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1.
Arthroscopy ; 37(1): 128-135, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828935

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasound and ultrasound-guided hip injection in the diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) with atypical symptoms. METHODS: We evaluated consecutive patients diagnosed with FAI and with atypical symptoms who underwent ultrasound-guided hip injection between January 2017 and February 2019. All patients underwent systematic physical examination, ultrasound examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination, and ultrasound-guided injection before surgery. Patients with positive response to ultrasound-guided hip injection were recommended to undergo arthroscopic surgery to treat intra-articular pathology. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value (PPV) of ultrasound and MRI were calculated by using arthroscopic surgery as the gold standard. The accuracy of ultrasound-guided hip injection was recorded. Preoperative and postoperative patient-reported outcomes included visual analog scale for pain and modified Harris Hip Score. RESULTS: A total of 78 patients with atypical symptoms were diagnosed with FAI. Among these 78 patients, 50 patients had positive responses to injection and 28 patients had negative responses to injection. A total of 36 patients finally underwent arthroscopic surgery. Response to the ultrasound-guided intra-articular injection was 91.7% accurate for detecting the presence of intra-articular abnormality. There were no complications of injection in any of the patients. The sensitivity, PPV, and accuracy by ultrasound diagnosis of cam impingement were 82.9%, 96.7%, and 80.6%, respectively. The sensitivity and accuracy by ultrasound diagnosis of anterosuperior labral tear were both 72.2%. For MRI diagnosis of cam impingement, the sensitivity, PPV and accuracy were 72.2%, 96.3%, and 74.3%, respectively. For MRI diagnosis of labral tear, the sensitivity and accuracy were both 88.9%. Thirty-four patients (94.4%) surpassed the minimal clinically important difference, and 33 patients (91.7%) achieved the patient acceptable symptomatic state. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound and ultrasound-guided hip injection have high accuracy in the diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement with atypical symptoms. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV, case series.

2.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(1): 85-92, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159232

RESUMO

A new Rhizopogon species associated with Pinus was discovered at local wild mushroom markets and Pinus armandii forests from March to July in Southwest China where it is considered a delicacy. Based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses, the collections were described as Rhizopogon songmaodan sp. nov. belonging to the subgenus Versicolores. The new species described here increases the current number of Rhizopogon species known in China to ten. R. songmaodan establishes ectomycorrhizal associations with P. armandii which was confirmed by comparing rDNA ITS sequences from basidiomata and ectomycorrhizal root tips. Mycorrhizal synthesis via spore inoculation between R. songmaodan and two native pine species, Pinus armandii and P. yunnanensis was successfully carried out in a greenhouse study. The ease of R. songmaodan inoculation onto pine species, and the high market demand of its sporocarps, could make R. songmaodan a good candidate for cultivation in Southwest China.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Micorrizas , Pinus , Basidiomycota/genética , China , Micorrizas/genética , Filogenia
3.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 116: 103944, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248045

RESUMO

The NOD-like receptor X1 (NLRX1) is a member of highly conserved nucleotide-binding domain (NBD)- and leucine-rich-repeat (LRR)-containing family (known as NLR), that localizes to the mitochondrial outer membrane and regulate the innate immunity by interacting with mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS). As one of cytoplasmic PRRs, NLRX1 plays key roles for pathogen recognition, autophagy and regulating of subsequent immune signaling pathways. In this study, we identified the nlrx1 in turbot as well as its expression profiles in mucosal surfaces following bacterial infection. In our results, the full-length nlrx1 transcript consists of an open reading frame (ORF) of 4,886 bp encoding the putative peptide of 966 amino acids. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the SmNlrx1 showed the closest relationship to Cynoglossus semilaevis. In addition, the Nlrx1 mRNA expression could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression level in head kidney, and the lowest expression level in liver. Moreover, Nlrx1 showed similar expression patterns following Vibrio anguillarum and Streptococcus iniae infection, that were both significantly up-regulated following challenge, especially post S. iniae challenge. Finally, fluorescence microscopy unveiled that the SmNlrx1 localized to mitochondria in HEK293T by N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence. Characterization of Nlrx1 might have an important implication in bioenergetic adaptation during metabolic stress, oncogenic transformation and innate immunity and will probably contribute to the development of novel intervention strategies for farming turbot.

