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1.
Gut ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The microbiome directly affects the balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in the gut. As microbes thrive on dietary substrates, the question arises whether we can nourish an anti-inflammatory gut ecosystem. We aim to unravel interactions between diet, gut microbiota and their functional ability to induce intestinal inflammation. DESIGN: We investigated the relation between 173 dietary factors and the microbiome of 1425 individuals spanning four cohorts: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and the general population. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed to profile gut microbial composition and function. Dietary intake was assessed through food frequency questionnaires. We performed unsupervised clustering to identify dietary patterns and microbial clusters. Associations between diet and microbial features were explored per cohort, followed by a meta-analysis and heterogeneity estimation. RESULTS: We identified 38 associations between dietary patterns and microbial clusters. Moreover, 61 individual foods and nutrients were associated with 61 species and 249 metabolic pathways in the meta-analysis across healthy individuals and patients with IBS, Crohn's disease and UC (false discovery rate<0.05). Processed foods and animal-derived foods were consistently associated with higher abundances of Firmicutes, Ruminococcus species of the Blautia genus and endotoxin synthesis pathways. The opposite was found for plant foods and fish, which were positively associated with short-chain fatty acid-producing commensals and pathways of nutrient metabolism. CONCLUSION: We identified dietary patterns that consistently correlate with groups of bacteria with shared functional roles in both, health and disease. Moreover, specific foods and nutrients were associated with species known to infer mucosal protection and anti-inflammatory effects. We propose microbial mechanisms through which the diet affects inflammatory responses in the gut as a rationale for future intervention studies.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831035

RESUMO

Faecal sample collection is crucial for gut microbiome research and its clinical applications. However, while patients and healthy volunteers are routinely asked to provide stool samples, their attitudes towards sampling remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate the attitudes of 780 Dutch patients, including participants in a large Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) gut microbiome cohort and population controls, in order to identify barriers to sample collection and provide recommendations for gut microbiome researchers and clinicians. We sent questionnaires to 660 IBD patients and 112 patients with other disorders who had previously been approached to participate in gut microbiome studies. We also conducted 478 brief interviews with participants in our general population cohort who had collected stool samples. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using R. 97.4% of respondents reported that they had willingly participated in stool sample collection for gut microbiome research, and most respondents (82.9%) and interviewees (95.6%) indicated willingness to participate again, with their motivations for participating being mainly altruistic (57.0%). Responses indicated that storing stool samples in the home freezer for a prolonged time was the main barrier to participation (52.6%), but clear explanations of the sampling procedures and their purpose increased participant willingness to collect and freeze samples (P = 0.046, P = 0.003). To account for participant concerns, gut microbiome researchers establishing cohorts and clinicians trying new faecal tests should provide clear instructions, explain the rationale behind their protocol, consider providing a small freezer and inform patients about study outcomes. By assessing the attitudes, motives and barriers surrounding participation in faecal sample collection, we provide important information that will contribute to the success of gut microbiome research and its near-future clinical applications.

3.
Cell ; 184(9): 2302-2315.e12, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838112

RESUMO

By following up the gut microbiome, 51 human phenotypes and plasma levels of 1,183 metabolites in 338 individuals after 4 years, we characterize microbial stability and variation in relation to host physiology. Using these individual-specific and temporally stable microbial profiles, including bacterial SNPs and structural variations, we develop a microbial fingerprinting method that shows up to 85% accuracy in classifying metagenomic samples taken 4 years apart. Application of our fingerprinting method to the independent HMP cohort results in 95% accuracy for samples taken 1 year apart. We further observe temporal changes in the abundance of multiple bacterial species, metabolic pathways, and structural variation, as well as strain replacement. We report 190 longitudinal microbial associations with host phenotypes and 519 associations with plasma metabolites. These associations are enriched for cardiometabolic traits, vitamin B, and uremic toxins. Finally, mediation analysis suggests that the gut microbiome may influence cardiometabolic health through its metabolites.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707081

RESUMO

Dysbiosis has been implemented in the etiologies of obesity-related chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, NAFLD and cardiovascular diseases. Bile acids, a class of amphipathic steroids produced in the liver and extensively modified by the microbiome, are increasingly recognized as actors in onset and progression of these diseases. Indeed, human obesity is associated with altered bile acid metabolism. Bile acids facilitate intestinal fat absorption but also exert hormone-like functions through activation of nuclear and membrane-bound receptors and thereby modulate glucose, lipid and energy metabolism, intestinal integrity and immunity. Bile acid-signaling pathways have thus been identified as potential pharmacological targets for obesity-related diseases. Interfering with microbiome composition may also be considered, as liver- and microbiome-derived bile acid species have different signaling functions. This review summarizes recent developments in this rapidly expanding field of research and addresses potential clinical prospects of interference with bile acid signaling pathways in human diseases.

5.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The human gastrointestinal tract harbours distinct microbial communities essential for health. Little is known about small intestinal communities, despite the small intestine playing a fundamental role in nutrient absorption and host-microbe immune homeostasis. We aimed to explore the small intestine microbial composition and metabolic potential, in the context of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: Metagenomes derived from faecal samples and extensive phenotypes were collected from 57 individuals with an ileostomy or ileoanal pouch, and compared with 1178 general population and 478 IBD faecal metagenomes. Microbiome features were identified using MetaPhAn2 and HUMAnN2, and association analyses were performed using multivariate linear regression. RESULTS: Small intestinal samples had a significantly lower bacterial diversity, compared with the general population and, to a lesser extent, IBD samples. Comparing bacterial composition, small intestinal samples clustered furthest from general population samples and closest to IBD samples with intestinal resections. Veillonella atypica, Streptococcus salivarius and Actinomyces graevenitzii were among the species significantly enriched in the small intestine. Predicted metabolic pathways in the small intestine are predominantly involved in simple carbohydrate and energy metabolism, but also suggest a higher proinflammatory potential. CONCLUSION: We described the bacterial composition and metabolic potential of the small intestinal microbiota. The colonic microbiome of IBD patients, particularly with intestinal resections, showed resemblance to that of the small intestine. Moreover, several features characterising the small intestinal microbiome have been previously associated with IBD. These results highlight the importance of studying the small intestinal microbiota to gain new insight into disease pathogenesis.

6.
Nat Genet ; 53(2): 156-165, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462485

RESUMO

To study the effect of host genetics on gut microbiome composition, the MiBioGen consortium curated and analyzed genome-wide genotypes and 16S fecal microbiome data from 18,340 individuals (24 cohorts). Microbial composition showed high variability across cohorts: only 9 of 410 genera were detected in more than 95% of samples. A genome-wide association study of host genetic variation regarding microbial taxa identified 31 loci affecting the microbiome at a genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) threshold. One locus, the lactase (LCT) gene locus, reached study-wide significance (genome-wide association study signal: P = 1.28 × 10-20), and it showed an age-dependent association with Bifidobacterium abundance. Other associations were suggestive (1.95 × 10-10 < P < 5 × 10-8) but enriched for taxa showing high heritability and for genes expressed in the intestine and brain. A phenome-wide association study and Mendelian randomization identified enrichment of microbiome trait loci in the metabolic, nutrition and environment domains and suggested the microbiome might have causal effects in ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adolescente , Adulto , Bifidobacterium/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactase/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metabolismo/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S
7.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6): 1970-1985, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is currently unclear whether reported changes in the gut microbiome are cause or consequence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we studied the gut microbiome of IBD-discordant and -concordant twin pairs, which offers the unique opportunity to assess individuals at increased risk of developing IBD, namely healthy cotwins from IBD-discordant twin pairs. METHODS: Fecal samples were obtained from 99 twins (belonging to 51 twin pairs), 495 healthy age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched controls, and 99 unrelated patients with IBD. Whole-genome metagenomic shotgun sequencing was performed. Taxonomic and functional (pathways) composition was compared among healthy cotwins, IBD-twins, unrelated patients with IBD, and healthy controls with multivariable (ie, adjusted for potential confounding) generalized linear models. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the relative abundance of species and pathways between healthy cotwins and their IBD-twins (false discovery rate <0.10). Compared with healthy controls, 13, 19, and 18 species, and 78, 105, and 153 pathways were found to be differentially abundant in healthy cotwins, IBD-twins, and unrelated patients with IBD, respectively (false discovery rate <0.10). Of these, 8 (42.1%) of 19 and 1 (5.6%) of 18 species, and 37 (35.2%) of 105 and 30 (19.6%) of 153 pathways overlapped between healthy cotwins and IBD-twins, and healthy cotwins and unrelated patients with IBD, respectively. Many of the shared species and pathways have previously been associated with IBD. The shared pathways include potentially inflammation-related pathways, for example, an increase in propionate degradation and L-arginine degradation pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The gut microbiome of healthy cotwins from IBD-discordant twin pairs displays IBD-like signatures. These IBD-like microbiome signatures might precede the onset of IBD. However, longitudinal follow-up studies are needed to infer a causal relationship.

8.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 11(4): 1045-1069, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bile acids (BAs) aid intestinal fat absorption and exert systemic actions by receptor-mediated signaling. BA receptors have been identified as drug targets for liver diseases. Yet, differences in BA metabolism between humans and mice hamper translation of pre-clinical outcomes. Cyp2c70-ablation in mice prevents synthesis of mouse/rat-specific muricholic acids (MCAs), but potential (patho)physiological consequences of their absence are unknown. We therefore assessed age- and gender-dependent effects of Cyp2c70-deficiency in mice. METHODS: The consequences of Cyp2c70-deficiency were assessed in male and female mice at different ages. RESULTS: Cyp2c70-/- mice were devoid of MCAs and showed high abundances of chenodeoxycholic and lithocholic acids. Cyp2c70-deficiency profoundly impacted microbiome composition. Bile flow and biliary BA secretion were normal in Cyp2c70-/- mice of both sexes. Yet, the pathophysiological consequences of Cyp2c70-deficiency differed considerably between sexes. Three-week old male Cyp2c70-/- mice showed high plasma BAs and transaminases, which spontaneously decreased thereafter to near-normal levels. Only mild ductular reactions were observed in male Cyp2c70-/- mice up to 8 months of age. In female Cyp2c70-/- mice, plasma BAs and transaminases remained substantially elevated with age, gut barrier function was impaired and bridging fibrosis was observed at advanced age. Addition of 0.1% ursodeoxycholic acid to the diet fully normalized hepatic and intestinal functions in female Cyp2c70-/- mice. CONCLUSION: Cyp2c70-/- mice show transient neonatal cholestasis and develop cholangiopathic features that progress to bridging fibrosis in females only. These consequences of Cyp2c70-deficiency are restored by treatment with UDCA, indicating a role of BA hydrophobicity in disease development.

9.
Cell Rep ; 33(1): 108212, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027657

RESUMO

Bile acids (BAs) are implicated in the etiology of obesity-related conditions such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Differently structured BA species display variable signaling activities via farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and Takeda G protein-coupled BA receptor 1 (TGR5). This study profiles plasma and fecal BAs and plasma 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) in 297 persons with obesity, identifies underlying genetic and microbial determinants, and establishes BA correlations with liver fat and plasma lipid parameters. We identify 27 genetic associations (p < 5 × 10-8) and 439 microbial correlations (FDR < 0.05) for 50 BA entities. Additionally, we report 111 correlations between BA and 88 lipid parameters (FDR < 0.05), mainly for C4 reflecting hepatic BA synthesis. Inter-individual variability in the plasma BA profile does not reflect hepatic BA synthetic pathways, but rather transport and metabolism within the enterohepatic circulation. Our study reveals genetic and microbial determinants of BAs in obesity and their relationship to disease-relevant lipid parameters that are important for the design of personalized therapies targeting BA-signaling pathways.

10.
Hum Genet ; 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920649

RESUMO

Liver transplantation (LT) is a life-saving option for children with end-stage liver disease. However, about 50% of patients develop graft fibrosis in 1 year after LT, with normal liver function. Graft fibrosis may progress to cirrhosis, resulting in graft dysfunction and ultimately the need for re-transplantation. Previous studies have identified various risk factors for the post-LT fibrogenesis, however, to date, neither of the factors seems to fully explain the cause of graft fibrosis. Recently, evidence has accumulated on the important role of the gut microbiome in outcomes after solid organ transplantation. As an altered microbiome is present in pediatric patients with end-stage liver diseases, we hypothesize that the persisting alterations in microbial composition or function contribute to the development of graft fibrosis, for example by bacteria translocation due to increased intestinal permeability, imbalanced bile acids metabolism, and/or decreased production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Subsequently, an immune response can be activated in the graft, together with the stimulation of fibrogenesis. Here we review current knowledge about the potential mechanisms by which alterations in microbial composition or function may lead to graft fibrosis in pediatric LT and we provide prospective views on the efficacy of gut microbiome manipulation as a therapeutic target to alleviate the graft fibrosis and to improve long-term survival after LT.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4018, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782301

RESUMO

The gut microbiome is an ecosystem that involves complex interactions. Currently, our knowledge about the role of the gut microbiome in health and disease relies mainly on differential microbial abundance, and little is known about the role of microbial interactions in the context of human disease. Here, we construct and compare microbial co-abundance networks using 2,379 metagenomes from four human cohorts: an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cohort, an obese cohort and two population-based cohorts. We find that the strengths of 38.6% of species co-abundances and 64.3% of pathway co-abundances vary significantly between cohorts, with 113 species and 1,050 pathway co-abundances showing IBD-specific effects and 281 pathway co-abundances showing obesity-specific effects. We can also replicate these IBD microbial co-abundances in longitudinal data from the IBD cohort of the integrative human microbiome (iHMP-IBD) project. Our study identifies several key species and pathways in IBD and obesity and provides evidence that altered microbial abundances in disease can influence their co-abundance relationship, which expands our current knowledge regarding microbial dysbiosis in disease.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Consórcios Microbianos , Obesidade/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo
12.
Gut ; 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Both the gut microbiome and host genetics are known to play significant roles in the pathogenesis of IBD. However, the interaction between these two factors and its implications in the aetiology of IBD remain underexplored. Here, we report on the influence of host genetics on the gut microbiome in IBD. DESIGN: To evaluate the impact of host genetics on the gut microbiota of patients with IBD, we combined whole exome sequencing of the host genome and whole genome shotgun sequencing of 1464 faecal samples from 525 patients with IBD and 939 population-based controls. We followed a four-step analysis: (1) exome-wide microbial quantitative trait loci (mbQTL) analyses, (2) a targeted approach focusing on IBD-associated genomic regions and protein truncating variants (PTVs, minor allele frequency (MAF) >5%), (3) gene-based burden tests on PTVs with MAF <5% and exome copy number variations (CNVs) with site frequency <1%, (4) joint analysis of both cohorts to identify the interactions between disease and host genetics. RESULTS: We identified 12 mbQTLs, including variants in the IBD-associated genes IL17REL, MYRF, SEC16A and WDR78. For example, the decrease of the pathway acetyl-coenzyme A biosynthesis, which is involved in short chain fatty acids production, was associated with variants in the gene MYRF (false discovery rate <0.05). Changes in functional pathways involved in the metabolic potential were also observed in participants carrying rare PTVs or CNVs in CYP2D6, GPR151 and CD160 genes. These genes are known for their function in the immune system. Moreover, interaction analyses confirmed previously known IBD disease-specific mbQTLs in TNFSF15. CONCLUSION: This study highlights that both common and rare genetic variants affecting the immune system are key factors in shaping the gut microbiota in the context of IBD and pinpoints towards potential mechanisms for disease treatment.

13.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 193, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disorder characterized by persistent and progressive airflow limitation as well as systemic changes. Metabolic changes in blood may help detect COPD in an earlier stage and predict prognosis. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive study of circulating metabolites, measured by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, in relation with COPD and lung function. The discovery sample consisted of 5557 individuals from two large population-based studies in the Netherlands, the Rotterdam Study and the Erasmus Rucphen Family study. Significant findings were replicated in 12,205 individuals from the Lifelines-DEEP study, FINRISK and the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) studies. For replicated metabolites further investigation of causality was performed, utilizing genetics in the Mendelian randomization approach. RESULTS: There were 602 cases of COPD and 4955 controls used in the discovery meta-analysis. Our logistic regression results showed that higher levels of plasma Glycoprotein acetyls (GlycA) are significantly associated with COPD (OR = 1.16, P = 5.6 × 10- 4 in the discovery and OR = 1.30, P = 1.8 × 10- 6 in the replication sample). A bi-directional two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis suggested that circulating blood GlycA is not causally related to COPD, but that COPD causally increases GlycA levels. Using the prospective data of the same sample of Rotterdam Study in Cox-regression, we show that the circulating GlycA level is a predictive biomarker of COPD incidence (HR = 1.99, 95%CI 1.52-2.60, comparing those in the highest and lowest quartile of GlycA) but is not significantly associated with mortality in COPD patients (HR = 1.07, 95%CI 0.94-1.20). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that circulating blood GlycA is a biomarker of early COPD pathology.

14.
Hypertension ; 76(1): 195-205, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520614

RESUMO

We conducted an epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis on blood pressure (BP) in 4820 individuals of European and African ancestry aged 14 to 69. Genome-wide DNA methylation data from peripheral leukocytes were obtained using the Infinium Human Methylation 450k BeadChip. The epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis identified 39 BP-related CpG sites with P<1×10-5. In silico replication in the CHARGE consortium of 17 010 individuals validated 16 of these CpG sites. Out of the 16 CpG sites, 13 showed novel association with BP. Conversely, out of the 126 CpG sites identified as being associated (P<1×10-7) with BP in the CHARGE consortium, 21 were replicated in the current study. Methylation levels of all the 34 CpG sites that were cross-validated by the current study and the CHARGE consortium were heritable and 6 showed association with gene expression. Furthermore, 9 CpG sites also showed association with BP with P<0.05 and consistent direction of the effect in the meta-analysis of the Finnish Twin Cohort (199 twin pairs and 4 singletons; 61% monozygous) and the Netherlands Twin Register (266 twin pairs and 62 singletons; 84% monozygous). Bivariate quantitative genetic modeling of the twin data showed that a majority of the phenotypic correlations between methylation levels of these CpG sites and BP could be explained by shared unique environmental rather than genetic factors, with 100% of the correlations of systolic BP with cg19693031 (TXNIP) and cg00716257 (JDP2) determined by environmental effects acting on both systolic BP and methylation levels.

15.
Front Genet ; 11: 613, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582302

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows a wide variation in expression and severity of symptoms, from very mild or no symptoms, to flu-like symptoms, and in more severe cases, to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and even death. Large differences in outcome have also been observed between males and females. The causes for this variability are likely to be multifactorial, and to include genetics. The SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the infection depends on two human genes: the human receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for cell invasion, and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. Genetic variation in these two genes may thus modulate an individual's genetic predisposition to infection and virus clearance. While genetic data on COVID-19 patients is being gathered, we carried out a phenome-wide association scan (PheWAS) to investigate the role of these genes in other human phenotypes in the general population. We examined 178 quantitative phenotypes including cytokines and cardio-metabolic biomarkers, as well as usage of 58 medications in 36,339 volunteers from the Lifelines population cohort, in relation to 1,273 genetic variants located in or near ACE2 and TMPRSS2. While none reached our threshold for significance, we observed several interesting suggestive associations. For example, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the TMPRSS2 genes were associated with thrombocytes count (p = 1.8 × 10-5). SNPs within the ACE2 gene were associated with (1) the use of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) combination therapies (p = 5.7 × 10-4), an association that is significantly stronger in females (p dif f = 0.01), and (2) with the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products (p = 5.5 × 10-4). While these associations need to be confirmed in larger sample sizes, they suggest that these variants could play a role in diseases such as thrombocytopenia, hypertension, and chronic inflammation that are often observed in the more severe COVID-19 cases. Further investigation of these genetic variants in the context of COVID-19 is thus promising for better understanding of disease variability. Full results are available at https://covid19research.nl.

16.
Gut ; 69(8): 1510-1519, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409589

RESUMO

The human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem that can mediate the interaction of the human host with their environment. The interaction between gut microbes and commonly used non-antibiotic drugs is complex and bidirectional: gut microbiome composition can be influenced by drugs, but, vice versa, the gut microbiome can also influence an individual's response to a drug by enzymatically transforming the drug's structure and altering its bioavailability, bioactivity or toxicity (pharmacomicrobiomics). The gut microbiome can also indirectly impact an individual's response to immunotherapy in cancer treatment. In this review we discuss the bidirectional interactions between microbes and drugs, describe the changes in gut microbiota induced by commonly used non-antibiotic drugs, and their potential clinical consequences and summarise how the microbiome impacts drug effectiveness and its role in immunotherapy. Understanding how the microbiome metabolises drugs and reduces treatment efficacy will unlock the possibility of modulating the gut microbiome to improve treatment.

17.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 715-730, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158191

RESUMO

Introduction: Enrofloxacin is used in the treatment of a wide variety of bacterial infections in mammals. However, its poor solubility limits the clinical use. Methods: In order to improve the solubility of enrofloxacin, the enrofloxacin mesylate (EM) were obtained by a chemical synthesis method. The characterization of EM was carried out using ultraviolet scan (UV), synchronous thermal analysis (SDT), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRPD). Acute toxicity of EM in Kunming mice was studied. Besides, pharmacokinetic studies were performed in New Zealand rabbits at a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg, and the antibacterial activity of EM was also evaluated. Results: EM was successfully synthesized and purified. The stoichiometric ratio of mesylate to enrofloxacin was 1:1 and the aqueous solubility of EM was 483.01±4.06 mg/mL, the solubility of EM was about 2000 times higher than enrofloxacin. The oral lethal dose (LD50) of EM was 1168.364 mg/kg, and the pharmacokinetics indicated that the oral relative bioavailability of EM was about 1.79 times and 1.48 times higher than that of enrofloxacin and enrofloxacin hydrochloride, respectively. In addition, the in vitro antibacterial activity of EM was not significantly changed compared with enrofloxacin and enrofloxacin hydrochloride. Conclusion: EM has higher solubility, low toxicity for oral use, and increases the oral bioavailability in rabbit. This study may be of benefit for the development of new enrofloxacin drugs.

18.
Nat Med ; 26(1): 110-117, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932804

RESUMO

Progress in high-throughput metabolic profiling provides unprecedented opportunities to obtain insights into the effects of drugs on human metabolism. The Biobanking BioMolecular Research Infrastructure of the Netherlands has constructed an atlas of drug-metabolite associations for 87 commonly prescribed drugs and 150 clinically relevant plasma-based metabolites assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The atlas includes a meta-analysis of ten cohorts (18,873 persons) and uncovers 1,071 drug-metabolite associations after evaluation of confounders including co-treatment. We show that the effect estimates of statins on metabolites from the cross-sectional study are comparable to those from intervention and genetic observational studies. Further data integration links proton pump inhibitors to circulating metabolites, liver function, hepatic steatosis and the gut microbiome. Our atlas provides a tool for targeted experimental pharmaceutical research and clinical trials to improve drug efficacy, safety and repurposing. We provide a web-based resource for visualization of the atlas (http://bbmri.researchlumc.nl/atlas/).


Assuntos
Estudos Epidemiológicos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Endofenótipos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 362, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953381

RESUMO

The human gut microbiota has now been associated with drug responses and efficacy, while chemical compounds present in these drugs can also impact the gut bacteria. However, drug-microbe interactions are still understudied in the clinical context, where polypharmacy and comorbidities co-occur. Here, we report relations between commonly used drugs and the gut microbiome. We performed metagenomics sequencing of faecal samples from a population cohort and two gastrointestinal disease cohorts. Differences between users and non-users were analysed per cohort, followed by a meta-analysis. While 19 of 41 drugs are found to be associated with microbial features, when controlling for the use of multiple medications, proton-pump inhibitors, metformin, antibiotics and laxatives show the strongest associations with the microbiome. We here provide evidence for extensive changes in taxonomy, metabolic potential and resistome in relation to commonly used drugs. This paves the way for future studies and has implications for current microbiome studies by demonstrating the need to correct for multiple drug use.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Metagenômica , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Biologia Computacional , Ecossistema , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Laxantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Metformina/farmacologia , Interações Microbianas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/farmacologia
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(3): 313-323, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591516

RESUMO

Celiac disease (CeD) is a common immune-mediated disease of the small intestine that is triggered by exposure to dietary gluten. While the HLA locus plays a major role in disease susceptibility, 39 non-HLA loci were also identified in a study of 24,269 individuals. We now build on this earlier study by adding 4125 additional Caucasian samples including an Argentinian cohort. In doing so, we not only confirm the previous associations, we also identify two novel independent genome-wide significant associations at loci: 12p13.31 and 22q13.1. By applying a genomics approach and differential expression analysis in CeD intestinal biopsies, we prioritize potential causal genes at these novel loci, including LTBR, CYTH4, and RAC2. Nineteen prioritized causal genes are overlapping known drug targets. Pathway enrichment analysis and expression of these genes in CeD biopsies suggest that they have roles in regulating multiple pathways such as the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mediated signaling pathway and positive regulation of I-κB kinase/NF-κB signaling.

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