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1.
ACS Sens ; 5(7): 2118-2127, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527082

RESUMO

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent toxins produced by Clostridium bacteria that are responsible for the illness botulism and are listed as bioterrorism agents. BoNT serotype E (BoNT/E) is one of four BoNT serotypes that cause human botulism and is the second most frequent cause of foodborne botulism. Rapid detection and discrimination of BoNT serotypes implicated in human disease are critical for ensuring timely treatment of patients and identifying sources of toxins, but there have been few reported detection methods for BoNT/E and even fewer methods usable for BoNT serotyping. We report a nanobiosensor based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, QDs) and dark quencher-labeled peptide probes to detect biologically active BoNT/E in aqueous media. The peptide probes contain a specific cleavage site for active BoNT/E. QD photoluminescence, which changes intensity due to FRET when the peptide probe is cleaved, was used to indicate toxin presence and quantity. The detection of a BoNT/E light chain (LcE) and holotoxin was observed within 3 h. The limits of detection were 0.02 and 2 ng/mL for LcE and holotoxin, respectively. The nanobiosensor shows good specificity toward the target in tests with nontarget BoNT serotypes. The high sensitivity, simple operation, short detection time, and ability to be used in parallel with probes developed for other BoNT serotypes indicate that the nanobiosensor will be useful for rapid BoNT/E detection and serotype discrimination in food analysis.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(1): 233-241, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815456

RESUMO

Self-assembled peptide micelles and fibers demonstrate unique control over the photophysical properties of the bound, light-activated chromophore, zinc protoporphyrin IX, (PPIX)Zn. Micelles encapsulate either a mixture of uncoordinated and coordinated (PPIX)Zn or all coordinated depending on the ratio of peptide/porphyrin. As the ratio increases toward a 1:1 micelle/porphyrin ratio, providing the chromophore with a discrete coordination environment reminiscent of unstructured proteins, the micelles favor triplet formation. Fibers, however, promote a linear array of porphyrin molecules that dictates exciton hopping and excimer formation at ratios as high as 60:1, peptide/porphyrin. However, even in fibers, the formation of the triplet species increases with increasing peptide/porphyrin ratio due to increased spatial separation between neighboring chromophores facilitating intersystem crossing. Full characterization of the micelles structures and comparison to the fibers lead to the comparison with natural systems and the ability to control the excited populations that have utility in photocatalytic processes. In addition, the incorporation of a second chromophore, heme, yields an electron transfer pathway in both micelles and fibers that highlights the utility of the peptide assemblies when engineering multichromophore arrays as inspired by natural, photosynthetic proteins.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(42): 16849-16857, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566956

RESUMO

Chromophore assemblies within well-defined porous coordination polymers, such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), can emulate the functionality of the antenna rings of chlorophylls in light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). The chemical, electronic, and structural diversities define MOFs as a promising platform where photogenerated excitons can be displaced to redox catalysts similar to the reaction center of the LHC. The precise positioning of the pigments and complementary redox units enables us to understand the charge/energy-transfer process within these crystalline solid compositions. In this study, we postsynthetically anchored tetraphenylporphyrinato zinc(II) (TPPZn)-derived complementary pigment within the 1D pores of 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(p-benzoicacid)pyrene (H4TBAPy)-derived NU-1000 MOF to form a high-density donor-acceptor system. The ground- and excited-state redox potentials of the donor and acceptor were chosen to facilitate an energy transfer (EnT) from the excited MOF (i.e., NU-1000*) to TPPZn and a charge transfer (CT) from excited porphyrin (i.e., TPPZn*). Thus, the processes depend on the excitation wavelength. The energy transfer process was spectroscopically probed by excitation-emission mapping: MOF emission was completely quenched at 460 nm, where the pyrene-centered emission was expected. Instead, the excited MOF efficiently transfers the energy to manifest a TPPZn-centered emission at 670 nm (kEnT ≈ 4.7 × 1011 s-1). The excited TPPZn pigment, with a neighboring TBAPy linker, forms an artificial "special-pair"-like system driving the charge-separation process (kCT = 1.2 × 1010 s-1). The findings demonstrate a synthetic MOF-based artificial LHC system where their well-defined structure will open up new possibilities as the separated charge can hop along the 1D pore channel for further mechanistic understanding and future developments.