4.
Oncol Rep ; 45(1): 119-128, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169800

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the most lethal gynecological malignancies in the world. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of microRNA (miR)-134-3p in OC. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was used to measure the expression levels of miR-134-3p. Cell Counting Kit-8, TUNEL, flow cytometric and colony formation assays were performed to examine the effects of miR-134-3p on OC cell proliferation. Moreover, wound healing and Transwell assays were performed to examine the effects on migration and invasion. In addition, western blot analyses were used to assess protein expression. Finally, the target genes of miR-134-3p were analyzed by bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay. The results revealed that miR-134-3p expression was low in OC cells compared with in normal ovarian cells. The overexpression of miR-134-3p decreased cell viability, facilitated cell apoptosis, inhibited cell proliferation and arrested the cell cycle in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. Furthermore, transfection using a miR-134-3p mimic inhibited the migration and invasion of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells, and decreased the protein expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP9. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that one of the potential target genes of miR-134-3p was flap structure-specific endonuclease 1 (FEN1), which was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, overexpression of miR-134-3p decreased the expression levels of FEN1 in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. Additionally, overexpression of FEN1 reversed the effects of the miR-134-3p mimic on the proliferation, migration and invasion of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. Overall, the findings of the present study demonstrated that miR-134-3p may inhibit OC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by directly targeting FEN1.

5.
Crit Care Med ; 49(1): e53-e62, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns on the lung fluid homeostasis in experimental acute lung injury. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: Research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and control subjects, wild-type C57BL/6 and formyl peptide receptor-1 gene knockout mice, and primary rat alveolar epithelial type II cells. INTERVENTIONS: Samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were obtained from patients and control subjects. Mice were intratracheally instilled with lipopolysaccharide and mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns. The primary rat alveolar epithelial type II cells were isolated and incubated with mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were divided into direct (pulmonary) and indirect (extrapulmonary) injury groups based on etiology. The release of mitochondrial peptide nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 1 in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum was induced in patients and was associated with etiology. In the lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury, administration of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns exacerbated the lung fluid imbalance, which was mitigated in formyl peptide receptor-1 knockout mice. Proteomic analysis of mouse lung tissues revealed the involvement of ion channels and tight junction proteins in this process. Treatment with mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns decreased the expression of epithelial sodium channel α, zonula occludens-1, and occludin via the formyl peptide receptor-1/p38 pathway in the primary rat alveolar epithelial type II cells. CONCLUSIONS: Mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns exacerbate lung fluid imbalance in the experimental acute lung injury model through formyl peptide receptor-1 signaling, the inhibition of which may prevent exacerbation of lung fluid imbalance induced by mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns. Thus, formyl peptide receptor-1 is a potential therapeutic target for acute respiratory distress syndrome.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(1): 259-267, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964599

RESUMO

To ensure sustainable hydrogen production by water electrolysis, robust, earth-abundant, and high-efficient electrocatalysts are required. Constructing a hybrid system could lead to further improvement in electrocatalytic activity. Interface engineering in composite catalysts is thus critical to determine the performance, and the phase-junction interface should improve the catalytic activity. Here, we show that nickel diphosphide phase junction (c-NiP2 /m-NiP2 ) is an effective electrocatalyst for hydrogen production in alkaline media. The overpotential (at 10 mA cm-2 ) for NiP2 -650 (c/m) in alkaline media could be significantly reduced by 26 % and 96 % compared with c-NiP2 and m-NiP2 , respectively. The enhancement of catalytic activity should be attributed to the strong water dissociation ability and the rearrangement of electrons around the phase junction, which markedly improved the Volmer step and benefited the reduction process of adsorbed protons.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21820, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311524

RESUMO

Segregation distortion is a common phenomenon found in most genetic mapping studies and is an important resource to dissect the mechanism of action in gene loci that cause deviation. Marine animals possess high genetic diversity and genomic heterozygosity, they therefore are ideal model organisms to study segregation distortion induced by selection. In the present study, we constructed a full-sib family of Fenneropenaeus chinensis and exerted high-intensity selection on 10,000 incipient progenies. 2b-RAD method was employed in remaining 273 individuals to develop genome-wide SNPs for segregating analysis and 41,612 SNPs were developed. 50.77% of 32,229 high-quality representative markers deviated from the expected Mendelian ratio. Results showed that most of these distorted markers (91.57%) were influenced at zygotic level. Heterozygote excess (53.07%) and homozygous deletions (41.96%) may both play an important role, sum of which explained 95.03% of distortion after fertilization. However, further results identified highly probable linkage among deleterious alleles, which may account for a considerable portion of heterozygote excess rather than single locus with heterozygote advantage. Results of this study support a major role of deleterious alleles in genetic load, thus in favor of partial dominance hypothesis. It would also offer necessary recommendations for the formulation of breeding strategy in shrimps.

