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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2194, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620126

RESUMO

Mutations in the Sterile alpha motif domain containing 9 (SAMD9) gene have been described in patients with severe multisystem disorder, MIRAGE syndrome, but also in patients with bone marrow (BM) failure in the absence of other systemic symptoms. The role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in the management of the disease is still unclear. Here, we present a patient with a novel mutation in SAMD9 (c.2471 G>A, p.R824Q), manifesting with prominent gastrointestinal tract involvement and immunodeficiency, but without any sign of adrenal insufficiency typical for MIRAGE syndrome. He suffered from severe CMV (cytomegalovirus) infection at 3 months of age, with a delayed development of T lymphocyte functional response against CMV, profound T cell activation, significantly reduced B lymphocyte counts and impaired lymphocyte proliferative response. Cultured T cells displayed slightly lower calcium flux and decreased survival. At the age of 6 months, he developed severe neutropenia requiring G-CSF administration, and despite only mild morphological and immunophenotypical disturbances in the BM, 78% of the BM cells showed monosomy 7 at the age of 18 months. Surprisingly, T cell proliferation after CD3 stimulation and apoptosis of the cells normalized during the follow-up, possibly reflecting the gradual development of monosomy 7. Among other prominent symptoms, he had difficulty swallowing, requiring percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), frequent gastrointestinal infections, and perianal erosions. He suffered from repeated infections and periodic recurring fevers with the elevation of inflammatory markers. At 26 months of age, he underwent HSCT that significantly improved hematological and immunological laboratory parameters. Nevertheless, he continued to suffer from other conditions, and subsequently, he died at day 440 post-transplant due to sepsis. Pathogenicity of this novel SAMD9 mutation was confirmed experimentally. Expression of mutant SAMD9 caused a significant decrease in proliferation and increase in cell death of the transfected cells. Conclusion: We describe a novel SAMD9 mutation in a patient with prominent gastrointestinal and immunological symptoms but without adrenal hypoplasia. Thus, SAMD9 mutations should be considered as cause of enteropathy in pediatric patients. The insufficient therapeutic outcome of transplantation further questions the role of HSCT in the management of patients with SAMD9 mutations and multisystem involvement.

2.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(10): 1147-1153, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483759

RESUMO

Background Paediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) and rare syndromes of monogenic multi-organ autoimmunity share basic features such as full insulin dependency and the presence of circulating beta-cell autoantibodies. However, the aetiopathogenesis, natural course and treatment of these conditions differ; therefore, monogenic multi-organ autoimmunity requires early recognition. We aimed to search for these monogenic conditions among a large cohort of children with T1D. Methods Of 519 children with T1D followed-up in a single centre, 18 had multiple additional autoimmune conditions - either autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and coeliac disease (CD) or at least one additional organ-specific autoimmune condition in addition to AITD or CD. These 18 children were tested by direct Sanger sequencing (four patients with a suggestive phenotype of immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked [IPEX] or signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [STAT3]- and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 [CTLA4]-associated syndromes) or by whole-exome sequencing (WES) focused on autoimmune regulator (AIRE), forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), CTLA4, STAT3, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), lipopolysaccharide-responsive and beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) and interleukin-2 receptor subunit α (IL2RA) genes. In addition, we assessed their T1D genetic risk score (T1D-GRS). Results We identified novel variants in FOXP3, STAT3 and CTLA4 in four cases. All patients had a severe phenotype suggestive of a single gene defect. No variants were identified in the remaining 14 patients. T1D-GRS varied among the entire cohort; four patients had scores below the 25th centile including two genetically confirmed cases. Conclusions A monogenic cause of autoimmune diabetes was confirmed only in four patients. Genetic screening for monogenic autoimmunity in children with a milder phenotype and a combination of AITD and CD is unlikely to identify a monogenic cause. In addition, the T1D-GRS varied among individual T1D patients.

