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1.
Parasite ; 28: 73, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706216

RESUMO

Blastocystis is a prevalent eukaryotic parasite that has been identified in a wide range of hosts. Several species are considered potential sources of Blastocystis infection in humans, but little is known about the prevalence of Blastocystis in wild animals. In this study, the prevalence and subtypes of Blastocystis were investigated to assess the zoonotic potential of wild animals in Sichuan Wolong National Natural Reserve. A total of 300 fecal samples were collected from 27 wildlife species in three areas of the Reserve. The subtype (ST), genetic characteristics, and prevalence of Blastocystis were determined by PCR amplification of part (~600 bp) of the SSU rRNA gene. Thirty fecal samples (10.0%) were Blastocystis-positive. The highest prevalence of Blastocystis was found in Yinchanggou (18.3%), with significantly less found in Niutoushan (7.5%) and Genda (5.5%) (p < 0.05). No significant differences were associated with different orders of animals in prevalence, which may be because of the small number of positive samples obtained. Sequence analysis showed five subtypes (ST1, ST3, ST5, ST13, and ST14), with ST13 and ST14 being predominant (33% each), followed by ST1 (20%). This is the first molecular investigation of Blastocystis infection in the wild animals of southwestern China. Subtypes ST1, ST3, ST5, and ST14 have previously been identified in humans, suggesting that wild animals may be potential reservoirs of Blastocystis for humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , China/epidemiologia , Fezes , Variação Genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Prevalência
2.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 130: 112450, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702529

RESUMO

Chitosan/poloxamer-based thermosensitive hydrogels containing zinc gluconate/recombinant human epidermal growth factor (ZnG/rhEGF@Chit/Polo) were developed as a convenient, safe and effective dressing for skin wound treatment. Their fabrication procedure and characterization were reported, and their morphology was examined by a scanning electron microscope. Antibacterial and biofilms activities were evaluated by in vitro tests to reveal the inhibitory effects and scavenging activity on the biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ZnG/rhEGF@Chit/Polo was also investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for wound healing therapy. In vivo wound healing studies on rats for 21 days proves that ZnG/rhEGF@Chit/Polo supplements the requisite Zn2+ and rhEGF for wound healing to promote the vascular remodeling and collagen deposition, facilitate fibrogenesis, and reduce the level of interleukin 6 for wound basement repair, and thus is a good wound therapy.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico , Gluconatos , Humanos , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Poloxâmero , Ratos , Cicatrização
3.
J Parasitol ; 107(5): 770-777, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547101

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. have been identified in a wide range of hosts, such as humans and domestic and wild animals, while less information about the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet hamsters is documented. A total of 351 dwarf winter white Russian hamsters' fecal specimens were collected from 6 pet markets from the cities of Luzhou and Ziyang in Sichuan province in the southwestern part of China. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. determined with nested-PCR amplification of the partial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was 39.32% (138/351). The highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was in pet market 5 (79.49%, 62/78), followed by pet market 6 (38.64%, 17/44). The lowest prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was observed in pet market 3 (14.89%, 7/47). Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. were observed among different pet markets (χ2 = 76.386, df = 5, P < 0.05), and a further post hoc test revealed that only pet market 5 was significantly different from other pet markets. Molecular analysis showed that 4 different Cryptosporidium species or genotypes were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 127), Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype III (n = 6), Cryptosporidium andersoni (n = 4), and Cryptosporidium wrairi (n = 1). The identification of Cryptosporidium spp. was further tested with the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene, and the positive rate was 29.7% (41/138). This is the first molecular report on Cryptosporidium spp. infection in dwarf winter white Russian hamsters in China. With C. parvum and C. andersoni being identified in both humans and pet hamsters, these findings suggest that pet hamsters may be potential reservoirs of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species and subtypes.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149268, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333432

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a public health concern; but antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and integrons that link to AMR of Escherichia coli from non-human primates remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance, emerging environmental pollutants ARGs, and integrons factors (intI1, intI2 and intI3) in 995 E. coli isolates obtained from 50 species of captive non-human primates of 13 zoos in China. Our result showed 83.62% of the E. coli isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 47.94% isolates showed multiple drug resistances (MDR). The E. coli isolates mainly showed resistance to tetracycline (tetracycline 62.71%, doxycycline 61.11%), ß-lactams (ampicillin 54.27%, amoxicillin 52.36%), and sulfonamide (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 36.78%). A total of 423 antibiotic resistance patterns were observed, of which DOX/TET (49 isolates, 4.92%) was the most common pattern. Antibiotic resistance rates among 13 zoos had a significant difference (P < 0.01). We further detected 22 ARGs in the 995 E. coli isolates, of which tetA had the highest occurrence (70.55%). The presence of integrons class 1 and 2 were 24.22% and 1.71%, respectively, while no class 3 integron was found. Significant positive associations were observed among integrons and antibiotics, of which the strongest association was observed for integrons / Gentamicin (OR, 2.642) and integrons / Cefotaxime (OR, 2.512). In addition, cassette arrays were detected in 64 strains of class 1 integron-positive isolates (26.56%) and 10 strains of class 2 integron-positive isolates (58.82%). Eighteen cassette arrays were found within 64 class 1 integron isolates, while 3 cassette arrays were identified within 10 class 2 integron isolates. Our results indicate a high diversity of antibiotic resistance phenotypes in non-human primate E. coli isolates, which carry multiple ARGs and integrons. Corresponding preventive measures should be taken to prevent the spread of integron-mediated ARGs in non-human primates and their living environments in zoos.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Integrons , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Integrons/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Primatas
5.
Biotechnol Lett ; 43(9): 1779-1785, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the function of the RNA-binding protein Hfq in Bacillus subtilis cellulose decomposition. RESULTS: In the medium with sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) as the sole carbon source, the knockout of Hfq resulted in a 38.0% ± 2.1% and 76.6% ± 7.1% decrease in cellulose hydrolysis ability and cellulase activity, respectively. The results of real-time quantitative PCR revealed that several cellulase genes (eglS, bglA, and bglC) were significantly downregulated in the Hfq knockout strain. The isogenic Δhfq complemented strain recovered the cellulose hydrolysis ability, cellulase activity, and expression level of cellulase genes. In addition, the survival of Hfq mutant in stationary phase was significantly affected. CONCLUSION: RNA-binding protein Hfq is involved in the regulation of cellulose hydrolysis ability, cellulase activity, cellulase gene expression, and stationary phase survival.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 675843, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168632

RESUMO

Biofilm-related bacteria show high resistance to antimicrobial treatments, posing a remarkable challenge to human health. Given bacterial dormancy and high expression of efflux pumps, persistent infections caused by mature biofilms are not easy to treat, thereby driving researchers toward the discovery of many anti-biofilm molecules that can intervene in early stage biofilms formation to inhibit further development and maturity. Compared with mature biofilms, early stage biofilms have fragile structures, vigorous metabolisms, and early attached bacteria are higher susceptibility to antimicrobials. Thus, removing biofilms at the early stage has evident advantages. Many reviews on anti-biofilm compounds that prevent biofilms formation have already been done, but most of them are based on compound classifications to introduce anti-biofilm effects. This review discusses the inhibitory effects of anti-biofilm compounds on early stage biofilms formation from the perspective of the mechanisms of action, including hindering reversible adhesion, reducing extracellular polymeric substances production, interfering in the quorum sensing, and modifying cyclic di-GMP. This information can be exploited further to help researchers in designing new molecules with anti-biofilm activity.

7.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071750

RESUMO

Aristolochic acid (AA) is one of the components of some traditional Chinese medicines, which has high toxic potential in animals, leading to huge economic losses in the breeding industry. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicology of AA on Tianfu broilers through acute and subchronic toxicity tests. The results showed that the median lethal dose of AA to Tianfu broilers was 14.52 mg/kg. After continuous intraperitoneal injection of AA solution (1.452 mg/kg) for 28 days, the swollen and necrotic renal tubular epithelial cells were histologically observed; in addition, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cre) were significantly increased, indicating AA could induce serious kidney lesions in broilers. Moreover, the ROS, the apoptosis rate and the depolarization rate of the mitochondrial membrane potential of broilers' renal cells increased. The results of QRT-PCR showed that AA reduced the mRNA expressions of HO-1, NQO1, Raf-1 and Bcl-2, while the expressions of Bax and Caspase-3 increased, which show that AA aroused oxidative stress and promoted the apoptosis of renal cells. In conclusion, AA has been found to damage broilers' kidneys by breaking the redox balance to form oxidative stress, along with promoting apoptosis of renal cells.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066609

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), one of the dangerous multidrug resistance pathogens, orchestrates virulence factors production through quorum sensing (QS). Since the exploration of QS inhibitors, targeting virulence to circumvent bacterial pathogenesis without causing significant growth inhibition is a promising approach to treat P. aeruginosa infections. The present study has evaluated the anti-QS and anti-infective activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a bioactive ingredient of the traditional green tea, against P. aeruginosa. EGCG showed significant inhibitory effects on the development of biofilm, protease, elastase activity, swimming, and swarming motility, which was positively related to the production of C4-AHL. The expression of QS-related and QS-regulated virulence factors genes was also evaluated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that EGCG significantly reduced the expression of las, rhl, and PQS genes and was highly correlated with the alterations of C4-AHL production. In-vivo experiments demonstrated that EGCG treatment reduced P. aeruginosa pathogenicity in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). EGCG increased the survival of C. elegans by 23.25%, 30.04%, and 36.35% in a dose-dependent manner. The findings of this study strongly suggest that EGCG could be a potential candidate for QS inhibition as an anti-virulence compound against bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Acil-Butirolactonas/metabolismo , Animais , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicolipídeos/biossíntese , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Movimento , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Piocianina/biossíntese , Percepção de Quorum/genética
9.
Infect Genet Evol ; 92: 104912, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989813

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is a common protozoan parasite that can infect humans and animals. Although previous studies demonstrated that the assemblage E of G. duodenalis is prevalent in cattle, studies on its genetic diversity were mostly based on single loci and very few involved multilocus analysis. To better understand the genetic variability and structure of G. duodenalis assemblage E in Chinese dairy cattle, 651 multilocus sequences derived from nine provinces (Gansu, Guangdong, Henan, Jiangsu, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shanghai, Sichuan and Xinjiang) of China were analyzed in this study. Results showed that a total of 220 haplotypes were identified in the G. duodenalis assemblage E, with a high haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.97225) and low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00259). The genetic differentiation index (FST) and gene flow (Nm) results indicated low degree of genetic differentiation, implying frequent genetic communication. Combined with the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), genetic variation within populations (81.7%) was higher than that among populations (18.3%), indicating low degree of genetic differentiation between populations. Such low rates of gene differentiation supported no significant correlations with geographical divisions. Moreover, both negative Tajima's D and Fu's FS values of neutrality tests and unimodal curve of mismatch distribution analyses indicated that G. duodenalis assemblage E population in Chinese dairy cattle had experienced demographic expansion. Overall, these findings contribute to an improved understanding of the population genetics and evolutionary biology of G. duodenalis assemblage E and assist in its control in cattle.

10.
Food Sci Nutr ; 9(4): 1989-1996, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33841817

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of phlorizin on sweet tea in rats with diabetes. Diabetic rat model was established by feeding with HFD (high-fat diet) and then treating with intraperitoneal injection of STZ (streptozocin). The experiments were divided into therapeutic and preventive experiments. In both experiments, rats were divided into normal, diabetic control, positive control, and phlorizin groups. Symptoms of diabetes, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, serum lipid parameters, and pathological changes in the pancreas and liver were evaluated. It was found that the symptoms of diabetes were improved by phlorizin treatment. In addition, phlorizin could decrease FBG, improve serum lipid levels, protect against damaged pancreas islet, and decrease fat deposition in hepatic cells. These effects of phlorizin can be shown only attain to a certain dosage. It can be concluded that phlorizin has the therapeutic and preventive effects on hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in diabetes rats.