4.
Langmuir ; 35(27): 8961-8967, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192607

RESUMO

Transmembrane proteins are functional macromolecules that direct the flow of small molecules and ions across a lipid bilayer. Here, we propose the development of helical peptide amphiphiles that will serve as both the bilayer and the functional unit of a self-assembled peptide bilayer membrane. The peptide, K3L12, was designed not only to possess dimensions similar to that of a lipid bilayer but also to yield a structurally robust, α-helical bilayer. The formation of α-helices is pH-dependent, and upon annealing the sample, a transition from α-helices to ß-sheets can be controlled, as indicated by optical and vibrational spectroscopies. Imaging the materials confirms morphologies similar to that of a lipid bilayer but rich in α-helices. Annealing the samples yields a shift in the morphology from bilayers to curled disks, fibers, and sheets. The structural robustness of the material can facilitate the incorporation of many functions into the bilayer assembly.

5.
Nanoscale ; 11(12): 5412-5421, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855041

RESUMO

To take peptide materials from predominantly structural to functional assemblies, variations in cofactor binding sites must be engineered and controlled. Here, we have employed the peptide sequence c16-AHX3K3-CO2H where X3 represents the aliphatic structural component of the peptide design that dictates ß-sheet formation and upon self-assembly yields a change in the overall microenvironment surrounding the Zn protoporphyrin IX ((PPIX)Zn) binding site. All peptides studied yield ß-sheet rich nanofibers highlighting the materials' resiliency to amino acid substitution. We highlight that the (PPIX)Zn binding constants correlate strongly with amino acid side chain volume, where X = L or I yields the lowest dissociation constant values (KD). The resulting microenvironment highlights the materials' ability to control interchromophore electronic interactions such that slip-stacked cofacial arrangements are observed via exciton splitting in UV/visible and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence suggests that greater interchromophore packing yields larger excimer populations and corresponding longer excimer association lifetimes (τA) which directly translates to shorter exciton diffusion lengths. In comparison to synthetic porphyrin molecular assemblies, this work demonstrates the ability to employ the peptide assembly to modulate the degree of cofactor arrangement, extent of excimer formation, and the exciton hopping rates all while in a platform amenable for producing polymer-like materials.


Assuntos
Nanofibras/química , Peptídeos/química , Protoporfirinas/química , Sítios de Ligação , Dicroísmo Circular , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Espectrofotometria
6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(15): 4896-4900, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701643

RESUMO

Herein, we present a light-gated protocell model made of plasmonic colloidal capsules (CCs) assembled with bacteriorhodopsin for converting solar energy into electrochemical gradients to drive the synthesis of energy-storage molecules. This synthetic protocell incorporated an important intrinsic property of noble metal colloidal particles, namely, plasmonic resonance. In particular, the near-field coupling between adjacent metal nanoparticles gave rise to strongly localized electric fields and resulted in a broad absorption in the whole visible spectra, which in turn promoted the flux of photons to bacteriorhodopsin and accelerated the proton pumping kinetics. The cell-like potential of this design was further demonstrated by leveraging the outward pumped protons as "chemical signals" for triggering ATP biosynthesis in a coexistent synthetic protocell population. Hereby, we lay the ground work for the engineering of colloidal supraparticle-based synthetic protocells with higher-order functionalities.

7.
ACS Nano ; 11(9): 9112-9118, 2017 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28817256

RESUMO

Light-harvesting biomaterials are an attractive target in photovoltaics, photocatalysis, and artificial photosynthesis. Through peptide self-assembly, complex nanostructures can be engineered to study the role of chromophore organization during light absorption and energy transport. To this end, we demonstrate the one-dimensional transport of excitons along naturally occurring, light-harvesting, Zn-protoporphyrin IX chromophores within self-assembled peptide-amphiphile nanofibers. The internal structure of the nanofibers induces packing of the porphyrins into linear chains. We find that this peptide assembly can enable long-range exciton diffusion, yet it also induces the formation of excimers between adjacent molecules, which serve as exciton traps. Electronic coupling between neighboring porphyrin molecules is confirmed by various spectroscopic methods. The exciton diffusion process is then probed through transient photoluminescence and absorption measurements and fit to a model for one-dimensional hopping. Because excimer formation impedes exciton hopping, increasing the interchromophore spacing allows for improved diffusivity, which we control through porphyrin doping levels. We show that diffusion lengths of over 60 nm are possible at low porphyrin doping, representing an order of magnitude improvement over the highest doping fractions.


