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3.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 19(3): 232-245, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215328

RESUMO

This article adopts a realist approach to evaluate a social prescribing pilot in the areas of Hackney and City in London (United Kingdom). It unpacks the contextual factors and mechanisms that influenced the development of this pilot for the benefits of GPs, commissioners and practitioners, and reflects on the realist approach to evaluation as a tool for the evaluation of health interventions. Primary care faces considerable challenges including the increase in long-term conditions, GP consultation rates, and widening health inequalities. With its emphasis on linking primary care to non-clinical community services via a social prescribing coordinator (SPC), some models of social prescribing could contribute to reduce the burden on primary care, tackle health inequalities and encourage people to make greater use of non-clinical forms of support. This realist analysis was based on qualitative interviews with users, commissioners, a GP survey, focus groups and learning events to explore stakeholders' experience. To enable a detailed analysis, we adapted the realist approach by subdividing the social prescribing pathway into stages, each with contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes. SPCs were pivotal to the effective functioning of the social prescribing service and responsible for the activation and initial beneficial impact on users. Although social prescribing shows significant potential for the benefit of patients and primary care, several challenges need to be considered and overcome, including 'buy in' from some GPs, branding, and funding for the third sector in a context where social care cuts are severely affecting the delivery of health care. With its emphasis on context and mechanisms, the realist evaluation approach is useful in understanding how to identify and improve health interventions, and analyse in greater detail the contribution of different stakeholders. As the SPC is central to social prescribing, more needs to be done to understand their role conceptually and practically.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Problemas Sociais , Apoio Social , Grupos Focais , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Londres , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Medicina Estatal
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 17(1): 835, 2017 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29258514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social prescribing is targeted at isolated and lonely patients. Practitioners and patients jointly develop bespoke well-being plans to promote social integration and or social reactivation. Our aim was to investigate: whether a social prescribing service could be implemented in a general practice (GP) setting and to evaluate its effect on well-being and primary care resource use. METHODS: We used a mixed method evaluation approach using patient surveys with matched control groups and a qualitative interview study. The study was conducted in a mixed socio-economic, multi-ethnic, inner city London borough with socially isolated patients who frequently visited their GP. The intervention was implemented by 'social prescribing coordinators'. Outcomes of interest were psychological and social well-being and health care resource use. RESULTS: At 8 months follow-up there were no differences between patients referred to social prescribing and the controls for general health, depression, anxiety and 'positive and active engagement in life'. Social prescribing patients had high GP consultation rates, which fell in the year following referral. The qualitative study indicated that most patients had a positive experience with social prescribing but the service was not utilised to its full extent. CONCLUSION: Changes in general health and well-being following referral were very limited and comprehensive implementation was difficult to optimise. Although GP consultation rates fell, these may have reflected regression to the mean rather than changes related to the intervention. Whether social prescribing can contribute to the health of a nation for social and psychological wellbeing is still to be determined.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Meio Social , Isolamento Social , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
J Youth Adolesc ; 45(6): 1126-40, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26346034

RESUMO

Adolescents from areas of high deprivation are often assumed to have low aspirations for the future. However, recent research has suggested otherwise and there have been calls for more substantial investigation into the relationship between poverty and aspiration. This article reports levels and variation in aspiration from 1214 adolescents (49.5 % male; 50.5 % female) living in areas of high deprivation across 20 London boroughs. A strength of this study is our large and diverse population of low socio-economic status (SES) adolescents, comprising of white British (22 %), black African (21 %), black Caribbean (9 %), Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi/Other Asian (24 %), mixed ethnicity (9 %), and 15 % defining themselves as Other. Our measures indicated a high group level of reported aspiration with notable variations. Females reported higher educational (but not occupational) aspirations than males; white British students reported lower educational and occupational aspirations than other ethnic groups; and black African children reported the highest educational aspirations. Perceived parental support for education had the largest positive association with aspirations. In contrast to previous findings from studies carried out in the United States, aspirations were found to be negatively associated with perceptions of school and school peer environment. These measures explored feelings of safety, happiness and belonging within the school environment and school peer group. We discuss possible explanations for this unexpected finding within our population of adolescents from UK state schools and how it might affect future policy interventions. This study makes an important contribution to the literature on adolescent aspirations because of the unique nature of the data sample and the multiple domains of functioning and aspiration measured.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Emprego/psicologia , Áreas de Pobreza , Classe Social , Adolescente , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Psicologia do Adolescente
6.
PLoS One ; 8(7): e69472, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23922717

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this study were to examine relationships between neighbourhood-level and individual-level characteristics and physical activity in deprived London neighbourhoods. METHODS: In 40 of the most deprived neighbourhoods in London (ranked in top 11% in London by Index of Multiple Deprivation) a cross-sectional survey (n = 4107 adults aged > = 16 years), neighbourhood audit tool, GIS measures and routine data measured neighbourhood and individual-level characteristics. The binary outcome was meeting the minimum recommended (CMO, UK) 5 × 30 mins moderate physical activity per week. Multilevel modelling was used to examine associations between physical activity and individual and neighbourhood-level characteristics. RESULTS: Respondents living more than 300 m away from accessible greenspace had lower odds of achieving recommended physical activity levels than those who lived within 300 m; from 301-600 m (OR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.9) and from 601-900 m (OR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.8). There was substantial residual between-neighbourhood variance in physical activity (median odds ratio = 1.7). Other objectively measured neighbourhood-level characteristics were not associated with physical activity levels. CONCLUSIONS: Distance to nearest greenspace is associated with meeting recommended physical activity levels in deprived London neighbourhoods. Despite residual variance in physical activity levels between neighbourhoods, we found little evidence for the influence of other measured neighbourhood-level characteristics.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora , Características de Residência , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto , Acessibilidade Arquitetônica/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados , Demografia , Características da Família , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Londres , Saúde Mental , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Front Psychol ; 4: 432, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23882240

RESUMO

The use of visual cues during the processing of audiovisual (AV) speech is known to be less efficient in children and adults with language difficulties and difficulties are known to be more prevalent in children from low-income populations. In the present study, we followed an economically diverse group of thirty-seven infants longitudinally from 6-9 months to 14-16 months of age. We used eye-tracking to examine whether individual differences in visual attention during AV processing of speech in 6-9 month old infants, particularly when processing congruent and incongruent auditory and visual speech cues, might be indicative of their later language development. Twenty-two of these 6-9 month old infants also participated in an event-related potential (ERP) AV task within the same experimental session. Language development was then followed-up at the age of 14-16 months, using two measures of language development, the Preschool Language Scale and the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. The results show that those infants who were less efficient in auditory speech processing at the age of 6-9 months had lower receptive language scores at 14-16 months. A correlational analysis revealed that the pattern of face scanning and ERP responses to audiovisually incongruent stimuli at 6-9 months were both significantly associated with language development at 14-16 months. These findings add to the understanding of individual differences in neural signatures of AV processing and associated looking behavior in infants.

8.
Trials ; 13: 105, 2012 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22769971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Well London program used community engagement, complemented by changes to the physical and social neighborhood environment, to improve physical activity levels, healthy eating, and mental wellbeing in the most deprived communities in London. The effectiveness of Well London is being evaluated in a pair-matched cluster randomized trial (CRT). The baseline survey data are reported here. METHODS: The CRT involved 20 matched pairs of intervention and control communities (defined as UK census lower super output areas (LSOAs); ranked in the 11% most deprived LSOAs in London by the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation) across 20 London boroughs. The primary trial outcomes, sociodemographic information, and environmental neighbourhood characteristics were assessed in three quantitative components within the Well London CRT at baseline: a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered adult household survey; a self-completed, school-based adolescent questionnaire; a fieldworker completed neighborhood environmental audit. Baseline data collection occurred in 2008. Physical activity, healthy eating, and mental wellbeing were assessed using standardized, validated questionnaire tools. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data in the outcomes and other variables in the adult and adolescent surveys. RESULTS: There were 4,107 adults and 1,214 adolescent respondents in the baseline surveys. The intervention and control areas were broadly comparable with respect to the primary outcomes and key sociodemographic characteristics. The environmental characteristics of the intervention and control neighborhoods were broadly similar. There was greater between-cluster variation in the primary outcomes in the adult population compared to the adolescent population. Levels of healthy eating, smoking, and self-reported anxiety/depression were similar in the Well London adult population and the national Health Survey for England. Levels of physical activity were higher in the Well London adult population but this is likely to be due to the different measurement tools used in the two surveys. CONCLUSIONS: Randomization of social interventions such as Well London is acceptable and feasible and in this study the intervention and control arms are well-balanced with respect to the primary outcomes and key sociodemographic characteristics. The matched design has improved the statistical efficiency of the study amongst adults but less so amongst adolescents. Follow-up data collection will be completed 2012.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise por Pareamento , Atividade Motora , Pobreza , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Meio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Psychopharmacol ; 24(9): 1403-10, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19939863

RESUMO

While recreational drug use in UK women is prevalent, to date there is little prospective data on patterns of drug use in recreational drug-using women immediately before and during pregnancy. A total of 121 participants from a wide range of backgrounds were recruited to take part in the longitudinal Development and Infancy Study (DAISY) study of prenatal drug use and outcomes. Eighty-six of the women were interviewed prospectively while pregnant and/or soon after their infant was born. Participants reported on use immediately before and during pregnancy and on use over their lifetime. Levels of lifetime drug use of the women recruited were high, with women reporting having used at least four different illegal drugs over their lifetime. Most users of cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) and other stimulants stopped using these by the second trimester and levels of use were low. However, in pregnancy, 64% of the sample continued to use alcohol, 46% tobacco and 48% cannabis. While the level of alcohol use reduced substantially, average tobacco and cannabis levels tended to be sustained at pre-pregnancy levels even into the third trimester (50 cigarettes and/or 11 joints per week). In sum, while the use of 'party drugs' and alcohol seems to reduce, levels of tobacco and cannabis use are likely to be sustained throughout pregnancy. The data provide polydrug profiles that can form the basis for the development of more realistic animal models.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Alucinógenos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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