11.
Parasite ; 28: 31, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812463

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a common intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of hosts, including humans and companion animals, raising concerns of zoonotic transmission. However, there is limited epidemiological information on the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in sheltered dogs and cats in Sichuan province, southwestern China. A total of 880 fecal samples were collected from shelters in different cities of Sichuan province, including 724 samples from dogs, and 156 samples from cats. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was determined by sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Overall, the prevalence of E. bieneusi was 18% (158/880), and the parasite was detected in 18.8% (136/724) and 14.1% (22/156) of the dogs and cats examined, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of five genotypes in dogs, including three known genotypes CD9 (n = 92), PtEb IX (n = 41), and Type IV (n = 1), and two novel genotypes SCD-1 (n = 1) and SCD-2 (n = 1). Similarly, four genotypes were identified in cats, including CD9 (n = 11), Type IV (n = 6), D (n = 4), and PtEb IX (n = 1). Genotypes D and Type IV have previously been identified in humans and are reported in sheltered dogs and cats in the present study, indicating that these animals could be as potential sources of human microsporidiosis infections.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Enterocytozoon , Microsporidiose , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Filogenia , Prevalência , Zoonoses
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 177, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is considered a common zoonotic pathogen, causing severe infections. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility, resistance genes and molecular epidemiology among MRSA and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolated from food animals in Sichuan Province, China. METHODS: This study was conducted on 236 S. aureus isolates. All isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by using a standard microbroth dilution method. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to identify genes encoding the ß-lactams resistance (blaZ, mecA), macrolides (ermA, ermB, ermC) and aminoglycosides (aacA-aphD). The molecular structures and genomic relatedness of MRSA isolates were determined by staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. RESULTS: Among 236 isolates, 24 (10.17 %) were recognized as MRSA. MRSA isolates showed different resistance rates to 11 antimicrobials ranging from 33.33 to 100 %, while for MSSA isolates the rates varied from 8.02 to 91.51 %. Multi-drug resistance phenotype was found in all MRSA isolates. The ermC gene encoding macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B was the most prevalent gene detected in 87.29 % of the S. aureus isolates, followed by ermB (83.05 %), blaZ (63.98 %), aacA-aphD (44.07 %), ermA (11.44 %) and mecA (11.02 %) genes. The prevalence of resistance genes in MRSA isolates was significantly higher than that of MSSA. Regarding the molecular morphology, SCCmec III (12/24, 50 %) was the most common SCCmec type. Furthermore, the PFGE typing showed that 24 MRSA were divided into 15 cluster groups (A to O), the major pulsotype J encompassed 25 % of MRSA isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The S. aureus isolates from food animals in Sichuan province of China have severe antimicrobials resistance with various resistance genes, especially MRSA isolates. Additionally, the genetic pool of MRSA isolates is diverse and complex, and further investigation is necessary.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Patos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
13.
J Parasitol ; 107(2): 163-171, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662118

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium species are the causative agent of cryptosporidiosis and common intracellular parasites that can infect a wide range of vertebrates, including snakes. In previous studies, Cryptosporidium species infections have been reported in snakes in Asia, Europe, and North America. However, limited information is available about the prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in captive snakes in China. Fecal specimens from 609 captive snakes were collected from Beijing (n = 227), Chengdu (n = 12), Dazhou (n = 359), and Ziyang (n = 11). The partial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed to assess evolutionary relationships and genetic characteristics. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 1.97% (12/609). BLAST and phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene showed that the parasites belonged to Cryptosporidium serpentis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in snakes of southwestern and northern China and provides preliminary data for the control and prevention of cryptosporidiosis in the investigated areas.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Serpentes/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Animais de Estimação , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico/química , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 135: 96-105, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461120

