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1.
Transl Neurosci ; 12(1): 448-455, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804603

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has detrimental effects on the function of microvascular beds, resulting in blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. The objective of the study was to investigate whether DM affects the brain physiology through composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and compare gas tension and electrolyte levels in CSF between the diabetic and nondiabetic populations. Methods: Patients aged between 20 and 70 years scheduled for elective orthopedic or urologic surgery requiring spinal anesthesia were enrolled. They were assigned to either of the two groups (control or type 2 DM). Gas tension and electrolytes in the CSF and whole blood samples were measured in both groups. Results: All 49 enrolled patients (24 in the control and 25 in the DM group) completed the study. The concentrations of Na+ and Mg2+ in the blood were significantly lower in the DM group than those in the control. The levels of pCO2 and HCO 3 - in the CSF were lower in the DM group than in the control group. In addition, there was a marked increase in the glucose level in both the blood and CSF in the DM group. Conclusion: The results show that there were some homeostatic changes in blood and CSF in patients with DM.

2.
Neurosci Bull ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628592

RESUMO

How to quickly predict an individual's behavioral choices is an important issue in the field of human behavior research. Using noninvasive electroencephalography, we aimed to identify neural markers in the prior outcome-evaluation stage and the current option-assessment stage of the chicken game that predict an individual's behavioral choices in the subsequent decision-output stage. Hierarchical linear modeling-based brain-behavior association analyses revealed that midfrontal theta oscillation in the prior outcome-evaluation stage positively predicted subsequent aggressive choices; also, beta oscillation in the current option-assessment stage positively predicted subsequent cooperative choices. These findings provide electrophysiological evidence for the three-stage theory of decision-making and strengthen the feasibility of predicting an individual's behavioral choices using neural oscillations.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 192: 1256-1265, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673104

RESUMO

Chinese quince (Chaenomeles sinensis) fruits offer a potential source of pectin and hemicellulose. However, the existence of lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) can negatively impact the extraction of pectin and hemicellulose. In this work, LCCs were sequentially fractionated from Chinese quince during the removal of pectin and hemicellulose. The structures of LCCs were characterized by HPAEC, FT-IR, GPC, Py-GC/MS, TGA and 2D HSQC NMR. The results showed that the carbohydrate content and molecular weight of LCCs was found to be changed significantly after the removal of hemicellulose (KSH). The lignin in Björkman LCCs was found to be linked mainly to galactan and fructan, whereas the lignin LCC-AcOHs was found to be linked mainly to arabinan after the removal of KSH. The isolation of carbonate-soluble pectin (NSP) increased thermal stability of Björkman LCC fraction, however, the isolation of chelator-soluble pectin (CSP) increased the thermal stability of LCC-AcOHs. The S/G ratios of LCC-AcOHs increased and large amounts of S-type lignin released during sequential fractionation of pectin and hemicellulose. These results will be beneficial for understanding the mechanisms of pectin and hemicellulose isolation, thereby facilitating the potential application of Chinese quince as a valuable natural resource for food and other industries.

4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112298, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649219

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease, and it is a liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome, with a histological spectrum from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH can evolve into progressive liver fibrosis and eventually lead to liver cirrhosis. The pathological mechanism of NASH is multifactorial, involving a series of metabolic disorders and changes that trigger low-level inflammation in the liver and other organs. In the pathogenesis of NASH, the signal transduction pathway involving succinate and the succinate receptor (G-protein-coupled receptor 91, GPR91) regulates inflammatory cell activation and liver fibrosis. This review describes the mechanism of the succinate-GPR91 signalling pathway in NASH and summarizes the drugs that act on this pathway, with the aim of providing a new approach to NASH treatment.

5.
Life (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685467

RESUMO

Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the major cause of drug-induced liver injury and acute liver failure. Approximately 10% of APAP is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1) into toxic N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). CYP2E1 also contributes to ethanol metabolism, especially during conditions of high blood ethanol concentration. Acute and chronic ethanol consumption appears to have opposite effects on APAP-induced liver injury. We determined the effects of different doses, pre- and post-treatment, and various schedules of ethanol exposure in APAP-induced liver injury. Treatment with ethanol (0.5 g/kg) after 1 h of APAP (300 mg/kg) administration decreased serum ALT levels, histopathological features, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Moreover, ethanol treatment 1 h after APAP treatment reduced APAP-induced liver injury compared with later administration. Interestingly, ethanol pretreatment did not provide any protective effect. Furthermore, ethanol treatment was associated with a significant decrease in ERK and AKT phosphorylation during the acute injury phase. Ethanol exposure also increased CYP2E1 expression and decreased PCNA expression during the liver regeneration phase.

