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1.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 29: 100-115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329559

RESUMO

The inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging technique of a moving target with sparse sampling data has attracted wide attention due to its ability to reduce the data collection burden. However, traditional low-rank or 2D compressive sensing (CS)-based ISAR imaging methods can handle the random sampling or the separable sampling data only. When the specific data collection condition cannot be satisfied, low-rank or 2D CS-based methods cannot provide satisfactory imaging results any more. To remedy this problem, in this paper, we proposed a joint low-rank and sparsity priors' constrained model for ISAR imaging with various sparse data patterns. This model is inspired by the facts that the received radar data have a low-rank property and the ISAR image is sparse on the specific dictionary. Two reconstruction algorithms to solve the double priors' constrained optimization problem are developed under the alternative direction method of multipliers (ADMM) framework with the help of augmented Lagrange multipliers (ALM). Results on simulation data and real data show that the proposed methods are quite effective in recovering missing samples and focused image and perform better than the matrix completion-based method and the sparse representation-based method when dealing with the various kinds of sparse sampling data.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671477

RESUMO

Paclitaxel is a commonly used drug in the treatment of multiple solid tumors, including cancers of the breast, lung, and ovaries. Despite the established exposure-pharmacodynamic relationships for paclitaxel, treatment is associated with wide interindividual pharmacokinetic variability that leads to unpredictability of the agent's clinical activity and toxicity. We hypothesized that physiologically-based modeling approaches could be employed to predict the human pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel following administration of the approved Cremophor-based formulation (Taxol). The model was developed from tissue distribution studies performed in mice and applied to plasma concentration-time data obtained in adult cancer patients receiving Taxol at the approved dose and schedule (175 mg/m2 by a 3-hour intravenous infusion), taking into account interspecies differences in physiological parameters. The final model adequately captured the observed concentrations in patients and allowed prediction of paclitaxel distribution profiles in multiple target organs and can be applied to further refine the chemotherapeutic treatment with a clinically important agent.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741381

RESUMO

The ability to modify substrates with thin polymer films allows for the tailoring of surface properties, and through combination of patterning finds use in a large variety of applications such as electronics and lab-on-chip devices. Although many techniques can be used to afford polymer-modified surfaces such as surface initiated polymerization or layer-by-layer methodologies, their stability in a wide range of environments as well as their ability to target specific chemistry are critical factors to enable their successful application. In this paper we report a facile technique in creating nanoscale polymer thin films using solid-state continuous assembly of polymers via ring opening metathesis polymerization (ssCAPROMP) directly from surfaces functionalized through silanization. Using a polymeric precursor that includes norbornene moieties, a highly-dense crosslinked network of polymer can be grown in a bottom-up fashion to afford thin films from an olefin-terminated silanized planar surface. Such nanotechnology affords films retaining the desirable qualities of previously reported methods while at the same time being covalently bound to the substrate: they are virtually pinhole free, and can be reinitiated multiple times. By combining this process with micro-contact printing, patterned films can be created by either the patterned deposition of catalyst, or by controlling the surface silanization chemistry and placement of olefin-terminated and non-reactive silanes. Additionally, patterned ssCAPROMP films were grown from SU-8 by selectively functionalizing the surface through masking and lift-off processes after the silanization step, thereby spatially controlling the surface-initiation, and subsequent polymer film formation. These patterned films expand the capabilities of the CAPROMP process and offer advantages over other film formation techniques in processes where patterned substrates and modified but robust surface chemistries are utilized.

4.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674837

RESUMO

A new p-terphenyl, 2',3'-diacetoxy-4,5,5',6',4'',5''-hexahydroxy-p-terphenyl (1), along with 12 known compounds were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Sarcodon imbricatus (Bankeraceae). Their structures were confirmed on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with the spectral data in the literature. Compound 1 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against colon cancer SW480 and leukemia HL-60 cell lines, with IC50 values of 55.02 ± 1.79 µM and 44.71 ± 2.15 µM, respectively.