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the protective effects of polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide (PP), an important component of rhizome polygonatum, on cyclophosphamide (CY) induced immunosuppressed chickens. Four hundred and eighty one-day-old Erlang mountainous chickens were randomly allocated into four treatments. The main factors consisted of dietary supplement (PP at 0 or 800 mg/kg of diet) and immunosuppressive challenge (birds challenged with CY or treated with sterile saline). The results showed that PP enhanced chickens' growth performance via elevating daily weight gain (DWG), serum protein production, and decreasing feed conversion ratio (FCR). Moreover, physical measurements revealed that PP accelerated recovery of relative weights of immune organs and maintained their structure and function. Biochemical analysis indicated that PP significantly stimulated immunoglobulin and antioxidant indexes in serum, and improved the proliferation of peripheral blood T lymphocytes. In addition, PP promoted immune organs cells to enter into S and G2/M phases as well as inhibited the apoptosis in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius. PP up regulated the expression of IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ genes. Therefore, PP performs a profile in antagonizing Cy-induced immunosuppression in chickens, and it seems that PP can be used as a potential immunostimulant agent.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunossupressão/veterinária , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Polygonatum/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Masculino , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100803, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516464

RESUMO

Ammonia (NH3) at a high concentration has been recognized as a highly poisonous pollutant affecting both air and water quality. NH3, as a stimulus, exerts negative impact on broiler growth and production, but the molecular mechanisms are not clear yet. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Bupleurum falcatum L saikosaponins (SP) on the growth and ileum health status in broilers exposed to NH3. Day-old Arbor Acers broilers (n = 480) were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 treatments. The main factors were dietary SP supplementation (0 or 80 mg/kg of diet) and NH3 challenge (with or without 70 ± 5 ppm NH3). The data of growth, intestinal morphology, and mRNA expression related to ileal function were collected from broilers exposed to NH3 for 7 d. Results showed that NH3 remarkably suppressed growth performance and intestinal development as well as induced biological injuries in the ileum of broilers, resulting from oxidative stress, mucous barrier damage, and immune dysfunction as well as upregulated apoptosis. These negative effects of NH3 were alleviated by the SP supplement. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of SP may be helpful in alleviating the detrimental effects of NH3 on the ileum development in broilers.


Assuntos
Bupleurum , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Saponinas , Amônia/toxicidade , Animais , Bupleurum/química , Dieta/veterinária , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 11, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis sp. is an anaerobic protozoan that parasitizes many animal hosts and the human gastrointestinal tract, and its pathogenicity is controversial. Captive wildlife may be potential reservoirs for human infection with Blastocystis sp. The present study was performed to investigate the prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis sp. in zoo animals in Sichuan Province, southwestern China. METHODS: A total of 420 fresh fecal samples were collected from 54 captive wildlife species in four zoos in southwestern China between June 2017 and September 2019. The prevalence and subtype (ST) genetic characteristics of Blastocystis sp. were determined by PCR amplification of the barcode region of the SSU rRNA gene and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 15.7% (66/420) of the animal samples and 20.7% (14/54) of the species tested were shown to be infected with Blastocystis sp. The highest prevalence of Blastocystis sp. was found in Panzhihua Zoo (24.3%), which was significantly higher than that in Chengdu Zoo (6.9%), and Xichang Zoo (2.9%) (P < 0.05). There are also significant differences in the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. among different species (P < 0.05), and the highest of Blastocystis sp. prevalence was observed in white-cheeked gibbon, black great squirrel, and red giant flying squirrel (100%). Subtype analysis of Blastocystis sp. revealed nine subtypes, including six zoonotic STs (ST1-5, and ST8) and three animal-specific STs (ST10, ST14, and ST17), with ST17 as the predominant subtype (26/66) in Blastocystis sp.-positive isolates. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis sp. among captive wildlife in zoos in southwestern China. This study highlights that these animals may serve as reservoirs for human Blastocystis sp. infections.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Blastocystis , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Blastocystis/genética , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças , Fezes/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Prevalência , Zoonoses
17.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 118: 111352, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254972

