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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(5): 4901-4912, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569357


Currently, the urgency of balancing rice production and environmental risk from nitrogen (N) fertilization is gaining scientific and public attention. As such, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the rice yield and the fate of applied-15N for Yangliangyou 6 (a two-line hybrid cultivar) and Lvdaoq 7 (an inbred cultivar) using 10 combinations of N rates and splitting ratios in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. The results showed that N application primarily affected fertilizer N loss to the environment, followed by plant N absorption, but had little effect on grain yield. Generally, there was no significant increase in grain yield and N accumulation in the aboveground plant when N inputs surpassed 130 or 170 kg ha-1. Fertilizer N residue in soil peaked at approximately 48 kg ha-1 at an N rate of 170 kg ha-1 for both varieties; however, a sharp increase of fertilizer N loss occurred with further incrementally increasing N rates. Although a higher ratio of panicle-N fertilizer together with a lower ratio of tillering-N fertilizer at rates of 130, 170, and 210 kg ha-1 had no grain yield benefit, it promoted aboveground N accumulation and plant N accumulation derived from fertilizer, and it reduced the amount of N residue in soil and N loss to the environment. Overall, reducing tillering-N ratios and increasing panicle-N ratios at an N rate between 130 and 170 kg ha-1 using fertilizer rates of 90-0-40 kg ha-1 and 90-40-40 kg ha-1 N at basal-tillering-panicle initiation stages could reduce the adverse environmental risks of chemical N from rice production without sacrificing rice yield.

Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rios/química , Poluição Química da Água/prevenção & controle , China , Grão Comestível/química , Risco , Solo/química