5.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 230, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that mitochondria have a direct impact on neuronal function and survival. Oxidative stress caused by mitochondrial abnormalities play an important role in the pathophysiology of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory impairment. Elamipretide (SS-31) is a novel mitochondrion-targeted antioxidant. However, the impact of elamipretide on the cognitive sequelae of inflammatory and oxidative stress is unknown. METHODS: We utilized MWM and contextual fear conditioning test to assess hippocampus-related learning and memory performance. Molecular biology techniques and ELISA were used to examine mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and the inflammatory response. TUNEL and Golgi-staining was used to detect neural cell apoptosis and the density of dendritic spines in the mouse hippocampus. RESULTS: Mice treated with LPS exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, an inflammatory response, neural cell apoptosis, and loss of dendritic spines in the hippocampus, leading to impaired hippocampus-related learning and memory performance in the MWM and contextual fear conditioning test. Treatment with elamipretide significantly ameliorated LPS-induced learning and memory impairment during behavioral tests. Notably, elamipretide not only provided protective effects against mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress but also facilitated the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, including the reversal of important synaptic-signaling proteins and increased synaptic structural complexity. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that LPS-induced memory impairment can be attenuated by the mitochondrion-targeted antioxidant elamipretide. Consequently, elamipretide may have a therapeutic potential in preventing damage from the oxidative stress and neuroinflammation that contribute to perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND), which makes mitochondria a potential target for treatment strategies for PND.

6.
Mycorrhiza ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760479

RESUMO

We aimed to test whether Tuber melanosporum and native Chinese oak species could form stable mycorrhizal symbioses. Six oak species were all either inoculated or not, with spores of the Périgord black truffle in the greenhouse. Ectomycorrhizal development was monitored for up to 32 months. Seedling growth was assessed 2 years after inoculation. From 6 months after inoculation, Tuber melanosporum ectomycorrhizae were successfully produced on five Quercus species endemic to China, as shown by morphological, anatomical, and molecular analyses. Quercus mongolica and Q. longispica showed high receptivity to mycorrhization by T. melanosporum. The symbioses obtained with these two species and with Quercus senescens were stable for at least 32 months. Averaged over all three oak species, mycorrhization by T. melanosporum significantly enhanced canopy diameter, number of leaves, and mean leaf dimension. In spring 2019, mycorrhization by T. melanosporum accelerated budbreak in Q. mongolica. Quercus fabrei and Q. variabilis formed ectomycorrhizae up to 9 months after inoculation but seedlings died 3 months later, probably because of damage by grazing insects. Quercus pseudosemecarpifolia failed to form ectomycorrhizae. Results suggest that T. melanosporum-mycorrhized Q. mongolica and Q. longispica seedlings could be tested for ascocarp production and increased performance in the field.

7.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 13: 1753466619888119, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a syndrome characterized by the coexistence of upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis. However, whether CPFE has a higher or lower mortality than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) alone is still not clear. In this study we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the survival rate (SR) of CPFE versus IPF alone in clinical trials. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for trials published prior to 31 March 2018. Extracts from the literature were analyzed with Review Manager version 5.3. RESULTS: Thirteen eligible trials were included in this analysis (involving 1710 participants). Overall, the pooled results revealed that no statistically significant difference was detected in the 1-year [relative risk (RR) = 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94-1.03, p = 0.47], 3-year (RR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.68-1.01, p = 0.06), and 5-year (RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.59-1.07, p = 0.14) SRs of CPFE versus IPF alone. CONCLUSIONS: CPFE exhibits a very poor prognosis, similar to IPF alone. Additional studies are needed to provide more convincing data to investigate the natural history and outcome of patients with CPFE in comparison to IPF. The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.