RESUMO

Glucosamine (GlcN) is a common drug used to treat osteoarthritis (OA). To prolong the action time of glucosamine on OA and improve its therapeutic effect, this research explored the potential application of GlcN-loaded thermosensitive hydrogels based on poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 for OA therapy by intra-articular injection. The thermosensitive hydrogels were prepared by cold method, and the effects of P407, P188, and GlcN on sol-gel transition temperature (Tsol-gel) were compared. After screening was performed, the optimized formulation showed good temperature sensitivity, and Tsol-gel was approximately 35 °C. In vitro release tests showed that GlcN was slowly released from the thermosensitive hydrogels. After the gels were intra-articularly administered to treat OA in rabbits, the degree of swelling and inflammatory factors were significantly decreased in the hydrogel group compared with those in the OA model group (P < 0.05). Histological results showed that the GlcN-administered group had a good repair effect on damaged cartilage. At the same dose, the effect of the thermosensitive hydrogels was better than that of the aqueous solution. Therefore, GlcN-loaded thermosensitive hydrogels based on poloxamers are promising sustainable delivery systems for OA therapy by intra-articular injection.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite , Poloxâmero , Animais , Portadores de Fármacos , Glucosamina , Hidrogéis , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Coelhos , Temperatura
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802111

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to develop and optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for shikonin from Arnebia euchroma using response surface methodology (RSM) and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of shikonin. The maximum yield of shikonin was 1.26% under the optimal extraction conditions (ultrasound power, 93 W; time, 87 min; temperature, 39°C; and liquid-solid ratio, 11 : 1). Shikonin showed inhibitory activity against standard strains and clinical isolates to varying extents (MICs ranging from 128 to 1024 µg/mL, MBCs ranging from 256 to 2048 µg/mL), and it was more effective for Gram-positive bacteria as indicated by lower MIC and MBC values. Time-kill curves revealed that antibacterial activity of shikonin exhibited a dose-response relationship. In summary, via this study, we identified ultrasound-assisted RSM as the optimal extraction method for shikonin, which is a potential material for the treatment of bacterial infections.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12324, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704000

RESUMO

It has been shown that bamboo leaf flavone (BLF) displays biological and pharmacological activities in mammals. However, the effects of BLF on broiler gut microbiota and related immune function have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that BLF can improve the health status of broilers by modulating the gut microbiota. A total of 300 one-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were used to characterize their gut microbiota and immune status after feeding diet supplemented with BLF. The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene from cecal bacteria was sequenced via the Illumina MiSeq platform. The Immune status and related parameters were assessed, including the immune organ index (the spleen, thymus, and bursa), serum concentrations of IL-2 and INF-γ, and spleen IL-2 and INF-γ gene expressions. The results showed the BLF diet had an Immune enhancement effect on broilers. In addition, BFL caused the changes of the gut microbial community structure, resulting in greater proportions of bacterial taxa belonging to Lactobacillus, Clostridiales, Ruminococcus, and Lachnospiraceae. These bacteria have been used as probiotics for producing short chain fatty acids in hosts. These results indicate that BLF supplement improves immune function in chicken via modulation of the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Bambusa/química , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Flavonas/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodiversidade , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon gama/sangue , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-2/sangue , Interleucina-2/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo
20.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 195: 111221, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652401

RESUMO

Mequindox (Meq) is a promising broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, but the clinical application of Meq has been hampered by its low oral bioavailability. Casein (Cas) can bind to a variety of poorly water-soluble drugs to improve their water solubility through a micellar solubilization mechanism. Here, a low-cost and convenient method was introduced to prepare mequindox-loaded casein nanoparticles (Meq-Cas). Meq-Cas was characterized by several methods including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) to illuminate the mutual effect between the drug and carriers. Meq-Cas presented nearly spherical nanoparticles with smooth surfaces and its mean particle size was lower than untreated Cas. Meq-Cas showed a nearly complete release of Meq, which displayed a biphasic drug release pattern in both phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) and simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The relative oral bioavailability of Meq-Cas was found to be about 1.20 times higher than that of the animals treated with Meq suspension (control). These results suggest that Cas is a good candidate to load in Meq for pharmaceutical purposes.

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