Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 296
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 361-365, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Misdiagnosis is common in bipolar disorder and disproportionally affects racial and ethnic minorities. There is interest in better understanding the contribution of differential symptomatic illness presentation to misdiagnosis. METHODS: Utilizing the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) public database, this study compared clinical phenomenology between bipolar patients of African vs European ancestry (AA = 415 vs EA = 480). The Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS) was utilized to evaluate symptom endorsement contributing to diagnostic confirmation of bipolar I disorder (BPI) and lifetime medication use. RESULTS: Elevated/euphoric mood was less endorsed in AA vs EA participants (p = 0.03). During the most severe episode of mania, AA participants, in comparison to EA participants, had a lower sum of manic symptoms (p = 0.006) and a higher rate of hallucinations (p = 0.01). During lifetime psychosis, AA participants, in comparison to EA participants, had a higher lifetime sum of delusions (p = 0.01) and hallucinations (p < 0.0001). AA participants reported lower use of lithium (p < 0.0001) and mood stabilizing anticonvulsants (p = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: The differential rate of manic and psychotic symptom endorsement from a semi-structured diagnostic interview may represent differential illness presentation based on biological differences or racial or study biases (e.g. ascertainment). Increased minority recruitment in bipolar research is therefore a necessary future direction. LIMITATIONS: Recall and interviewer bias may affect study results, but are likely diminished by the alignment of symptom endorsement and medication use.

3.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-22, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749403

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate the effect of sample handling on inflammatory cytokines in serum and highlight challenges with using samples pre-collected from biobanks for biomarker research.Methods: Cytokine concentrations (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNFα, and IFNγ) were measured in serum samples of 205 patients with BD from the Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder (BD) Biobank and 205 non-psychiatric controls from the Mayo Clinic Biobank. As cytokine concentrations varied by recruitment site, post-hoc models were used to test the effect of clinical variables and pre-processing time on cytokines. To evaluate the effect of pre-processing time experimentally, cytokines were assayed in serum and plasma from 6 healthy volunteers processed at different time points.Results: Cytokine levels were significantly higher in the BD group. However, both cytokine levels and pre-processing times differed by recruitment site, and post-hoc analyses revealed that pre-processing time was significantly associated with several cytokines. An experiment using samples from healthy volunteers confirmed that concentrations for most cytokines increased with longer pre-processing times.Conclusions: Delays in processing influence cytokine concentrations in blood samples. Given the increasing use of biobanks in research, this study highlights the need to carefully evaluate sample collection and handling methods when designing biomarker studies.

4.
Sleep Health ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence, sociodemographic features, patterns of comorbidity, and impact on functional impairment of excessive sleepiness (Ex.S) and associated symptoms in a nationally representative sample of adults using the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) dataset. METHODS: Participants ≥18 years (n = 5,962) were queried about their sleep using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Specifically, respondents were questioned about feeling sleepy during the day and falling asleep in permissive situations, feelings of insufficient sleep despite adequate time in bed, and/or difficulty waking up. Those endorsing daytime sleepiness and at least one additional symptom were considered to have Ex.S plus associated symptoms. Associations between Ex.S plus associated symptoms and sociodemographics, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders, chronic physical conditions, and functional impairment were examined. RESULTS: The prevalence of Ex.S plus associated symptoms in U.S. adults was 23.34% (standard error [SE] = 0.88) and significantly co-occurred with insomnia-related symptoms after adjusting for confounders (Odds ratio [OR] = 5.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.55-7.02). The presence of Ex.S and associated symptoms was more common in women, particularly younger women, those with lower family income, and the unemployed (all P<.001). After controlling for demographic characteristics and other confounders, Ex.S plus associated symptoms was associated with having a DSM-IV mental disorder (OR = 4.25; 95% CI = 3.53-5.10), a chronic physical condition (OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.94-3.42) and greater disability (P<.001). CONCLUSION: Ex. S with associated symptoms was common, frequently co-occurred with other mental and physical conditions, and was associated with substantial disability. Dissipation of some associations after controlling for insomnia-related symptoms indicated that physical-mental comorbidity and disability were greater among individuals with more pervasive sleep disturbances.