3.
Leukemia ; 33(9): 2254-2265, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227779

RESUMO

Assessment of clonality, marker identification and measurement of minimal residual disease (MRD) of immunoglobulin (IG) and T cell receptor (TR) gene rearrangements in lymphoid neoplasms using next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently under intensive development for use in clinical diagnostics. So far, however, there is a lack of suitable quality control (QC) options with regard to standardisation and quality metrics to ensure robust clinical application of such approaches. The EuroClonality-NGS Working Group has therefore established two types of QCs to accompany the NGS-based IG/TR assays. First, a central polytarget QC (cPT-QC) is used to monitor the primer performance of each of the EuroClonality multiplex NGS assays; second, a standardised human cell line-based DNA control is spiked into each patient DNA sample to work as a central in-tube QC and calibrator for MRD quantification (cIT-QC). Having integrated those two reference standards in the ARResT/Interrogate bioinformatic platform, EuroClonality-NGS provides a complete protocol for standardised IG/TR gene rearrangement analysis by NGS with high reproducibility, accuracy and precision for valid marker identification and quantification in diagnostics of lymphoid malignancies.

4.
Leukemia ; 33(9): 2241-2253, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243313

RESUMO

Amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) of immunoglobulin (IG) and T-cell receptor (TR) gene rearrangements for clonality assessment, marker identification and quantification of minimal residual disease (MRD) in lymphoid neoplasms has been the focus of intense research, development and application. However, standardization and validation in a scientifically controlled multicentre setting is still lacking. Therefore, IG/TR assay development and design, including bioinformatics, was performed within the EuroClonality-NGS working group and validated for MRD marker identification in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Five EuroMRD ALL reference laboratories performed IG/TR NGS in 50 diagnostic ALL samples, and compared results with those generated through routine IG/TR Sanger sequencing. A central polytarget quality control (cPT-QC) was used to monitor primer performance, and a central in-tube quality control (cIT-QC) was spiked into each sample as a library-specific quality control and calibrator. NGS identified 259 (average 5.2/sample, range 0-14) clonal sequences vs. Sanger-sequencing 248 (average 5.0/sample, range 0-14). NGS primers covered possible IG/TR rearrangement types more completely compared with local multiplex PCR sets and enabled sequencing of bi-allelic rearrangements and weak PCR products. The cPT-QC showed high reproducibility across all laboratories. These validated and reproducible quality-controlled EuroClonality-NGS assays can be used for standardized NGS-based identification of IG/TR markers in lymphoid malignancies.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(14): 4455-4465, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004002

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas characterized by (over)expression of BCL2. A BCL2-targeting drug, venetoclax, has promising anticancer activity in MCL. We analyzed molecular mechanisms of venetoclax resistance in MCL cells and tested strategies to overcome it. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We confirmed key roles of proapoptotic proteins BIM and NOXA in mediating venetoclax-induced cell death in MCL. Both BIM and NOXA are, however, differentially expressed in cell lines compared with primary cells. First, NOXA protein is significantly overexpressed in most MCL cell lines. Second, deletions of BIM gene harbored by three commonly used MCL cell lines (JEKO-1, MINO, and Z138) were not found by array comparative genomic hybridization using a validation set of 24 primary MCL samples. RESULTS: We demonstrated that MCL1 and NOXA play important roles in mediating resistance to venetoclax. Consequently, we tested an experimental treatment strategy based on cotargeting BCL2 with venetoclax and MCL1 with a highly specific small-molecule MCL1 inhibitor S63845. The combination of venetoclax and S63845 demonstrated synthetic lethality in vivo on a panel of five patient-derived xenografts established from patients with relapsed MCL with adverse cytogenetics. CONCLUSIONS: Our data strongly support investigation of venetoclax in combination with S63845 as an innovative treatment strategy for chemoresistant MCL patients with adverse cytogenetics in the clinical grounds.

6.
Blood Adv ; 3(2): 148-157, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651283

RESUMO

Genetic abnormalities provide vital diagnostic and prognostic information in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are increasingly used to assign patients to risk groups. We recently proposed a novel classifier based on the copy-number alteration (CNA) profile of the 8 most commonly deleted genes in B-cell precursor ALL. This classifier defined 3 CNA subgroups in consecutive UK trials and was able to discriminate patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. In this study, we sought to validate the United Kingdom ALL (UKALL)-CNA classifier and reevaluate the interaction with cytogenetic risk groups using individual patient data from 3239 cases collected from 12 groups within the International BFM Study Group. The classifier was validated and defined 3 risk groups with distinct event-free survival (EFS) rates: good (88%), intermediate (76%), and poor (68%) (P < .001). There was no evidence of heterogeneity, even within trials that used minimal residual disease to guide therapy. By integrating CNA and cytogenetic data, we replicated our original key observation that patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics can be stratified into 2 prognostic subgroups. Group A had an EFS rate of 86% (similar to patients with good-risk cytogenetics), while group B patients had a significantly inferior rate (73%, P < .001). Finally, we revised the overall genetic classification by defining 4 risk groups with distinct EFS rates: very good (91%), good (81%), intermediate (73%), and poor (54%), P < .001. In conclusion, the UKALL-CNA classifier is a robust prognostic tool that can be deployed in different trial settings and used to refine established cytogenetic risk groups.

7.
Hematol Oncol ; 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30129045

RESUMO

Rituximab maintenance (RM) prolongs survival of elderly patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Persistent minimal residual disease (MRD) after induction repeatedly correlated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS). However, none of the published studies analyzed patients treated with RM. The main purpose was to analyze prognostic significance of MRD in the elderly patients with newly diagnosed MCL treated according to the recently published observational trial protocol (alternation of R-CHOP and R-cytarabine, 3 + 3 cycles, GovTrial number NCT03054883) at the centers that implemented RM. Minimal residual disease was evaluated by a EuroMRD standardized real-time PCR approach after 3 and 6 cycles of the induction therapy. Prognostic significance of MRD was analyzed in a subcohort of patients treated at the centers that implemented RM as a standard approach. Bone marrow proved to be a significantly more sensitive source for MRD detection than peripheral blood. In either compartment MRD (positive versus negative) after 3 or 6 cycles of the induction therapy did not correlate with PFS. The observed loss of prognostic significance of MRD after the R-CHOP-based induction appears to be a consequence of RM immune control over the residual lymphoma.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 2018 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934865

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 gain-of-function (STAT1 GOF) mutations are the most common cause of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). We aim to report the effect of oral ruxolitinib, the Janus kinase (JAK) family tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on clinical and immune status of a 12-year-old boy with severe CMC due to a novel STAT1 GOF mutation. METHODS: Clinical features and laboratory data were analyzed, particularly lymphocyte subsets, ex vivo IFNγ- and IFNα-induced STAT1, 3, 5 phosphorylation dynamics during the course of JAK1/2 inhibition therapy, and Th17-related, STAT1- and STAT3-inducible gene expression before and during the treatment. Sanger sequencing was used to detect the STAT1 mutation. Literature review of ruxolitinib in treatment of CMC is appended. RESULTS: A novel STAT1 GOF mutation (c.617T > C; p.L206P), detected in a child with recalcitrant CMC, was shown to be reversible in vitro with ruxolitinib. Major clinical improvement was achieved after 8 weeks of ruxolitinib treatment, while sustained suppression of IFNγ- and IFNα-induced phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5, as well as increased STAT3-inducible and Th17-related gene expression, was demonstrated ex vivo. Clinical relapse and spike of all monitored phosphorylated STAT activity was registered shortly after unplanned withdrawal, decreasing again after ruxolitinib reintroduction. No increase of peripheral CD4+ IL17+ T cells was detected after 4 months of therapy. No adverse effects were noted. CONCLUSION: JAK1/2 inhibition with ruxolitinib represents a viable option for treatment of refractory CMC, if HSCT is not considered. However, long-term administration is necessary, as the effect is not sustained after treatment discontinuation.

9.
Hematol Oncol ; 36(1): 110-115, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083050

RESUMO

Implementation of cytarabine into induction therapy became standard of care for younger patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). On the basis of its beneficial impact, many centers incorporated cytarabine at lower doses also into first-line treatments of elderly patients. We conducted a multicenter observational study that prospectively analyzed safety and efficacy of alternating 3 + 3 cycles of R-CHOP and R-cytarabine for newly diagnosed transplant-ineligible MCL patients. A total of 73 patients were enrolled with median age 70 years. Most patients had intermediate (39.7%) and high-risk (50.7%) disease according to MCL international prognostic index. Rituximab maintenance was initiated in 58 patients. Overall response rate reached 89% by positron emission tomography-computed tomography, including 75.3% complete remissions. Two patients (2.7%) did not complete the induction therapy because of toxicity. Three patients (4.1%) were considered nonresponders, which led to therapy change before completion of induction. Estimated progression-free survival and overall survival were 51.3% and 68.6% at 4 years, respectively. Mantle cell lymphoma international prognostic index, bulky disease (≥ 5 cm), and achievement of positron emission tomography-negativity independently correlated with progression-free survival. Grade 3 to 4 hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity was documented in 48% and 20.5% patients, respectively. Alternation of R-CHOP and R-cytarabine represents feasible and very effective regimen for elderly/comorbid MCL patients. This study was registered at GovTrial (clinicaltrials.gov) NCT03054883.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Citarabina/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/farmacologia , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Vincristina/farmacologia , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
10.
Front Immunol ; 9: 3135, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723478