8.
Int J Biol Sci ; 15(12): 2509-2521, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754325

RESUMO

The hallmark of liver fibrosis is excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and deposition that improve liver matrix remodeling and stiffening. Increased matrix stiffness is not only a pathological consequence of liver fibrosis in traditional view, but also recognized as a key driver in pathological progression of hepatic fibrosis. Cells can perceive changes in the mechanical characteristics of hepatic matrix and respond by means of mechanical signal transduction pathways to regulate cell behavior. In this review, the authors first classify causes of liver matrix stiffening during fibrotic progression, such as higher degree of collagen cross-linking. The latest advances of the research on the matrix mechanics in regulating activation of HSCs or fibroblasts under two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment is also classified and summarized. The mechanical signaling pathways involved in the process of hepatic matrix stiffening, such as YAP-TAZ signaling pathway, are further summarized. Finally, some potential therapeutic concepts and strategies based on matrix mechanics will be detailed. Collectively, these findings reinforce the importance of matrix mechanics in hepatic fibrosis, and underscore the value of clarifying its modulation in hopes of advancing the development of novel therapeutic targets and strategies for hepatic fibrosis.

9.
Andrologia ; : e13390, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773765

RESUMO

To compare the impact of plasma button transurethral vapour enucleation of the prostate (PVEP) and plasmakinetic resection of the prostate (PKRP) on lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual function in patients with benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) >90 ml. Between July 2017 and August 2018, 101 patients with symptomatic BPE were randomly, prospectively assigned to either PKRP or PVEP in our department. The clinical characteristics and sexual function were evaluated before and after surgery. Post-void residual volume, IPSS and QoL were all significantly decreased compared with baseline data in each group, while Qmax was significantly increased. The IIEF-5 score showed a slight but nonsignificant increase in both groups at 3 and 6 months after surgery, and there was no significant difference between the two groups. The post-operative rate of reduced ejaculate volume was significantly higher than the pre-operative rate in PKRP group, while there was no significant difference in PVEP group. PVEP had an attenuated effect on no ejaculate compared with PRKP, and they both had a significantly negative effect on no ejaculate. PVEP is an effective and minimally invasive procedure for large prostate. Compared with PKRP, PVEP has no effect on erectile dysfunction and has a lower negative impact on ejaculation.

10.
Chemistry ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691411

RESUMO

Oxygen electrocatalysis is of remarkable significance for electrochemical energy storage and conversion technologies, together with fuel cells, metal-air batteries and water splitting devices. Substituting noble metal-based electrocatalysts by decidedly effective and low-cost  metal-based oxygen electrocatalysts is imperative for the commercial application of these technologies. Herein, we present a novel strategy to fabricate selenized and phosphorized porous cobalt-nickel oxide microcubes through sacrificial ZnO sphere template and employed it as OER electrocatalyst. The selenized samples manifest desirable and robust OER performance, with comparable overpotential at 10 mA cm -2 (312 mV) as RuO2 (308 mV) and better activity when the current reaches 13.7 mA cm -2 . The phosphorized samples exhibit core-shell structure with low-crystalline oxides inside amorphous phosphides, which ensures superior activity towards RuO2 with the same overpotential (at 10 mA cm -2 ) yet lower Tafel slope. Such surface doping method possibly will give many inspirations for engineering electrocatalysts applied in water oxidation.

11.
Analyst ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746832

RESUMO

Immobilized enzymes play significant roles in many practical applications. However, the enzymes need to be purified before immobilization by conventional immobilizing methods, and the purification process is expensive, laborious, complicated and results in a decrease of the enzymatic activity. So, we present a novel method by a facile one-step targeted immobilization of an enzyme without a purification process from complex samples. For this purpose, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer was prepared via a silane emulsion self-assembly method using boric acid-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles as magnetic nuclei, horseradish peroxidase as a template, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as a functional monomer and tetraethyl orthosilicate as a crosslinking agent. The molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized using a scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope, vibrating sample magnetometer and X-ray diffractometer. The as-prepared and characterized materials were employed to immobilize horseradish peroxidase from a crude extract of horseradish. Moreover, the immobilized horseradish peroxidase was employed to develop visual sensors for the detection of glucose and sarcosine. This study demonstrated that the molecularly imprinted polymers prepared via the silane emulsion self-assembly method can facilely immobilize horseradish peroxidase from a crude extract of horseradish without any purification process. The developed visual method based on the immobilized horseradish peroxidase shows great potential applications for the visual detection of glucose and sarcosine.

12.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 8461725, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686986

RESUMO

Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a poorly understood condition that leads to long-term cognitive impairment and increased mortality in survivors. Recent research revealed that IL-17A/IL-17R might serve as a checkpoint in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. The present study was designed to determine the specific role of IL-17A-mediated microglia activation in the development of SAE. A mouse model of SAE was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and behavior performance was evaluated by the inhibitory avoidance test and the open field test. Cytokine expression and microglia activation in brain tissue were determined at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and day 7 post surgery. Further, septic mice were intracerebral ventricle- (i.c.v.-) injected with recombinant IL-17A, anti-IL-17A ab, anti-IL-17R ab, or isotype controls to evaluate the potential effects of IL-17A/IL-17R blockade in the prevention of SAE. Septic peritonitis induced significant impairment of learning memory and exploratory activity, which was associated with a higher expression of IL-17A, IL-1ß, and TNF-α in the brain homogenate. Fluorescence intensity of Iba-1 and IL-17R in the hippocampus was significantly increased following CLP. Treatment with recombinant IL-17A enhanced the neuroinflammation and microglia activation in CLP mice. On the contrary, neutralizing anti-IL-17A or anti-IL-17R antibodies mitigated the CNS inflammation and microglia activation, thus alleviating the cognitive dysfunction. Furthermore, as compared to the sham control, microglia cultured from CLP mice produced significantly higher levels of cytokines and expressed with higher fluorescence intensity of Iba-1 in response to IL-17A or LPS. Pretreatment with anti-IL-17R ab suppressed the Iba-1 expression and cytokine production in microglia stimulated by IL-17A. In conclusion, blockade of the IL-17A/IL-17R pathway inhibited microglia activation and neuroinflammation, thereby partially reversing sepsis-induced cognitive impairment. The present study suggested that the IL-17A/IL-17R signaling pathway had an important, nonredundant role in the development of SAE.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698765

RESUMO

The concentrations and ecological risk of six widespread heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb) were investigated and evaluated in sediments from both urban and rural rivers in a northeast city of China. The decreasing trend of the average concentration of heavy metals was Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd in Majiagou River (urban) and was Zn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd in Yunliang River (rural). The results showed that the concentrations of Cd and Zn were significantly elevated compared to the environmental background value (p < 0.05). Half of all sampling locations were deemed 'contaminated' as defined by the improved Nemerow pollution index (PN' > 1.0). Applying the potential ecological risk index (RI) indicated a 'high ecological risk' for both rivers, with Cd accounting for more than 80% in both cases. Source apportionment indicated a significant correlation between Cd and Zn in sediments (R = 0.997, p < 0.01) in Yunliang River, suggesting that agricultural activities could be the major sources. Conversely, industrial production, coal burning, natural sources and traffic emissions are likely to be the main pollution sources for heavy metals in Majiagou River. This study has improved our understanding of how human activities, industrial production, and agricultural production influence heavy metal pollution in urban and rural rivers, and it provides a further weight of evidence for the linkages between different pollutants and resulting levels of heavy metals in riverine sediments.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(48): 23947-23953, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712425

RESUMO

The Arctic has warmed significantly since the early 1980s and much of this warming can be attributed to the surface albedo feedback. In this study, satellite observations reveal a 1.25 to 1.51% per decade absolute reduction in the Arctic mean surface albedo in spring and summer during 1982 to 2014. Results from a global model and reanalysis data are used to unravel the causes of this albedo reduction. We find that reductions of terrestrial snow cover, snow cover fraction over sea ice, and sea ice extent appear to contribute equally to the Arctic albedo decline. We show that the decrease in snow cover fraction is primarily driven by the increase in surface air temperature, followed by declining snowfall. Although the total precipitation has increased as the Arctic warms, Arctic snowfall is reduced substantially in all analyzed data sets. Light-absorbing soot in snow has been decreasing in past decades over the Arctic, indicating that soot heating has not been the driver of changes in the Arctic snow cover, ice cover, and surface albedo since the 1980s.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133732, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756836

RESUMO

Currently, little is known about soil improvement by biochar in seasonally frozen soil areas. It is not clear whether the effects of biochar application on soil physical properties differ based on application period. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the effects of biochar on soil structure and water retention in cold regions during different application periods. Three biochar applications during different periods were set up through field trials (A: in the early stage of freezing, B: in the middle period of thawing and C: addition of half of the biochar in the early stage of freezing and other half in the middle period of thawing), including four biochar application rates (3, 6, 9 and 12 kg·m-2), and no biochar was applied as a control (CK). The results showed that the selection of the biochar application period had a significant effect on the soil structure, but there was no significant difference in the stability of the soil structure. Biochar significantly increased the total porosity (TP) and the content of aggregates with diameters >0.25 mm in the soil, and all 9 kg·m-2 biochar treatments showed the best structural stability index. The improvement of the soil structure led to the enhancement of the water storage capacities. The plant available water content (PAWC) increased from 0.0638 to 0.0927-0.1767 cm3·cm-3, and this result was significantly related to the increases in soil TP and large aggregates (LAs: >2 mm). The optimum field capacity (FC = 0.372 cm3·cm-3) was obtained when the applied amount was 9 kg·m-2. This was beneficial for the stable storage of soil moisture. However, compared with the CK, none of the treatments in area B increased the liquid water content in the field soil. In summary, we suggest that treatment C9 is the most suitable method for application in seasonally frozen soil areas.

16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(20): 8925-8936, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665124

RESUMO

In total, 97 acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who received an emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled and divided into a ticagrelor group and a clopidogrel group. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) blood flow and the corrected TIMI frame count (CTFC) were used to assess the blood perfusion of culprit vessels. Thromboelastography (TEG) was used to evaluate the antiplatelet effect of drugs. The results showed that the incidence of TIMI grade III blood flow in the ticagrelor group was significantly higher than that in the clopidogrel group. The CTFC in the anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary arteries was statistically significantly lower in the ticagrelor group as compared with that in the clopidogrel group. At 2 h and 7 d postdrug treatment, the adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet inhibition rate (ADP%) in the ticagrelor group increased significantly as compared with that in the clopidogrel group, and the platelet aggregation rate of the ADP pathway (MAADP) decreased significantly in the ticagrelor group versus that in the clopidogrel group. In conclusion, ticagrelor significantly improved TIMI blood flow and had a better antiplatelet effect than clopidogrel in STEMI patients undergoing an emergency PCI.

17.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(19): 2315-2324, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) in combination with peginterferon (PegIFN) therapy in patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) shows better effectiveness than NA monotherapy in hepatitis B surface antigen loss, termed "functional cure," based on previous published studies. However, it is not known which strategy is more cost-effective on functional cure. The aim of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of first-line monotherapies and combination strategies in HBeAg-positive CHB patients in China from a social perspective. METHODS: A Markov model was developed with functional cure and other five states including CHB, compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death to assess the cost-effectiveness of seven representative treatment strategies. Entecavir (ETV) monotherapy and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy served as comparators, respectively. RESULTS: In the two base-case analysis, compared with ETV, ETV generated the highest costs with $44,210 and the highest quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) with 16.78 years. Compared with TDF, treating CHB patients with ETV and NA - PegIFN strategies increased costs by $7639 and $6129, respectively, gaining incremental QALYs by 2.20 years and 1.66 years, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were $3472/QALY and $3692/QALY, respectively, which were less than one-time gross domestic product per capita. One-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of the results. CONCLUSION: Among seven treatment strategies, first-line NA monotherapy may be more cost-effective than combination strategies in HBeAg-positive CHB patients in China.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(43): 40685-40693, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599152