8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(42): 6638-6657, 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is a common digestive cancer worldwide. As a comprehensive treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), neoadjuvant therapy (NT) has been increasingly used as the standard treatment for clinical stage II/III rectal cancer. However, few patients achieve a complete pathological response, and most patients require surgical resection and adjuvant therapy. Therefore, identifying risk factors and developing accurate models to predict the prognosis of LARC patients are of great clinical significance. AIM: To establish effective prognostic nomograms and risk score prediction models to predict overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for LARC treated with NT. METHODS: Nomograms and risk factor score prediction models were based on patients who received NT at the Cancer Hospital from 2015 to 2017. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression model were utilized to screen for prognostic risk factors, which were validated by the Cox regression method. Assessment of the performance of the two prediction models was conducted using receiver operating characteristic curves, and that of the two nomograms was conducted by calculating the concordance index (C-index) and calibration curves. The results were validated in a cohort of 65 patients from 2015 to 2017. RESULTS: Seven features were significantly associated with OS and were included in the OS prediction nomogram and prediction model: Vascular_tumors_bolt, cancer nodules, yN, body mass index, matchmouth distance from the edge, nerve aggression and postoperative carcinoembryonic antigen. The nomogram showed good predictive value for OS, with a C-index of 0.91 (95%CI: 0.85, 0.97) and good calibration. In the validation cohort, the C-index was 0.69 (95%CI: 0.53, 0.84). The risk factor prediction model showed good predictive value. The areas under the curve for 3- and 5-year survival were 0.811 and 0.782. The nomogram for predicting DFS included ypTNM and nerve aggression and showed good calibration and a C-index of 0.77 (95%CI: 0.69, 0.85). In the validation cohort, the C-index was 0.71 (95%CI: 0.61, 0.81). The prediction model for DFS also had good predictive value, with an AUC for 3-year survival of 0.784 and an AUC for 5-year survival of 0.754. CONCLUSION: We established accurate nomograms and prediction models for predicting OS and DFS in patients with LARC after undergoing NT.

10.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380301

RESUMO

Oxidative stress, which results in the damage of diverse biological molecules, is a ubiquitous cellular process implicated in the etiology of many illnesses. The sulfhydryl-containing tripeptide glutathione (GSH), which is synthesized and maintained at high concentrations in all cells, is one of the mechanisms by which cells protect themselves from oxidative stress. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a synthetic derivative of the endogenous amino acid L-cysteine and a precursor of GSH, has been used for several decades as a mucolytic and as an antidote to acetaminophen (paracetamol) poisoning. As a mucolytic, NAC breaks the disulfide bonds of heavily cross-linked mucins, thereby reducing mucus viscosity. In vitro, NAC has antifibrotic effects on lung fibroblasts. As an antidote to acetaminophen poisoning, NAC restores the hepatic GSH pool depleted in the drug detoxification process. More recently, improved knowledge of the mechanisms by which NAC acts has expanded its clinical applications. In particular, the discovery that NAC can modulate the homeostasis of glutamate has prompted studies of NAC in neuropsychiatric diseases characterized by impaired glutamate homeostasis. This narrative review provides an overview of the most relevant and recent evidence on the clinical application of NAC, with a focus on respiratory diseases, acetaminophen poisoning, disorders of the central nervous system (chronic neuropathic pain, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and addiction), cardiovascular disease, contrast-induced nephropathy, and ophthalmology (retinitis pigmentosa).

11.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 37(12): 1336-1339, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic and clinical characteristics of near-tetraploidy/tetraploidy karyotype (NT/T) in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). METHODS: Cytogenetic findings of 1576 inpatients with primary MDS were retrospective analyzed, among which 9 were diagnosed with NT/T. Clinical data including gender, age, morphology, genetic feature and prognosis were analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of MDS patients with NT/T (NT/T-MDS) among all cases was 0.57%. Karyotyping analysis suggested that eight MDS patients had sole NT/T, while the remainder one had a complex karyotype. In addition to the typical morphology of MDS, NT/T-MDS had unique morphology including huge blast, double-nuclear cell and irregular nuclear membrane. One NT/T-MDS patient gave up therapy, and the remaining eight underwent the first course of treatment, albeit with poor prognosis. