO

Shame experienced with food insecurity and participating in food assistance may affect adolescents. We investigated adolescents' experiences of shame related to food insecurity and situations for these experiences in an ethnically diverse sample of 40 adolescents aged 9-15 years from South Carolina and Oregon. In-depth interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed. Participants described feelings of sadness, anger, and internalized shame with food insecurity. Salient situations were participating in food assistance, seeking food assistance from others or community services, and social encounters at school among peers. Adolescents felt shame knowing that peers were aware of their food insecurity and about them participating in food assistance through school.

11.
J Nutr ; 151(8): 2305-2316, 2021 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic may substantially affect health systems, but little primary evidence is available on disruption of health and nutrition services. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to 1) determine the extent of disruption in provision and utilization of health and nutrition services induced by the pandemic in Uttar Pradesh, India; and 2) identify how adaptations were made to restore service provision in response to the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted longitudinal surveys with frontline workers (FLWs, n = 313) and mothers of children <2 y old (n = 659) in December 2019 (in-person) and July 2020 (by phone). We also interviewed block-level managers and obtained administrative data. We examined changes in service provision and utilization using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests. RESULTS: Compared with prepandemic, service provision reduced substantially during lockdown (83-98 percentage points, pp), except for home visits and take-home rations (∼30%). Most FLWs (68%-90%) restored service provision in July 2020, except for immunization and hot cooked meals (<10%). Administrative data showed similar patterns of disruption and restoration. FLW fears, increased workload, inadequate personal protective equipment (PPE), and manpower shortages challenged service provision. Key adaptations made to provide services were delivering services to beneficiary homes (∼40%-90%), social distancing (80%), and using PPE (40%-50%) and telephones for communication (∼20%). On the demand side, service utilization reduced substantially (40-80 pp) during the lockdown, but about half of mothers received home visits and food supplementation. Utilization for most services did not improve after the lockdown, bearing the challenges of limited travel (30%), nonavailability of services (26%), and fear of catching the virus when leaving the house (22%) or meeting service providers (14%). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 disrupted the provision and use of health and nutrition services in Uttar Pradesh, India, despite adaptations to restore services. Strengthening logistical support, capacity enhancement, performance management, and demand creation are needed to improve service provision and utilization during and post-COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviços de Alimentação , Serviços de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Características da Família , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Telefone
12.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(6): e25751, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128343

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Frailty is frequently observed among people with HIV, and food insecurity is associated with frailty in the general population. Evidence is scarce on the associations between food insecurity and frailty among women with HIV who may be particularly vulnerable to the impacts of food insecurity. The goal of this study was to assess associations between food insecurity and frailty among women with and without HIV. METHODS: There were 1265 participants from the Women's Interagency HIV Study who participated in frailty assessments in 2017. Frailty was measured using the Fried Frailty Phenotype, and women were subsequently categorized as robust, pre-frail or frail. Food insecurity was assessed using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module, with women categorized as having high, marginal, low or very low food security. Multinomial logistic regression models were conducted to examine cross-sectional associations between food insecurity and frailty while adjusting for socio-demographic, behavioural and HIV status covariates. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Approximately one-third (31.9%) of the women had marginal, low or very low food security, and the proportions of women who met the criteria for frailty or pre-frailty were 55.6% and 12.4% respectively. In the adjusted model, the relative risk ratio (RRR) of frailty for women with very low food security versus women with high food security was 3.37 (95% CI [1.38 to 8.24], p < 0.01); the corresponding RRR of pre-frailty was 3.63 (95% CI [1.76 to 7.51], p < 0.001). Higher annual household income was associated with lower RRRs of frailty or pre-frailty (p < 0.01). Similarly, older age was associated with more frequent frailty (RRR=1.06, 95% CI [1.03 to 1.09], p < 0.001). HIV serostatus was not significantly associated with either pre-frailty (RRR=0.97, 95% CI [0.71 to 1.31]) or frailty (RRR=0.75, 95% CI [0.48 to 1.16]). CONCLUSIONS: Very low food security was associated with more frequent frailty and pre-frailty among women with and without for HIV. HIV serostatus was not associated with frailty.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Infecções por HIV , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-8, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between household food insecurity and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviours. DESIGN: Secondary analysis was conducted on the Healthy Communities Study, an observational study from 2013 to 2015. Household food insecurity was assessed by two items from the US Department of Agriculture's 18-item US Household Food Security Survey Module. Physical activity was measured using the 7-d Physical Activity Behaviour Recall instrument. Data were analysed using multilevel statistical modelling. SETTING: A total of 130 communities in the USA. PARTICIPANTS: In sum, 5138 US children aged 4-15 years. RESULTS: No associations were found for the relationship between household food insecurity and child physical activity. A significant interaction between household food insecurity and child sex for sedentary behaviours was observed (P = 0·03). CONCLUSIONS: Additional research capturing a more detailed assessment of children's experiences of food insecurity in relation to physical activity is warranted. Future studies may consider adopting qualitative study designs or utilising food insecurity measures that specifically target child-level food insecurity. Subsequent research may also seek to further explore sub-group analyses by sex.

14.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 121, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor access to healthcare facilities and consequently nutrition counseling services hinders the uptake of recommended infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. To address these barriers and improve IYCF practices, Alive & Thrive (A&T) initiated community support groups in remote villages across nine provinces in Vietnam. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the effectiveness of the support group model and related project costs for reaching underserved areas to improve IYCF practices. METHODS: To evaluate the model's implementation and project costs, we reviewed implementation guidelines, expenditure and coverage reports, monitoring data, and budgets for the nine provinces. To evaluate the model's effectiveness, we used a 3-stage sampling method to conduct a cross-sectional survey from April to May 2014 in three provinces entailing interviewing mothers of children aged 0-23 months in communes with (intervention; n = 551) and without support groups (comparison; n = 559). FINDINGS: Coverage: From November 2011 to November 2014, in partnership with the government, A&T supported training for 1513 facilitators and the establishing 801 IYCF support groups in 267 villages across nine provinces. During this period, facilitators provided ~ 166,000 meeting/support contacts with ~ 33,000 pregnant women and mothers with children aged 0-23 months in intervention villages. COSTS: The average project costs for supporting the meetings, compensating village collaborators, and providing supportive supervision through staff in commune health stations were USD 5 per client and USD 1 per contact. After adding expenditures for training, supportive supervision, and additional administrative costs at central and provincial levels, the average project cost was USD 15 per client and USD 3 per contact. Effectiveness: Survey participants in intervention and comparison communes had similar maternal, child, and household characteristics. Multiple logistic regression models showed that living in intervention communes was associated with higher odds of early initiation of breastfeeding (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7), exclusive breastfeeding from 0 to 5 months (OR: 12.5; 95% CI: 6.7, 23.4), no bottle feeding (OR: 2.69; 95% CI: 1.82, 3.99), and minimum acceptable diet (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.33) compared to those living in comparison communes. CONCLUSION: The IYCF support group model was effective in reaching populations residing in remote areas and likely contributed to improved IYCF practices. The study suggests that the model could be scaled up to promote equity in breastfeeding support.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Comportamento Alimentar , Mães , População Rural , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Organizacionais , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Autoajuda , Vietnã
15.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 7(1): 110, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent mothers in Zimbabwe often experience stigma, isolation, and lack coping skills and resources to successfully navigate motherhood. Social isolation and stigma are linked to poor mental health outcomes. No interventions currently address mental health of adolescent mothers in Zimbabwe. Peer support groups in other contexts have been effective at increasing social connectedness, self-esteem, and self-efficacy, providing coping mechanisms to manage stigma experiences, in addition to empowering and improving mental health of adolescents and adolescent mothers. To develop a community-based peer support intervention, we aimed to understand the unique needs of adolescent mothers, how peer support groups could address those needs, and the feasibility of implementing the intervention. METHODS: Focus group discussions were conducted with 86 adolescent mothers aged 14-18 years, 24 community health workers, and 25 key community stakeholders in a low-income high-density community in Harare. Data were analyzed thematically using NVivo 12 software. RESULTS: Participants described adolescent mother experiences with stigma and social isolation, in addition to challenges including gossip, lack of employment and educational opportunities, and gaps in services and programming. Peer support groups for adolescent mothers were welcomed to improve mental health, social support, knowledge sharing, and skills building. Participants identified varying preferred frequency and duration of group sessions addressing topics including income generation, mental health, and gossip, facilitated by community health workers at health and community centers. The use of WhatsApp Messenger to support intervention efforts was welcomed as an affordable and user-friendly platform to share information. Implementation (i.e., training, supervision, frequency, location, and co-facilitation) was feasible. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent mothers, community health workers and key community stakeholders welcomed the peer support groups as a feasible way to address the mothers' needs.

17.
J Nutr ; 151(8): 2282-2295, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal nutrition interventions are inadequately integrated into antenatal care (ANC). Alive & Thrive aimed to strengthen delivery of micronutrient supplements and intensify interpersonal counseling and community mobilization through government ANC services. OBJECTIVES: We compared nutrition-intensified ANC (I-ANC) with standard ANC (S-ANC) on coverage of nutrition interventions and maternal nutrition practices. METHODS: We used a cluster-randomized design with cross-sectional baseline (2017) and endline (2019) surveys (n ∼660 pregnant and 1800 recently delivered women per survey) and a repeated-measures longitudinal study in 2018-2019 (n = 400). We derived difference-in-difference effect estimates (DIDs) for diet diversity, consumption of micronutrient supplements, weight monitoring, and early breastfeeding practices. RESULTS: Despite substantial secular improvements in service coverage from India's national nutrition program, women in the I-ANC arm received more home visits [DID: 7-14 percentage points (pp)] and counseling on core nutrition messages (DID: 10-23 pp) than in the S-ANC arm. One-third of women got ≥3 home visits and one-fourth received ≥4 ANC check-ups in the I-ANC arm. Improvements were greater in the I-ANC arm than in the S-ANC arm for any receipt and consumption of iron-folic acid (DID: 7.5 pp and 9.5 pp, respectively) and calcium supplements (DID: 14.1 pp and 11.5 pp, respectively). Exclusive breastfeeding improved (DID: 7.5 pp) but early initiation of breastfeeding did not. Maternal food group consumption (∼4 food groups) and probability of adequacy of micronutrients (∼20%) remained low in both arms. Repeated-measures longitudinal analyses showed similar results, with additional impact on consumption of vitamin A-rich foods (10 pp, 11 g/d), other vegetables and fruits (22-29 g/d), and gestational weight gain (0.4 kg). CONCLUSIONS: Intensifying nutrition in government ANC services improved maternal nutrition practices even with strong secular trends in service coverage. Dietary diversity, supplement consumption, and breastfeeding practices remained suboptimal. Achieving greater behavior changes will require strengthening the delivery and use of maternal nutrition services integrated into ANC services in the health system. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03378141.

18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(1): 378-389, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet is a modifiable risk factor that may influence cognition in people with HIV. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between dietary intake and cognition in women with HIV (WWH) and HIV-seronegative women. METHODS: An 18-item dietary National Cancer Institute screener was completed by 729 WWH and 346 HIV-seronegative Women's Interagency HIV Study participants. Daily intake frequencies of processed meats, sweet beverages, fish, whole milk, and vegetables were calculated. Participants completed biennial neuropsychological (NP) testing. NP domains included attention/working memory, executive function, processing speed, memory, learning, fluency, and motor function. NP impairment was defined as demographically adjusted T-scores (mean = 50; SD = 10) ≤40 at ≥1 visit after completing the dietary screener. Multivariable logistic regression, stratified by HIV serostatus, examined associations between intake frequency tertile (referent = lowest intake) and NP performance. RESULTS: Dietary intake frequencies of individual food line items were similar between WWH and HIV-seronegative women, except for sweet beverages, for which HIV-seronegative women reported higher intake frequencies than WWH (P values < 0.05). In WWH, multivariable-adjusted models indicated higher odds of NP impairment with higher intake frequencies of processed meat [P = 0.006; ORupper tertile = 1.91 (95% CI: 1.23-2.95; P = 0.003); ORmiddle tertile = 1.66 (95% CI: 1.14-2.42; P = 0.01)], sweet beverages [P = 0.02; ORupper tertile = 1.75 (95% CI: 1.17-2.64; P = 0.007)], fish [P = 0.01; ORupper tertile = 1.70 (95% CI: 1.10-2.64; P = 0.02)], and whole milk [P = 0.029; ORupper tertile = 1.66 (95% CI: 1.14-2.42; P = 0.008)]. Lower odds of NP impairment [P = 0.005; ORupper tertile = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.45-0.95; P = 0.02); ORmiddle tertile = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.24-0.73; P = 0.002)] were associated with higher vegetable intakes. In HIV-seronegative women, multivariable-adjusted models did not show associations between food line items/diet quality score and NP outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Intakes of processed meat, sweet beverages, whole milk, fish, and vegetables may be associated with NP functions among WWH. Associations among WWH are not directly comparable to those among HIV-seronegative women, because models were conducted on each group separately given controls for HIV-specific covariates in WWH. Further studies are needed using more rigorous dietary assessment methods and lengthier longitudinal follow-ups.


Assuntos
Cognição , Dieta , Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV-1 , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Nutr ; 151(6): 1656-1664, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household food insecurity (FI) and water insecurity (WI) are prevalent public health issues that can co-occur. Few studies have concurrently assessed their associations with health outcomes, particularly among people living with HIV. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the associations between FI and WI and how they relate to physical and mental health. METHODS: Food-insecure adult smallholder farmers living with HIV in western Kenya were recruited to participate in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a multisectoral agricultural and asset loan intervention. We used baseline data on experiences of FI (using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, range: 0-27) and WI (using a modified scale developed for this region, range: 0-51) in the prior month (n = 716). Outcomes included probable depression (using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist), fatigue and diarrhea in the prior month, and overall mental and physical health (using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey, range: 0-100). We first assessed Pearson correlations between FI, WI, and sociodemographic characteristics. We then developed 3 regressions for each health outcome (control variables and FI; control variables and WI; control variables, FI, and WI) and compared model fit indexes. RESULTS: Correlations between household FI, WI, and wealth were low, meaning they measure distinct constructs. FI and WI were associated with numerous physical and mental health outcomes; accounting for both resource insecurities typically provided the best model fit. For instance, when controlling for FI, each 10-point higher WI score was associated with a 6.42-point lower physical health score (P < 0.001) and 2.92 times greater odds of probable depression (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Assessing both FI and WI is important for correctly estimating their relation with health outcomes. Interventions that address food- and water-related issues among persons living with HIV concurrently will likely be more effective at improving health than those addressing a single resource insecurity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02815579.

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