5.
Curr Biol ; 29(20): R1089-R1091, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639356

RESUMO

Information about behavioral states can be integrated in decision-making circuits. In Drosophila, the behavioral state - flying versus not flying - determines whether flies land or jump by dynamically coupling visual information to pre-motor descending neurons.

6.
Bipolar Disord ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the dopaminergic enhancing agent modafinil/armodafinil (MoArm) as adjunctive treatment for bipolar depression. METHODS: A comprehensive search of major electronic databases was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adjunctive MoArm that included patients with bipolar I (BPI) or bipolar II (BPII) depression. Data for response/remission and all-cause discontinuation were analyzed. Effect size was summarized by relative risk (RR) using a random effect model. RESULTS: Of 58 studies, Five RCTs (N=795 drug, N=792 placebo) met inclusion criteria. Four armodafinil studies included only BPI patients and one modafinil study included both bipolar subtypes with limited heterogeneity (I2 = 34%, P = 0.19; I2 = 18%, P = 0.30). Compared to placebo, augmentation with MoArm was associated with significantly greater rates of treatment response (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.37; p=0.03) and remission (RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.10-1.73; p=0.005). All cause discontinuation was no different than placebo (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.89-1.30, p=0.45) with no evidence of increased risk of mood switch or suicide attempts with MoArm (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.39-2.5, p=0.98; RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.37-2.85, p=0.97). CONCLUSION: This narrower scope meta-analysis of one drug for one disease suggests that adjunctive modafinil / armodafinil may represent a novel therapeutic intervention. Further studies delineating subtypes of bipolar depression responsive to these novel dopaminergic enhancing agents are encouraged.

7.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 80(6)2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: According to DSM-IV, criterion (A) for diagnosing a hypomanic/manic episode is mood change (ie, elevated, expansive, or irritable mood). Criterion (A) was redefined in DSM-5, adding increased energy or activity in addition to mood change. We sought to investigate the effect of adding increased energy or activity to criterion (A) for the diagnosis of hypomania/mania and, thus, bipolar disorder. METHODS: This analysis of prospectively collected data from the Bipolar Collaborative Network (1995-2002) includes 907 DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed bipolar outpatients (14,306 visits). The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) was administered monthly and used to define DSM-IV and DSM-5 criterion (A) fulfillment during a hypomanic/manic visit. RESULTS: Patients were adults (median age = 40; IQR, 33-49), and over half (56%) were women. Median number of contributed visits was 10 (IQR, 4-23). Applying DSM-5 criterion (A) reduced the number of patients experiencing a hypomanic/manic visit by 34%, compared to DSM-IV. Visits fulfilling DSM-5 criterion (A) had higher odds of experiencing elevated levels of all other mania symptoms, compared to fulfilling DSM-IV criterion (A) only. Association between individual symptoms was strongest with mood elevation and energy or activity (OR [95% CL] = 8.65, [7.91, 9.47]). CONCLUSIONS: The 34% reduction in the number of patients being diagnosed with a hypomanic/manic visit shows that the impact of applying DSM-5 criterion (A) is substantial. Fewer hypomanic/manic episodes may be diagnosed by the stricter DSM-5 criterion (A), but the episodes diagnosed are likely to be more severe. The DSM-5 criteria may in general prevent overdiagnosis of bipolar disorder but possibly at the cost of underdiagnosing hypomanic/manic episodes.