RESUMO

Background: Common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID) is one of the most frequent inborn errors of immunity, increased occurrence of malignancies, particularly lymphomas, and gastric cancers, has long been noted among CVID patients. Multifactorial etiology, including immune dysregulation, infections, chronic inflammation, or genetic background, is suggested to contribute to tumor development. Here, we present the results of the first Czech nationwide study focused on epidemiology, immunology and genetic background in a cohort of CVID patients who also developed tumors Methods: The cohort consisted of 295 CVID patients followed for 3,070 patient/years. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated to determine the risk of cancer, and Risk ratio (RR) was established to evaluate the significance of comorbidities. Moreover, immunophenotyping, including immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte populations, was assessed. Finally, Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed in all patients with lymphoma to investigate the genetic background. Results: Twenty-five malignancies were diagnosed in 22 patients in a cohort of 295 CVID patients. SIR was more than 6 times greater in comparison to the general population. The most common neoplasias were gastric cancers and lymphomas. History of Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) was established as a potential risk factor, with over 3 times higher risk of cancer development. The B cell count at diagnosis of lymphoma was reduced in the lymphoma group; moreover, post-treatment B and T cell lymphopenia, associated with poorer outcome, was found in a majority of the patients. Intriguingly, no NK cell depression was observed after the chemotherapy. WES revealed heterogeneous genetic background among CVID patients with tumors, identifying gene variants associated with primary immunodeficiencies (such as CTLA4, PIK3CD, PMS2) and/or increased cancer susceptibility (including BRCA1, RABEP1, EP300, KDM5A). Conclusions: The incidence of malignancy in our CVID cohort was found to be more than 6 times greater compared to the general population. Gastric cancers and lymphomas were the most frequently diagnosed tumors. ITP was identified as a risk factor for malignancy in CVID patients. WES analysis confirmed a wide genetic heterogeneity among CVID patients. The identified causative or modifying gene variants pointed to errors in mechanisms contributing to both immunodeficiency and malignancy.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/complicações , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
11.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 88(2): 160-166, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline STAT3 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations cause multiple endocrine and haematologic autoimmune disorders, lymphoproliferation, and growth impairment. As the JAK-STAT pathway is known to transduce the growth hormone (GH) signalling, and STAT3 interacts with STAT5 in growth regulation, we hypothesised that short stature in STAT3 GOF mutations results mostly from GH insensitivity via involving activation of STAT5. CASE REPORT: A boy with a novel STAT3 c.2144C>T (p.Pro715Leu) mutation presented with short stature (-2.60 SD at 5.5 years). He developed diabetes mellitus at 11 months, generalised lympho-proliferation, autoimmune thyroid disease, and immune bicytopenia in the subsequent years. At 5.5 years, his insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) was 37 µg/L (-2.22 SD) but stimulated GH was 27.7 µg/L. Both a standard IGF-I generation test (GH 0.033 mg/kg/day sc; 4 days) and a high-dose prolonged IGF-I generation test (GH 0.067 mg/kg/day sc; 14 days) failed to significantly increase IGF-I levels (37-46 and 72-87 µg/L, respectively). The boy underwent haematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 6 years due to severe neutropenia and massive lymphoproliferation, but unfortunately deceased 42 days after transplantation from reactivated generalised adenoviral infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm the effect of STAT3 GOF mutation on the downstream activation of STAT5 resulting in partial GH insensitivity. 
.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/metabolismo , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Evolução Fatal , Transtornos do Crescimento/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Gêmeos
13.
Blood ; 129(20): 2771-2781, 2017 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28331056