6.
Curr Med Imaging ; 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinically, the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH) aneurysm is extremely rare, commonly presents with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). CASE REPORT: A 73-year-old man with a known moyamoya disease who presented as caudate hemorrhage attributable to an incidental flow aneurysm distal on the right RAH, which was managed conservatively after an unsuccessful endovascular attempt. Unfortunately, the patient died five weeks after  hospital discharge because of re-rupture of the aneurysm. To the best of our knowledge, the RAH aneurysm manifesting as caudate hemorrhage without SAH has not previously been reported. CONCLUSION: This case highlights that the RAH aneurysm masquerading as caudate hemorrhage without SAH is exceedingly rare but can be encountered, representing a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Moreover, early identifying and then eliminating such vascular anomaly if possible is of importance to prevent fatal hemorrhage.

7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 721135, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497589

RESUMO

Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin secretory molecule. GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) due to their attributes such as body weight loss, protection of islet ß cells, promotion of islet ß cell proliferation and minimal side effects. Studies have found that GLP-1R is widely distributed on pancreatic and other tissues and has multiple biological effects, such as reducing neuroinflammation, promoting nerve growth, improving heart function, suppressing appetite, delaying gastric emptying, regulating blood lipid metabolism and reducing fat deposition. Moreover, GLP-1RAs have neuroprotective, anti-infectious, cardiovascular protective, and metabolic regulatory effects, exhibiting good application prospects. Growing attention has been paid to the relationship between GLP-1RAs and tumorigenesis, development and prognosis in patient with T2DM. Here, we reviewed the therapeutic effects and possible mechanisms of action of GLP-1RAs in the nervous, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems and their correlation with metabolism, tumours and other diseases.

8.
Sci Technol Adv Mater ; 22(1): 695-717, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512177

RESUMO

In recent times, the supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) process has attracted increasing attention in fabricating diverse materials due to the attractive features of environmentally benign nature and economically promising character. Owing to these unique characteristics and high-penetrability, as well as diffusivity conditions of scCO2, this high-pressure technology, with mild operation conditions, cost-effective, and non-toxic, among others, is often applied to fabricate various organic and inorganic-based materials, resulting in the unique crystal architectures (amorphous, crystalline, and heterojunction), tunable architectures (nanoparticles, nanosheets, and aerogels) for diverse applications. In this review, we give an emphasis on the fabrication of various inorganic-based materials, highlighting the recent research on the driving factors for improving the quality of fabrication in scCO2, procedures for production and dispersion in scCO2, as well as common indicators utilized to assess quality and processing ability of materials. Next, we highlight the effects of specific properties of scCO2 towards synthesizing the highly functional inorganic-based nanomaterials. Finally, we summarize this compilation with interesting perspectives, aiming to arouse a more comprehensive utilization of scCO2 to broaden the horizon in exploring the green/eco-friendly processing of such versatile inorganic-based materials. Together, we firmly believe that this compilation endeavors to disclose the latent capability and universal prevalence of scCO2 in the synthesis and processing of inorganic-based materials.

9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3249-3256, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396744

RESUMO

Overtaking lung cancer,breast cancer is now the most commonly diagnosed cancer seriously threatening people's health and life. As the main effective component of Tripterygium wilfordii,triptolide( TP) has attracted increasing attention due to its multitarget and multi-pathway anti-tumor activity. Recent studies have revealed that breast cancer-sensitive TP enables the inactivation of breast cancer cells by inducing tumor cell apoptosis and autophagy,interfering in tumor cell metastasis,resisting drug resistance,arresting tumor cell cycle,and influencing tumor microenvironment. It has been recognized as a promising clinical antitumor agent by virtue of its widely accepted therapeutic efficacy. This paper reviewed the anti-breast cancer action and its molecular mechanisms of TP on the basis of the relevant literature in the past ten years,and proposed application strategies in view of the inadequacy of TP to provide a reference for further research on the application of TP in the treatment of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Diterpenos , Fenantrenos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Compostos de Epóxi , Feminino , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral
10.
ACS Omega ; 6(29): 19127-19133, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337250