8.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532468

RESUMO

Importance: Infection-associated immune activation and inflammation are increasingly recognized in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Objective: To determine whether antibodies to common infectious agents, including cytomegalovirus (CMV), Toxoplasma gondii, and measles, as well as the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein, in serum samples differ between patients with bipolar disorder and control individuals without bipolar disorder. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control study, antibody titers were measured in serum samples from 1207 patients with bipolar disorder and 745 controls that were obtained from biobanks with participating sites in Rochester and Minneapolis, Minnesota (n = 1537), and Cincinnati, Ohio (n = 415), from January 5, 2009, through May 12, 2014. A subset of case patients and controls from Minnesota were matched by age, sex, and educational level. Bipolar type, age at onset, and history of psychosis were assessed for case patients as well as current drug treatment at the time of blood sample obtainment from the biobank. Data were analyzed from February 5, 2018, to January 4, 2019. Exposures: The CMV and T gondii antibodies with IgM titers were expressed as z scores and IgG titers dichotomized into seropositive and seronegative based on expected prevalence in the US population and further classified based on the joint CMV-positive/T gondii-negative IgG status, C-reactive protein z score, and drug treatments with antitoxoplasma activity. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patients were stratified by bipolar disorder type I or type II, nonearly (>19 years of age) and early (≤19 years of age) onset, and history of psychosis during mania or no psychosis. Results: Of 1207 patients with bipolar disorder (mean [SD] age, 43.2 [15.1] years; 742 [61.5%] female), the CMV-positive/T gondii-negative IgG status was significantly higher (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.09-1.62; P = .004) compared with that in the 745 controls (mean [SD] age, 44.5 [15.5] years; 444 [59.6%] female). The CMV-positive/T gondii-negative IgG status was associated with bipolar cases type I (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.14-1.75; P = .001), nonearly age at onset (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.16-1.72; P = .001), and history of manic psychosis (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.13-1.88; P = .004). Patients with bipolar disorder who received drug treatment with antitoxoplasma activity (n = 272) had significantly lower T gondii IgM titers (median, 1.59; interquartile range, 1.30-2.07) compared with those (n = 900) who did not receive this treatment (median, 1.69; interquartile range, 1.35-2.25) (P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: In this sample, increased long-term antibody response to CMV and decreased long-term antibody response to T gondii were associated with bipolar disorder and the subphenotypes of bipolar type I, nonearly disease onset, and manic psychosis. Further work appears to be needed to better understand genetic vs environmental disease risk and infection or immune activation contribution to overall disease pathogenesis with particular reference to disease onset.

11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 173, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273200

RESUMO

Metabolomics provides valuable tools for the study of drug effects, unraveling the mechanism of action and variation in response due to treatment. In this study we used electrochemistry-based targeted metabolomics to gain insights into the mechanisms of action of escitalopram/citalopram focusing on a set of 31 metabolites from neurotransmitter-related pathways. Overall, 290 unipolar patients with major depressive disorder were profiled at baseline, after 4 and 8 weeks of drug treatment. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HRSD17) scores gauged depressive symptom severity. More significant metabolic changes were found after 8 weeks than 4 weeks post baseline. Within the tryptophan pathway, we noted significant reductions in serotonin (5HT) and increases in indoles that are known to be influenced by human gut microbial cometabolism. 5HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetate (5HIAA), and the ratio of 5HIAA/5HT showed significant correlations to temporal changes in HRSD17 scores. In the tyrosine pathway, changes were observed in the end products of the catecholamines, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol and vinylmandelic acid. Furthermore, two phenolic acids, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, produced through noncanconical pathways, were increased with drug exposure. In the purine pathway, significant reductions in hypoxanthine and xanthine levels were observed. Examination of metabolite interactions through differential partial correlation networks revealed changes in guanosine-homogentisic acid and methionine-tyrosine interactions associated with HRSD17. Genetic association studies using the ratios of these interacting pairs of metabolites highlighted two genetic loci harboring genes previously linked to depression, neurotransmission, or neurodegeneration. Overall, exposure to escitalopram/citalopram results in shifts in metabolism through noncanonical pathways, which suggest possible roles for the gut microbiome, oxidative stress, and inflammation-related mechanisms.