Assuntos
Nanofibras/química , Peptídeos/química , Protoporfirinas/química , Tensoativos/química , Luminescência , Modelos Moleculares , Nanofibras/ultraestrutura
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(37): 31446-31457, 2017 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28840718

RESUMO

Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most potent toxin known. The ingestion of food contaminated with biologically active BoNT causes foodborne botulism, which can lead to respiratory paralysis, coma, and death after ingestion of as little as 70 µg for a 70 kg human. Because of its lethality and challenges associated with current detection methods, there is an urgent need for highly sensitive rapid screening techniques capable of detecting biologically active BoNT. Here, we describe a Förster resonance energy transfer-based nanobiosensor that uses quantum dots (QDs) and two specific quencher-labeled peptide probes to detect and differentiate two biologically active forms of BoNT, serotypes A and B, which were responsible for 80% of human foodborne botulism cases in the U.S. from 2012 to 2015. Each peptide probe contains an enzymatic cleavage site specific to only one serotype. QDs were selected based on the spectral overlap with the quenchers. In the presence of the target BoNT serotype, the peptide probe is cleaved and the quenching of QD photoluminescence (PL) is reduced, giving a signal that is easily detected by a PL spectrophotometer. This sensor performance was evaluated with light chains of BoNT/A and BoNT/B (LcA and LcB), catalytic domains of the respective serotypes. LcA and LcB were detected in 3 h with limits of detection of 0.2 and 2 ng/mL, respectively. The specificity of the sensor was evaluated, and no cross-reactivity from nontarget serotypes was observed with 2 h of incubation. Because each serotype-specific peptide is conjugated to a QD with a unique emission wavelength, multiple biologically active BoNT serotypes could be detected in one PL spectrum. The sensor was also shown to be responsive to BoNT/A and BoNT/B holotoxins. Good performance of this sensor implies its potential application as a rapid screening method for biologically active BoNT/A and BoNT/B in the laboratory and in the field.


Assuntos
Pontos Quânticos , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Botulismo , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Humanos , Peptídeos , Sorogrupo
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(25): 8497-8507, 2017 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28505436

RESUMO

Self-assembling peptide materials have gained significant attention, due to well-demonstrated applications, but they are functionally underutilized. To advance their utility, we use noncovalent interactions to incorporate the biological cofactor heme-B for catalysis. Heme-proteins achieve differing functions through structural and coordinative variations. Here, we replicate this phenomenon by highlighting changes in heme reactivity as a function of coordination, sequence, and morphology (micelles versus fibers) in a series of simple peptide amphiphiles with the sequence c16-xyL3K3-CO2H where c16 is a palmitoyl moiety and xy represents the heme binding region: AA, AH, HH, and MH. The morphology of this peptide series is characterized using transmission electron and atomic force microscopies as well as dynamic light scattering. Within this small library of peptide constructs, we show that three spectroscopically (UV/visible and electron paramagnetic resonance) distinct heme environments were generated: noncoordinated/embedded high-spin, five-coordinate high-spin, and six-coordinate low-spin. The resulting material's functional dependence on sequence and supramolecular morphology is highlighted 2-fold. First, the heme active site binds carbon monoxide in both micelles and fibers, demonstrating that the heme active site in both morphologies is accessible to small molecules for catalysis. Second, peroxidase activity was observed in heme-containing micelles yet was significantly reduced in heme-containing fibers. We briefly discuss the implications these findings have in the production of functional, self-assembling peptide materials.


Assuntos
Heme/química , Peptídeos/química , Catálise , Domínio Catalítico , Micelas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Tensoativos/química
10.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12367, 2016 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27554944

RESUMO

Understanding the role of water in governing the kinetics of the self-assembly processes of amphiphilic peptides remains elusive. Here, we use a multistage atomistic-coarse-grained approach, complemented by circular dichroism/infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering experiments to highlight the dual nature of water in driving the self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles (PAs). We show computationally that water cage formation and breakage near the hydrophobic groups control the fusion dynamics and aggregation of PAs in the micellar stage. Simulations also suggest that enhanced structural ordering of vicinal water near the hydrophilic amino acids shifts the equilibrium towards the fibre phase and stimulates structure and order during the PA assembly into nanofibres. Experiments validate our simulation findings; the measured infrared O-H bond stretching frequency is reminiscent of an ice-like bond which suggests that the solvated water becomes increasingly ordered with time in the assembled peptide network, thus shedding light on the role of water in a self-assembly process.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/química , Tensoativos/química , Água/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Micelas , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Nanofibras/química , Agregados Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(7): 2130-3, 2016 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26840013

RESUMO

We provide a direct measure of the change in effective dielectric constant (ε(S)) within a protein matrix after a photoinduced electron transfer (ET) reaction. A linked donor-bridge-acceptor molecule, PZn-Ph-NDI, consisting of a (porphinato)Zn donor (PZn), a phenyl bridge (Ph), and a naphthalene diimide acceptor (NDI), is shown to be a "meter" to indicate protein dielectric environment. We calibrated PZn-Ph-NDI ET dynamics as a function of solvent dielectric, and computationally de novo designed a protein SCPZnI3 to bind PZn-Ph-NDI in its interior. Mapping the protein ET dynamics onto the calibrated ET catalogue shows that SCPZnI3 undergoes a switch in the effective dielectric constant following photoinduced ET, from ε(S) ≈ 8 to ε(S) ≈ 3.