RESUMO

This work using first-principles theory studies the sensing properties of Cu-decorated GaN (Cu-GaN) monolayers as a promising candidate for the detection of CO and HCHO in dry-type transformers. The Cu dopant prefers to be trapped on the TN site of the GaN surface with an E b of -1.13 eV. Chemisorption is identified for the two gas adsorption systems, given the large adsorption energy (E ad) of -1.35 and -1.09 eV. Caused by the chemisorption, the electronic property of the Cu-GaN monolayer is significantly deformed, narrowing its band gap of 0.548 eV to 0.00 eV, exhibiting metallic property, in two gas systems. Combined with the desirable recovery property for CO and HCHO desorption from the Cu-GaN surface, it could be proposed that the Cu-GaN monolayer is a promising gas sensor for toxic gas detection in dry-type transformers, so as to evaluate the operation status of the power system and guarantee safe working conditions for the maintenances.

11.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(4): 585-591, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323035

RESUMO

Objective: To prepare and evaluate a new formulation of thermosensitive and ion-sensitive in situ gel for nasal administration, using the volatile oil of Bupleuri radix and baicalin, the effective component extracted from Scutellariae radix . Methods: Formulation of in situ nasal gel of Bupleuri radix volatile oil and baicalin was prepared by using poloxamer 407 and deacetylated gellan gum as the gel base, 10% pharmasolve and 2% polysorbate 80 as the solubilizer, and 0.8% triethanolamine as the pH regulator. The physical appearance, phase transition temperature, and baicalin release performance of the prepared gel were examined. The pharmacodynamic evaluation was done with the rat fever model developed with dry yeast and the mouse auricle swelling inflammation model. Results: The phase transition temperature of the gel was optimized to be 36 ℃. The release of baicalin from the gel showed obvious features of sustained release, which accorded well the zero-order kinetics equation. The results of experiments with the rat dry yeast fever model and the mouse xylene auricle swelling inflammation model showed that the gel had significant antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects that were significantly better than those of the groups treated with the blank gel base and the Bupleuri radix and Scutellariae radix granule. Results from the cilia toxicity test showed that the gel did not have obvious toxic effect on toad palate mucosal cilia. Conclusion: The in situ nasal gel of Bupleuri radix volatile oil and baicalin prepared in the study had a rapid onset time, high efficiency, and prolonged release of active ingredients, thus showing promises for further applicational development.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Óleos Voláteis , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavonoides , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Ratos
12.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310851

RESUMO

Standard plant DNA barcodes based on 2-3 plastid regions, and nrDNA ITS show variable levels of resolution, and fail to discriminate among species in many plant groups. Genome skimming to recover complete plastid genome sequences and nrDNA arrays has been proposed as a solution to address these resolution limitations. However, few studies have empirically tested what gains are achieved in practice. Of particular interest is whether adding substantially more plastid and nrDNA characters will lead to an increase in discriminatory power, or whether the resolution limitations of standard plant barcodes are fundamentally due to plastid genomes and nrDNA not tracking species boundaries. To address this, we used genome skimming to recover near-complete plastid genomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA from Rhododendron species and compared discrimination success with standard plant barcodes. We sampled 218 individuals representing 145 species of this species-rich and taxonomically difficult genus, focusing on the global biodiversity hotspots of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains. Only 33% of species were distinguished using ITS+matK+rbcL+trnH-psbA. In contrast, 55% of species were distinguished using plastid genome and nrDNA sequences. The vast majority of this increase is due to the additional plastid characters. Thus, despite previous studies showing an asymptote in discrimination success beyond 3-4 plastid regions, these results show that a demonstrable increase in discriminatory power is possible with extensive plastid genome data. However, despite these gains, many species remain unresolved, and these results also reinforce the need to access multiple unlinked nuclear loci to obtain transformative gains in species discrimination in plants.

13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(11): 2686-2690, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296564

RESUMO

Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex, a common Chinese medicinal in clinic, should undergo "sweating" process in producing area according to Chinese Pharmacopoeia, which affects its genuineness and quality. In light of the concept and research mode of quality marker(Q-marker) for decoction pieces, the active components of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex pieces which altered significantly before and after "sweating" were identified in this study. The main pharmacodynamic material basis was clarified by pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and drug property research, followed by the prediction of Q-markers of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex before and after "sweating", for better improving its quality standard.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Magnolia
14.
Front Surg ; 8: 609403, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136525

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of antegrade dissection re-entry (ADR) technique in the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to open chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions. Methods: The baseline, angiographic results, PCI success rate, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during the 12 months of follow-up were compared between 48 patients who did not use ADR in the treatment of CTO lesions (control group) and 50 patients who used ADR (treatment group). Results: The control group comprised 48 patients who had 52 CTO lesions, and the treatment group comprised 50 patients who had 58 CTO lesions. The success rate of PCI in the treatment group (89.7 vs. 71.2%, P = 0.047) was significantly higher than in the control group, where six patients had in-stent restenosis (ISR, ISR-CTO) that were all recanalized. The mean PCI time (71 ± 25 min vs. 95 ± 33 min, P = 0.041), X-ray exposure time (42 ± 17 min vs. 71 ± 22 min, P = 0.032), contrast agent dosage (98 ± 26 ml vs. 178 ± 63 ml, P = 0.029), MACE incidence during the 12 months of follow-up (22.0 vs. 41.7%, P = 0.046) and recurrent myocardial infarction incidence (10.0 vs. 27.1%, P = 0.047) were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group. The differences were all statistically significant. Conclusion: It is safe and effective to use the ADR technique in PCI for coronary artery CTO lesions. The technique shortens the operation time, reduces the radiation dose of doctors and patients and the use dose of contrast agents, and improves patients' prognoses.

16.
Chem Biol Interact ; 345: 109490, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144024

RESUMO

The uncontrol respiratory burst in neutrophils can lead to inflammation and tissue damage. This study investigates the effect and the underlying mechanism of ε-viniferin, a lignan from the root of Vitis thunbergii var. thunbergii, inhibits N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-l-phenylalanine (fMLP) induced respiratory burst by antagonizing formyl peptide receptor 1 in human neutrophils. Briefly, ε-viniferin specifically inhibited fMLP (0.1 µM: formyl peptide receptor 1 agonist or 1 µM: formyl peptide receptor 1, 2 agonist)-induced superoxide anion production in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 2.30 ± 0.96 or 9.80 ± 0.21 µM, respectively) without affecting this induced by formyl peptide receptor 2 agonist (WKYMVM). ε-viniferin inhibited fMLP (0.1 µM)-induced phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, Src or intracellular calcium mobilization without affecting these caused by WKYMVM. The synergistic suppression of fMLP (1 µM)-induced superoxide anion production was observed only in the combination of ε-viniferin and formyl peptide receptor 2 antagonist (WRW4) but not in combination of ε-viniferin and formyl peptide receptor 1 antagonist (cyclosporine H). ε-viniferin inhibited FITC-fMLP binding to formyl peptide receptors. Moreover, the synergistic suppression of FITC-fMLP binding was observation only in the combination of ε-viniferin and WRW4 but not in other combinations. ATPγS induced superoxide anion production through formyl peptide receptor 1 in fMLP desensitized neutrophils and this effect was inhibited by ε-viniferin. The concentration-response curve of fMLP-induced superoxide anion was not parallel shifted by ε-viniferin. Furthermore, the inhibiting effect of ε-viniferin on fMLP-induced superoxide anion production was reversible. These results suggest that ε-viniferin is an antagonist of formyl peptide receptor 1 in a reversible and non-competitive manner.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/antagonistas & inibidores , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Superóxidos/metabolismo
17.
Front Oncol ; 11: 618496, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34094903

RESUMO

Automatic segmentation of gastric tumor not only provides image-guided clinical diagnosis but also assists radiologists to read images and improve the diagnostic accuracy. However, due to the inhomogeneous intensity distribution of gastric tumors in CT scans, the ambiguous/missing boundaries, and the highly variable shapes of gastric tumors, it is quite challenging to develop an automatic solution. This study designs a novel 3D improved feature pyramidal network (3D IFPN) to automatically segment gastric tumors in computed tomography (CT) images. To meet the challenges of this extremely difficult task, the proposed 3D IFPN makes full use of the complementary information within the low and high layers of deep convolutional neural networks, which is equipped with three types of feature enhancement modules: 3D adaptive spatial feature fusion (ASFF) module, single-level feature refinement (SLFR) module, and multi-level feature refinement (MLFR) module. The 3D ASFF module adaptively suppresses the feature inconsistency in different levels and hence obtains the multi-level features with high feature invariance. Then, the SLFR module combines the adaptive features and previous multi-level features at each level to generate the multi-level refined features by skip connection and attention mechanism. The MLFR module adaptively recalibrates the channel-wise and spatial-wise responses by adding the attention operation, which improves the prediction capability of the network. Furthermore, a stage-wise deep supervision (SDS) mechanism and a hybrid loss function are also embedded to enhance the feature learning ability of the network. CT volumes dataset collected in three Chinese medical centers was used to evaluate the segmentation performance of the proposed 3D IFPN model. Experimental results indicate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art segmentation networks in gastric tumor segmentation. Moreover, to explore the generalization for other segmentation tasks, we also extend the proposed network to liver tumor segmentation in CT images of the MICCAI 2017 Liver Tumor Segmentation Challenge.

18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6614885, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055988

RESUMO

Background: Cholecystectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed worldwide. The objective of this large, population-based cohort study is to explore the risk factors of pneumonia after cholecystectomy in Taiwan. Methods: From the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, we selected all patients who underwent cholecystectomy by using ICD-9-codes, from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2016. The patients were separated into two groups based on the presence or absence of postoperative pneumonia. Basic information, comorbidities, and postoperative complications were evaluated using a t-test or chi-square test. There were 6056 patients in the pneumonia group and 24224 patients in the control group. These two groups were shown in a ratio of 1 : 4 and were matched by age and sex. The log-rank test was used to examine differences in postoperative mortality between patients with and without pneumonia. Preoperative risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for age and sex. Results: The final dataset included 282184 cholecystectomy patients. Of these patients, 6056 (2.15%) had postoperative new-onset pneumonia. The patient-related risk factors for pneumonia after cholecystectomy in the order of relevance were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, surgical type, hemodialysis, coronary artery disease, and liver cirrhosis. Compared to patients without postcholecystectomy pneumonia, those with postcholecystectomy pneumonia had higher rates of mortality (within first month, 1.72% vs. 2.28%, P < 0.005) and admission to intensive care unit (15.02% vs. 41.80%, P < 0.0001) and longer hospital stays (10.71 vs. 18.55 days, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Our results show that postcholecystectomy associated with pneumonia had higher rates of morbidity and mortality in this clinical population. Early identification and possible management of risk factors for pneumonia could improve outcomes of cholecystectomy and lower the risk for patient comorbidities after surgery.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
19.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 16(11): 1138-1149, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978758

RESUMO

The desire for retaliation is a common response across a majority of human societies. However, the neural mechanisms underlying aggression and retaliation remain unclear. Previous studies on social intentions are confounded by a low-level response-related brain activity. Using an Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interface combined with the Chicken Game, our study examined the neural dynamics of aggression and retaliation after controlling for nonessential response-related neural signals. Our results show that aggression is associated with reduced alpha event-related desynchronization (alpha-ERD), indicating reduced mental effort. Moreover, retaliation and tit-for-tat strategy use are also linked with smaller alpha-ERD. Our study provides a novel method to minimize motor confounds and demonstrates that choosing aggression and retaliation is less effortful in social conflicts.

20.
Food Chem ; 359: 129808, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940470

RESUMO

High-pressure processing is a nonthermal method of food processing that is widely used in sterilization and enzyme inactivation. Although some works on technological parameters and quality evaluation have been performed, the mechanism of high pressure on food is still unclear. Due to the complexity of food ingredients, a tremendously important tripeptide in food proteins, orthorhombic l-glutathione, was employed in this work. In addition, in situ methods such as high-pressure Raman, infrared, and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the structural changes in the pressure range of 0-10 GPa. Experimental results showed that the sample underwent two phase transitions in pressure intervals of 1.8-2.2 and 4.1-5.3 GPa. In addition, the strength of the hydrogen bonds (NH⋯O; OH⋯O; SH⋯O; CH⋯O) also changed in the two pressure intervals. This work may have potential research value for revealing the mechanism of high-pressure processing on food proteins.


Assuntos
Glutationa/química , Pressão , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Difração de Raios X
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