12.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 19(9): 867-879, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269819

RESUMO

Introduction: Clinical and genetic study of psychiatric conditions has underscored the co-occurrence of complex phenotypes and the need to refine them. Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Binge Eating (BE) behavior are common psychiatric conditions that have high heritability and high co-occurrence, such that at least one quarter of BD patients have BE (BD + BE). Genetic studies of BD alone and of BE alone suggest complex polygenic risk models, with many genetic risk loci yet to be identified. Areas covered: We review studies of the epidemiology of BD+BE, its clinical features (cognitive traits, psychiatric comorbidity, and role of obesity), genomic studies (of BD, eating disorders (ED) defined by BE, and BD + BE), and therapeutic implications of BD + BE. Expert opinion: Subphenotyping of complex psychiatric disorders reduces heterogeneity and increases statistical power and effect size; thus, it enhances our capacity to find missing genetic (and other) risk factors. BD + BE has a severe clinical picture and genetic studies suggests a distinct genetic architecture. Differential therapeutic interventions may be needed for patients with BD + BE compared with BD patients without BE. Recognizing the BD + BE subphenotype is an example of moving towards more precise clinical and genetic entities.

13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 117: 45-54, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279243

RESUMO

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and temporal pole (TP) are brain regions that display abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD) patients. DNA methylation - an epigenetic mechanism both heritable and sensitive to the environment - may be involved in the pathophysiology of BD. To study BD-associated DNA methylomic differences in these brain regions, we extracted genomic DNA from the postmortem tissues of Brodmann Area (BA) 9 (DLPFC) and BA38 (TP) gray matter from 20 BD, ten major depression (MDD), and ten control age-and-sex-matched subjects. Genome-wide methylation levels were measured using the 850 K Illumina MethylationEPIC BeadChip. We detected striking differences between cortical regions, with greater numbers of between-brain-region differentially methylated positions (DMPs; i.e., CpG sites) in all groups, most pronounced in the BD group, and with substantial overlap across groups. The genes of DMPs common to both BD and MDD (hypothetically associated with their common features such as depression) and those distinct to BD (hypothetically associated with BD-specific features such as mania) were enriched in pathways involved in neurodevelopment including axon guidance. Pathways enriched only in the BD-MDD shared list pointed to GABAergic dysregulation, while those enriched in the BD-only list suggested glutamatergic dysregulation and greater impact on synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. We further detected group-specific between-brain-region gene expression differences in ODC1, CALY, GALNT2, and GABRD, which contained significant between-brain-region DMPs. In each brain region, no significant DMPs or differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were found between diagnostic groups. In summary, the methylation differences between DLPFC and TP may provide molecular targets for further investigations of genetic and environmental vulnerabilities associated with both unique and common features of various mood disorders and suggest directions of future development of individualized treatment strategies.

14.
Curr Biol ; 29(12): 2058-2065.e2, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155354

RESUMO

Behavioral reactions of animals to environmental sensory stimuli are sometimes reflexive and stereotyped but can also vary depending on contextual conditions. Engaging in active foraging or flight provokes a reversal in the valence of carbon dioxide responses from aversion to approach in Drosophila [1, 2], whereas mosquitoes encountering this same chemical cue show enhanced approach toward a small visual object [3]. Sensory plasticity in insects has been broadly attributed to the action of biogenic amines, which modulate behaviors such as olfactory learning, aggression, feeding, and egg laying [4-14]. Octopamine acts rapidly upon the onset of flight to modulate the response gain of directionally selective motion-detecting neurons in Drosophila [15]. How the action of biogenic amines might couple sensory modalities to each other or to locomotive states remains poorly understood. Here, we use a visual flight simulator [16] equipped for odor delivery [17] to confirm that flies avoid a small contrasting visual object in odorless air [18] but that the same animals reverse their preference to approach in the presence of attractive food odor. An aversive odor does not reverse object aversion. Optogenetic activation of either octopaminergic neurons or directionally selective motion-detecting neurons that express octopamine receptors elicits visual valence reversal in the absence of odor. Our results suggest a parsimonious model in which odor-activated octopamine release excites the motion detection pathway to increase the saliency of either a small object or a bar, eliciting tracking responses by both visual features.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 149, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123248

RESUMO

Glutamatergic dysregulation is implicated in the neurobiology of mood disorders. This study investigated the relationship between the anterior cingulate cortex (AC) glutamate, as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from four genes (GLUL, SLC1A3, SLC1A2, and SLC1A7) that regulate the extracellular glutamate in 26 depressed patients with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 15) and bipolar disorder (BD; n = 11). Two SNPs (rs3812778 and rs3829280), in perfect linkage disequilibrium, in the 3' untranslated region of the EAAT2 gene SLC1A2, were associated with AC glutamate, with minor allele carriers having significantly higher glutamate levels (p < 0.001) in comparison with common allele homozygotes. In silico analysis revealed an association of minor allele carriers of rs3812778/rs382920 with an upregulation of the astrocytic marker CD44 localized downstream of SLC1A2 on chromosome 11. Finally, we tested the disease relevance of these SNPs in a large group of depressed patients [MDD (n = 458); BD (n = 1473)] and found that minor allele carriers had a significantly higher risk for rapid cycling (p = 0.006). Further work is encouraged to delineate the functional impact of excitatory amino acid transporter genetic variation on CD44 associated physiology and glutamatergic neurotransmission, specifically glutamate-glutamine cycling, and its contribution to subphenotypes of mood disorders.

16.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 106(4): 855-865, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012492

RESUMO

We set out to determine whether machine learning-based algorithms that included functionally validated pharmacogenomic biomarkers joined with clinical measures could predict selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) remission/response in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We studied 1,030 white outpatients with MDD treated with citalopram/escitalopram in the Mayo Clinic Pharmacogenomics Research Network Antidepressant Medication Pharmacogenomic Study (PGRN-AMPS; n = 398), Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D; n = 467), and International SSRI Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ISPC; n = 165) trials. A genomewide association study for PGRN-AMPS plasma metabolites associated with SSRI response (serotonin) and baseline MDD severity (kynurenine) identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DEFB1, ERICH3, AHR, and TSPAN5 that we tested as predictors. Supervised machine-learning methods trained using SNPs and total baseline depression scores predicted remission and response at 8 weeks with area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) > 0.7 (P < 0.04) in PGRN-AMPS patients, with comparable prediction accuracies > 69% (P ≤ 0.07) in STAR*D and ISPC. These results demonstrate that machine learning can achieve accurate and, importantly, replicable prediction of SSRI therapy response using total baseline depression severity combined with pharmacogenomic biomarkers.

17.
J Psychiatr Res ; 113: 1-9, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878786

RESUMO

In many international studies, rates of completed suicide and suicide attempts have a seasonal pattern that peaks in spring or summer. This exploratory study investigated the association between solar insolation and a history of suicide attempt in patients with bipolar I disorder. Solar insolation is the amount of electromagnetic energy from the Sun striking a surface area on Earth. Data were collected previously from 5536 patients with bipolar I disorder at 50 collection sites in 32 countries at a wide range of latitudes in both hemispheres. Suicide related data were available for 3365 patients from 310 onset locations in 51 countries. 1047 (31.1%) had a history of suicide attempt. There was a significant inverse association between a history of suicide attempt and the ratio of mean winter solar insolation/mean summer solar insolation. This ratio is smallest near the poles where the winter insolation is very small compared to the summer insolation. This ratio is largest near the equator where there is relatively little variation in the insolation over the year. Other variables in the model that were positively associated with suicide attempt were being female, a history of alcohol or substance abuse, and being in a younger birth cohort. Living in a country with a state-sponsored religion decreased the association. (All estimated coefficients p < 0.01). In summary, living in locations with large changes in solar insolation between winter and summer may be associated with increased suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. Further investigation of the impacts of solar insolation on the course of bipolar disorder is needed.

