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J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970902


Macrophage activation participates in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammation. As a coenzyme, vitamin B6 (VitB6) is mainly involved in the metabolism of amino acids, nucleic acids, glycogen and lipids. We have previously reported that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) produces anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo. Whether VitB6 via AMPK activation prevents pulmonary inflammation remains unknown. The model of acute pneumonia was induced by injecting mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The inflammation was determined by measuring the levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) using real time PCR, ELISA and immunohistochemistry. Exposure of cultured primary macrophages to VitB6 increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) Thr172 phosphorylation in a time/dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by compound C. VitB6 downregulated the inflammatory gene expressions including IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in macrophages challenged with LPS. These effects of VitB6 were mirrored by AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR). However, VitB6 was unable to inhibit LPS-induced macrophage activation if AMPK was in deficient through siRNA-mediated approaches. Further, the anti-inflammatory effects produced by VitB6 or AICAR in LPS-treated macrophages were abolished in DOK3 gene knockout (DOK3-/- ) macrophages, but were enhanced in macrophages if DOK3 was overexpressed. In vivo studies indicated that administration of VitB6 remarkably inhibited LPS-induced both systemic inflammation and acute pneumonia in wild-type mice, but not in DOK3-/- mice. VitB6 prevents LPS-induced acute pulmonary inflammation in mice via the inhibition of macrophage activation.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(11): 2344-2353, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498445


BACKGROUND: (Pro)renin receptor (PRR), a novel member of the renin-angiotensin system, participates in various cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of PRR in alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM), which is caused by alcohol intake and manifests as myocardial damage and cardiac dysfunction, remains unclear. METHODS: PRR gene silencing was achieved by transfecting recombinant adenovirus expressing anti-PRR short hairpin RNA (PRR-shRNA). In vitro, primary rat cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) were cultured with the stimulation of alcohol (200 mM), with or without PRR-shRNA and PD98059. Immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, and Western blot were used to measure the protein and messenger (mRNA) expression of PRR, fibrotic factors, and members of related signaling pathways. In vivo, Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 9% (v/v) alcohol or a normal diet for 3 months, with or without PRR-shRNA. Sirius Red staining, immunohistochemical staining, and toluidine blue staining were used to evaluate myocardial fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation response. RESULTS: Alcohol markedly increased PRR mRNA and protein expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in CFs. The increased expression of fibrotic factors induced by alcohol was prevented by PRR-shRNA and PD98059. Moreover, PRR-shRNA decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) 1/2 in CFs. Furthermore, PRR-shRNA decreased cardiac fibrosis, reduced oxidative stress, and alleviated inflammation response in the myocardial tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that PRR-ERK1/2 signaling was involved in the development of ACM and that PRR could be a new target for the treatment of ACM.