RESUMO

We used the genomic breakpoint between BCR and ABL1 genes for the DNA-based monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) in 48 patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Comparing the results with standard MRD monitoring based on immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor (Ig/TCR) gene rearrangements and with quantification of IKZF1 deletion, we observed very good correlation for the methods in a majority of patients; however, >20% of children (25% [8/32] with minor and 12.5% [1/8] with major-BCR-ABL1 variants in the consecutive cohorts) had significantly (>1 log) higher levels of BCR-ABL1 fusion than Ig/TCR rearrangements and/or IKZF1 deletion. We performed cell sorting of the diagnostic material and assessed the frequency of BCR-ABL1-positive cells in various hematopoietic subpopulations; 12% to 83% of non-ALL B lymphocytes, T cells, and/or myeloid cells harbored the BCR-ABL1 fusion in patients with discrepant MRD results. The multilineage involvement of the BCR-ABL1-positive clone demonstrates that in some patients diagnosed with BCR-ABL1-positive ALL, a multipotent hematopoietic progenitor is affected by the BCR-ABL1 fusion. These patients have BCR-ABL1-positive clonal hematopoiesis resembling a chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)-like disease manifesting in "lymphoid blast crisis." The biological heterogeneity of BCR-ABL1-positive ALL may impact the patient outcomes and optimal treatment (early stem cell transplantation vs long-term administration of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors) as well as on MRD testing. Therefore, we recommend further investigations on CML-like BCR-ABL1-positive ALL.


Assuntos
Quebra Cromossômica , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Genoma Humano , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção de Genes , Hematopoese , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos , Neoplasia Residual/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/sangue , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Sci Rep ; 7: 39710, 2017 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28054583

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of diseases. Our aim was to define sub-groups of CVID patients with similar phenotypes and clinical characteristics. Using eight-color flow cytometry, we analyzed both B- and T-cell phenotypes in a cohort of 88 CVID patients and 48 healthy donors. A hierarchical clustering of probability binning "bins" yielded a separate cluster of 22 CVID patients with an abnormal phenotype. We showed coordinated proportional changes in naïve CD4+ T-cells (decreased), intermediate CD27- CD28+ CD4+ T-cells (increased) and CD21low B-cells (increased) that were stable for over three years. Moreover, the lymphocytes' immunophenotype in this patient cluster exhibited features of profound immunosenescence and chronic activation. Thrombocytopenia was only found in this cluster (36% of cases, manifested as Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) or Evans syndrome). Clinical complications more frequently found in these patients include lung fibrosis (in 59% of cases) and bronchiectasis (55%). The degree of severity of these symptoms corresponded to more deviation from normal levels with respect to CD21low B-cells, naïve CD4+ and CD27− CD28+ CD4+ T-cells. Next-generation sequencing did not reveal any common genetic background. We delineate a subgroup of CVID patients with activated and immunosenescent immunophenotype of lymphocytes and distinct set of clinical complications without common genetic background.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Separação Celular , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fibrose , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunossenescência , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Blood ; 129(3): 347-357, 2017 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27903527

RESUMO

A fully-standardized EuroFlow 8-color antibody panel and laboratory procedure was stepwise designed to measure minimal residual disease (MRD) in B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with a sensitivity of ≤10-5, comparable to real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR)-based MRD detection via antigen-receptor rearrangements. Leukocyte markers and the corresponding antibodies and fluorochromes were selected based on their contribution in separating BCP-ALL cells from normal/regenerating BCP cells in multidimensional principal component analyses. After 5 multicenter design-test-evaluate-redesign phases with a total of 319 BCP-ALL patients at diagnosis, two 8-color antibody tubes were selected, which allowed separation between normal and malignant BCP cells in 99% of studied patients. These 2 tubes were tested with a new erythrocyte bulk-lysis protocol allowing acquisition of high cell numbers in 377 bone marrow follow-up samples of 178 BCP-ALL patients. Comparison with RQ-PCR-based MRD data showed a clear positive relation between the percentage concordant cases and the number of cells acquired. For those samples with >4 million cells acquired, concordant results were obtained in 93% of samples. Most discordances were clarified upon high-throughput sequencing of antigen-receptor rearrangements and blind multicenter reanalysis of flow cytometric data, resulting in an unprecedented concordance of 98% (97% for samples with MRD < 0.01%). In conclusion, the fully standardized EuroFlow BCP-ALL MRD strategy is applicable in >98% of patients with sensitivities at least similar to RQ-PCR (≤10-5), if sufficient cells (>4 × 106, preferably more) are evaluated.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/normas , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Cancer ; 139(10): 2252-60, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27407063

RESUMO

Richter syndrome represents the transformation of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) into an aggressive lymphoma, most frequently the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In this report we describe a patient with CLL, who developed a clonally-related pleomorphic highly-aggressive mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) after five cycles of a fludarabine-based second-line therapy for the first relapse of CLL. Molecular cytogenetic methods together with whole-exome sequencing revealed numerous gene alterations restricted to the MCL clone (apart from the canonical t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation) including gain of one copy of ATM gene or emergence of TP53, CREBBP, NUP214, FUBP1 and SF3B1 gene mutations. Similarly, gene expression analysis revealed vast differences between the MCL and CLL transcriptome, including overexpression of cyclin D1, downregulation of cyclins D2 and D3, or downregulation of IL4R in the MCL clone. Backtracking analysis using quantitative PCR specifically detecting an MCL-restricted focal deletion of TP53 revealed that the pre-MCL clone appeared in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of the patient approximately 4 years before the clinical manifestation of MCL. Both molecular cytogenetic and sequencing data support the hypothesis of a slow development of the pre-MCL clone in parallel to CLL over several years, and thereby exclude the possibility that the transformation event occurred at the stage of the CLL relapse clone by mere t(11;14)(q13;q32) acquisition.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/genética , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14 , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Translocação Genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
19.
Haematologica ; 101(6): 707-16, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27013649

RESUMO

GATA-2 deficiency was recently described as common cause of overlapping syndromes of immunodeficiency, lymphedema, familiar myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia. The aim of our study was to analyze bone marrow and peripheral blood samples of children with myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia to define prevalence of the GATA2 mutation and to assess whether mutations in GATA-2 transcription factor exhibit specific immunophenotypic features. The prevalence of a GATA2 mutation in a consecutively diagnosed cohort of children was 14% in advanced forms of myelodysplastic syndrome (refractory anemia with excess blasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation, and myelodysplasia-related acute myeloid leukemia), 17% in refractory cytopenia of childhood, and 0% in aplastic anemia. In GATA-2-deficient cases, we found the most profound B-cell lymphopenia, including its progenitors in blood and bone marrow, which correlated with significantly diminished intronRSS-Kde recombination excision circles in comparison to other myelodysplastic syndrome/aplastic anemia cases. The other typical features of GATA-2 deficiency (monocytopenia and natural killer cell lymphopenia) were less discriminative. In conclusion, we suggest screening for GATA2 mutations in pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome, preferentially in patients with impaired B-cell homeostasis in bone marrow and peripheral blood (low number of progenitors, intronRSS-Kde recombination excision circles and naïve cells).


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição GATA2/deficiência , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Adolescente , Anemia Aplástica/diagnóstico , Anemia Aplástica/etiologia , Biomarcadores , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/patologia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Lactente , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Mutação , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Curva ROC , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Br J Haematol ; 173(5): 742-8, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26913693

RESUMO

Minimal residual disease (MRD) at the end of induction therapy is important for risk stratification of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), but bone marrow (BM) aspiration is often postponed or must be repeated to fulfil qualitative and quantitative criteria for morphological assessment of haematological remission and/or MRD analysis. The impact of BM aspiration delay on measured MRD levels and resulting risk stratification is currently unknown. We analysed paired MRD data of 289 paediatric ALL patients requiring a repeat BM aspiration. MRD levels differed in 108 patients (37%) with a decrease in the majority (85/108). This would have resulted in different risk group allocation in 64 of 289 patients (23%) when applying the ALL-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster 2000 criteria. MRD change was associated with the duration of delay; 40% of patients with delay ≥7 days had a shift to lower MRD levels compared to only 18% after a shorter delay. Patients MRD-positive at the original but MRD-negative at the repeat BM aspiration (n = 50) had a worse 5-year event-free survival than those already negative at first aspiration (n = 115) (86 ± 5% vs. 94 ± 2%; P = 0·024). We conclude that BM aspirations should be pursued as scheduled in the protocol because delayed MRD sampling at end of induction may result in false-low MRD load and distort MRD-based risk assessment.


Assuntos
Exame de Medula Óssea/métodos , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Neoplasia Residual/patologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Adolescente , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Indução de Remissão , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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