18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 113, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877268

RESUMO

Lithium has been shown to have some therapeutic efficacy as an adjunctive treatment for intractable forms of major depression. Activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK3ß) have been implicated in its putative mechanisms of action. These proteins are integral components of the insulin signaling pathway, which may serve as a critical co-regulator of drug action. Utilizing an animal model of tricyclic antidepressant resistance, we investigated the relationship between insulin signaling and antidepressant response to lithium augmentation. Pre-treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH 100 µg/day i.p.) for 14 days effectively blocked the immobility-reducing effects of an acute dose of imipramine (10 mg/kg i.p.) in the forced swim test (FST). Lithium augmentation (100 mg/kg i.p.) rescued the antidepressant-like effects of imipramine in this model. Total and phosphorylated (p) levels of protein kinase B (Akt), mTOR, and GSK3ß protein were quantified in the infralimbic cortex (ILPFC) following FST stress via Western blot. Levels of mTOR and pmTOR were further quantified in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following insulin stimulation (10 mg/mL for 5 min) via ELISA. Elevated levels of phosphorylated insulin signaling proteins were present in the ILPFC of ACTH-pretreated animals that received both imipramine and lithium, together with a concurrent increase in mTOR activation in PBMCs. Large correlations were observed between immobility time and insulin-stimulated mTOR levels in PBMCs. We propose that PBMC insulin challenge may be a useful probe for predicting antidepressant response to lithium administration, and potentially other therapies acting via similar mechanisms of action.

19.
Eat Behav ; 33: 30-33, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the potential factor structure of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) in a sample of individuals with bipolar disorder. METHOD: Exploratory common factor analyses were conducted in a sample of 1031 people with bipolar disorder as defined by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. RESULTS: Approximately 27% of participants had a comorbid eating disorder. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a 3 factor solution (i.e., shape/weight concerns; binge eating behaviors, compensatory behavior). CONCLUSIONS: The 3-factor solution of the EDDS in a bipolar disorder sample is consistent with major eating disorder symptom domains. Future research is necessary to replicate these findings in eating disorder samples with diverse comorbid psychopathology.

20.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 58(7): 712-720, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent attention to pervasive sleep deficits in US adolescents has focused on sleep patterns and insomnia, but there are limited data on the prevalence and correlates of hypersomnolence symptoms. METHOD: The sample included 6,483 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age who were interviewed directly and had parent reports in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a nationally representative sample of US youth. Information on sleep patterns/symptoms that were collected in the interview was used to determine the population prevalence of DSM-5 criterion A-defined hypersomnolence and component symptoms. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between sleepiness and sub-symptoms of hypersomnolence with weekday/weekend bedtime, sleep duration, mental disorders, and psychotropic medication use. RESULTS: Of the sample, 41.5% reported feeling sleepy during the daytime and 11.7% met criteria for hypersomnolence. The prevalence of hypersomnolence varied depending on age (p < .001) and was more common in adolescent girls (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% CI 1.09-1.78). Excessive sleepiness and hypersomnolence symptoms were associated with shorter sleep duration and delayed bedtimes on weekdays and weekends Hypersomnolence was significantly associated with insomnia (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.87-3.21) and mental disorders (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.42-2.77). After accounting for insomnia, hypersomnolence was no longer associated with use of psychotropic medication (OR 1.61, 95% CI 0.97-2.66). CONCLUSION: Of adolescents with adequate sleep duration, 11.7% still reported symptoms of hypersomnolence. The strong association between hypersomnolence and insomnia suggests that sleep disorders in adolescents can fluctuate between over- and under-sleeping. Potential mechanisms underpinning the strong associations between sleep disturbances and mental disorders should be further pursued and could provide insight into prevention efforts.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA