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Phys Rev Lett ; 129(13): 137202, 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206423


The experimental realization of magnetic skyrmion crystals in centrosymmetric materials has been driven by theoretical understanding of how a delicate balance of anisotropy and frustration can stabilize topological spin structures in applied magnetic fields. Recently, the centrosymmetric material Gd_{2}PdSi_{3} was shown to host a field-induced skyrmion crystal, but the skyrmion stabilization mechanism remains unclear. Here, we employ neutron-scattering measurements on an isotopically enriched polycrystalline Gd_{2}PdSi_{3} sample to quantify the interactions that drive skyrmion formation. Our analysis reveals spatially extended interactions in triangular planes, and large ferromagnetic interplanar magnetic interactions that are modulated by the Pd/Si superstructure. The skyrmion crystal emerges from a zero-field helical magnetic order with magnetic moments perpendicular to the magnetic propagation vector, indicating that the magnetic dipolar interaction plays a significant role. Our experimental results establish an interaction space that can promote skyrmion formation, facilitating identification and design of centrosymmetric skyrmion materials.

Materials (Basel) ; 15(18)2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36143734


The synthesis and crystallographic site occupancy were investigated for MgAl2O4 with and without mechanical activation of the precursor powders. Heating to 1200 °C or higher resulted in the formation of a single spinel phase regardless of whether the powders were mechanically activated or not. Neutron diffraction analysis was used to determine cation site occupancy and revealed that mechanical activation resulted in a lower degree of cation site inversion compared to the nonactivated materials, which indicated that the powders were closer to thermodynamic equilibrium. This is the first study to characterize the effects of mechanical activation on crystallographic site occupancy in magnesium aluminate spinel using neutron diffraction.

Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2727, 2022 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35177743


Otoliths are frequently used to infer environmental conditions or fish life history events based on trace-element concentrations. However, otoliths can be comprised of any one or combination of the three most common polymorphs of calcium carbonate-aragonite, calcite, and vaterite-which can affect the ecological interpretation of otolith trace-element results. Previous studies have reported heterogeneous calcium carbonate compositions between left and right otoliths but did not provide quantitative assessments of polymorph abundances. In this study, neutron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to identify and quantify mineralogical compositions of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha otolith pairs. We found mineralogical compositions frequently differed between otoliths in a pair and accurate calcium carbonate polymorph identification was rarely possible by visual inspection alone. The prevalence of multiple polymorphs in otoliths is not well-understood, and future research should focus on identifying otolith compositions and investigate how variations in mineralogy affect trace-element incorporation and potentially bias environmental interpretations.

Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(23): e2101402, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719881


The manipulation of mesoscale domain wall phenomena has emerged as a powerful strategy for designing ferroelectric responses in functional devices, but its full potential is not yet realized in the field of magnetism. This work shows a direct connection between magnetic response functions in mechanically strained samples of Mn3 O4 and MnV2 O4 and stripe-like patternings of the bulk magnetization which appear below known magnetostructural transitions. Building off previous magnetic force microscopy data, a small-angle neutron scattering is used to show that these patterns represent distinctive magnetic phenomena which extend throughout the bulk of two separate materials, and further are controllable via applied magnetic field and mechanical stress. These results are unambiguously connected to the anomalously large magnetoelastic and magnetodielectric response functions reported for these materials, by performing susceptibility measurements on the same crystals and directly correlating local and macroscopic data.