RESUMO

Personal cooling technology using functional clothing that could provide localized thermal regulation instead of cooling the entire space is regarded as a highly anticipated strategy to not only facilitate thermal comfort and human health but also be energy-saving and low-cost. The challenge is how to endow textiles with prominent cooling effect whenever the wearer is motionless or sportive. In this study, high content of edge-selective hydroxylated boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) up to 60 wt % was added into a biodegradable cellulose/alkaline/urea aqueous solution, and then regenerated cellulose (RCF)/BNNS multifilaments were successfully spun in a simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly process, which was demonstrated to serve as both static and dynamic personal cooling textile. Typically, excellent axial thermal conductivity of RCF/BNNS filament rendered that body-generated heat could directly escape from skin to the outside surface of the textile by means of thermal conduction, achieving a much better static personal cooling result through continuous thermal radiation. Besides, synergistic effect between excellent heat dissipation capability and good hygroscopicity also resulted in much better dynamic cooling effect once the wearer is doing some sports, whose efficiency was even better than commercial hygroscopic textiles such as cotton and RCF.

19.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e030137, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study is to develop a mental workload scale for physicians in China and assess the scale's reliability and validity. DESIGN: The instrument was developed over three phases involving 396 physicians from different tiers of comprehensive public hospitals in China. In the first phase, an initial item pool was developed through a systematic literature review. The second phase consisted of two rounds of Delphi expert consultations and a pilot survey. The third phase tested the reliability and validity of the instrument. SETTING: Public hospitals in China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 396 physicians from different tiers of comprehensive public hospitals in China participated in this study in 2018. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Cronbach's α, content validity index, item-total score correlation coefficient, dimension-total score correlation coefficient and indices of confirmatory factor analysis. RESULTS: Six dimensions (mental demands, physical demands, temporal demands, perceived risk, frustration level and performance) and 12 items were identified in the instrument. For reliability, Cronbach's α for the whole scale was 0.81. For validity, the corrected item-content validity index of each item ranged from 0.85 to 1, item-total score correlation coefficients ranged from 0.31 to 0.75, and the correlation coefficients between the dimensions and total score ranged from 0.37 to 0.72. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the goodness-of-fit indices of the scale were satisfactory. CONCLUSION: The instrument showed good reliability and validity, and it is useful for diagnosing the mental workload of physicians.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14049, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575938

RESUMO

The Bph1 gene was the first reported brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) resistance gene in Mudgo rice and was widely used as a commercial cultivar for controlling BPH infestations. However, rapid adaptations of BPH on the Mudgo rice resulted in its resistance breakdown and the emergence of virulent BPH populations. Thus, specific BPH populations and rice varieties can serve as good model systems for studying the roles of different bio-compounds and proteins in the insect-plant interactions. Although our understandings have been improved on the complexity of BPH and rice interactions, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we analyzed the feeding performances and the transcriptomic responses of two BPH populations (Mugdo-BPH and TN1-BPH) during compatible (Mudog-BPH feeding on Mudgo rice) and incompatible (TN1-BPH feeding on Mudgo rice) interactions. The electrical penetration graph (EPG) results indicated that the BPH feeding and performances during the incompatible interaction are significantly affected in terms of decreased honeydew, loss of weight, decreased phloem sap ingestion (N4 waveform), but increased non-penetration (NP waveform) phase. Abundance of glucose and trehalose was reduced in BPH during the incompatible interaction. Transcriptomic surveys of insects in both interactions revealed that genes involved in cuticle formation, detoxification, metabolite transport, digestion, RNA processing, lipid or fatty acid metabolism, and proteolysis were significantly down-regulated during the incompatible interaction, whereas genes involved in insulin signaling were significantly upregulated. Knockdown of four genes, including the sugar transporter NlST45, the serine and arginine-rich protein NlSRp54, the cytochrome P450 gene NlCYP6AY1, and the cuticle protein NlCPR70 through RNA-interference revealed thess genes are important for BPH survival. Overall, the results of this study will be helpful for the future researches on BPH virulence shifts.

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