Assuntos
Processos Fotoquímicos , Proteínas/química , Transporte de Elétrons , Imidas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Naftalenos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Zinco/química
13.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4606, 2014 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25132637

RESUMO

In natural systems, electron flow is mediated by proteins that spatially organize donor and acceptor molecules with great precision. Achieving this guided, directional flow of information is a desirable feature in photovoltaic media. Here, we design self-assembled peptide materials that organize multiple electronic components capable of performing photoinduced charge separation. Two peptides, c16-AHL3K3-CO2H and c16-AHL3K9-CO2H, self-assemble into fibres and provide a scaffold capable of binding a metalloporphyrin via histidine axial ligation and mineralize titanium dioxide (TiO2) on the lysine-rich surface of the resulting fibrous structures. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of this self-assembled material under continuous light excitation demonstrate charge separation induced by excitation of the metalloporphyrin and mediated by the peptide assembly structure. This approach to dye-sensitized semiconducting materials offers a means to spatially control the dye molecule with respect to the semiconducting material through careful, strategic peptide design.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Metaloporfirinas/química , Peptídeos/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Titânio/química , Corantes , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/métodos , Histidina , Lisina , Modelos Moleculares
14.
Chemistry ; 20(4): 941-5, 2014 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24356987

RESUMO

Designed peptide conjugates molecules are used to direct the synthesis and assembly of gold nanoparticles into complex 1D nanoparticle superstructures with various morphologies. Four peptide conjugates, each based on the gold-binding peptide (AYSSGAPPMPPF; PEPAu ), are prepared: C12H23O-AYSSGAPPMPP (1), C12H23O-AYSSGAPPMPPF (2), C12H23O-AYSSGAPPMPPFF (3), and C12H23O-AYSSGAPPMPPFFF (4). The affect that C-terminal hydrophobic F residues have on both the soft-assembly of the peptide conjugates and the resulting assembly of gold nanoparticle superstructures is examined. It is shown that the addition of two C-terminal F residues (3) leads to thick, branched 1D gold nanoparticle superstructures, whereas the addition of three C-terminal F residues (4) leads to bundling of thin 1D nanoparticle superstructures.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Peptídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Nanotecnologia
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(37): 13914-26, 2013 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23931685

RESUMO

This work reports the first example of a single-chain protein computationally designed to contain four α-helical segments and fold to form a four-helix bundle encapsulating a supramolecular abiological chromophore that possesses exceptional nonlinear optical properties. The 109-residue protein, designated SCRPZ-1, binds and disperses an insoluble hyperpolarizable chromophore, ruthenium(II) [5-(4'-ethynyl-(2,2';6',2″-terpyridinyl))-10,20-bis(phenyl)porphinato]zinc(II)-(2,2';6',2″-terpyridine)(2+) (RuPZn) in aqueous buffer solution at a 1:1 stoichiometry. A 1:1 binding stoichiometry of the holoprotein is supported by electronic absorption and circular dichroism spectra, as well as equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation and size exclusion chromatography. SCRPZ-1 readily dimerizes at micromolar concentrations, and an empirical redesign of the protein exterior produced a stable monomeric protein, SCRPZ-2, that also displayed a 1:1 protein:cofactor stoichiometry. For both proteins in aqueous buffer, the encapsulated cofactor displays photophysical properties resembling those exhibited by the dilute RuPZn cofactor in organic solvent: femtosecond, nanosecond, and microsecond time scale pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopic data evince intensely absorbing holoprotein excited states having large spectral bandwidth that penetrate deep in the near-infrared energy regime; the holoprotein electronically excited triplet state exhibits a microsecond time scale lifetime characteristic of the RuPZn chromophore. Hyper-Rayleigh light scattering measurements carried out at an incident irradiation wavelength of 1340 nm for these holoproteins demonstrate an exceptional dynamic hyperpolarizabilty (ß1340 = 3100 × 10(-30) esu). X-ray reflectivity measurements establish that this de novo-designed hyperpolarizable protein can be covalently attached with high surface density to a silicon surface without loss of the cofactor, indicating that these assemblies provide a new approach to bioinspired materials that have unique electro-optic functionality.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Metaloporfirinas/química , Proteínas/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Dicroísmo Circular , Desenho de Fármacos , Metaloporfirinas/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas/genética , Especificidade por Substrato
16.
Nano Lett ; 13(7): 3256-61, 2013 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23777529

RESUMO

We utilize a peptide-based methodology to prepare a diverse collection of double-helical gold nanoparticle superstructures having controllable handedness and structural metrics. These materials exhibit well-defined circular dichroism signatures at visible wavelengths owing to the collective dipole-dipole interactions between the nanoparticles. We couple theory and experiment to show how tuning the metrics and structure of the helices results in predictable and tailorable chirooptical properties. Finally, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that the intensity, position, and nature of the chirooptical activity can be carefully adjusted via silver overgrowth. These studies illustrate the utility of peptide-based nanoparticle assembly platforms for designing and preparing complex plasmonic materials with tailorable optical properties.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(36): 14646-9, 2012 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22916716

RESUMO

Long fibers assembled from peptide amphiphiles capable of binding the metalloporphyrin zinc protoporphyrin IX ((PPIX)Zn) have been synthesized. Rational peptide design was employed to generate a peptide, c16-AHL(3)K(3)-CO(2)H, capable of forming a ß-sheet structure that propagates into larger fibrous structures. A porphyrin-binding site, a single histidine, was engineered into the peptide sequence in order to bind (PPIX)Zn to provide photophysical functionality. The resulting system indicates control from the molecular level to the macromolecular level with a high order of porphyrin organization. UV/visible and circular dichroism spectroscopies were employed to detail molecular organization, whereas electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy aided in macromolecular characterization. Preliminary picosecond transient absorption data are also reported. Reduced hemin, (PPIX)Fe(II), was also employed to highlight the material's versatility and tunability.


Assuntos
Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Peptídeos/química , Protoporfirinas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
18.
Langmuir ; 28(6): 3227-38, 2012 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22242787

RESUMO

We show that simply designed amphiphilic 4-helix bundle peptides can be utilized to vectorially orient a linearly extended donor-bridge-acceptor (D-br-A) electron transfer (ET) chromophore within its core. The bundle's interior is shown to provide a unique solvation environment for the D-br-A assembly not accessible in conventional solvents and thereby control the magnitudes of both light-induced ET and thermal charge recombination rate constants. The amphiphilicity of the bundle's exterior was employed to vectorially orient the peptide-chromophore complex at a liquid-gas interface, and its ends were tailored for subsequent covalent attachment to an inorganic surface, via a "directed assembly" approach. Structural data, combined with evaluation of the excited state dynamics exhibited by these peptide-chromophore complexes, demonstrate that densely packed, acentrically ordered 2-D monolayer ensembles of such complexes at high in-plane chromophore densities approaching 1/200 Å(2) offer unique potential as active layers in binary heterojunction photovoltaic devices.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/química , Peptídeos/química , Transporte de Elétrons , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(39): 15324-7, 2011 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21899348

RESUMO

ZnTe nanorods with controllable aspect ratios were synthesized using polytellurides a tellurium precursor. The use of polytellurides which allow nucleation and growth at relatively low temperature is the key to formation of wurtzite phase and controlled anisotropic growth along c-axis. The aspect ratio of the resulting ZnTe nanorods was controlled by tuning the temperature that in turn controls the kinetics of the nanocrystal growth. A diameter dependent quantum confinement effect in ZnTe nanorods was observed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Transient absorption measurements show ultrafast charge injection dynamics from ZnTe nanorods, suggesting their strong potential for applications in photocatalysis.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 132(44): 15516-8, 2010 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20945900

RESUMO

The de novo design of membrane proteins remains difficult despite recent advances in understanding the factors that drive membrane protein folding and association. We have designed a membrane protein PRIME (PoRphyrins In MEmbrane) that positions two non-natural iron diphenylporphyrins (Fe(III)DPP's) sufficiently close to provide a multicentered pathway for transmembrane electron transfer. Computational methods previously used for the design of multiporphyrin water-soluble helical proteins were extended to this membrane target. Four helices were arranged in a D(2)-symmetrical bundle to bind two Fe(II/III) diphenylporphyrins in a bis-His geometry further stabilized by second-shell hydrogen bonds. UV-vis absorbance, CD spectroscopy, analytical ultracentrifugation, redox potentiometry, and EPR demonstrate that PRIME binds the cofactor with high affinity and specificity in the expected geometry.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/química , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Porfirinas/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína
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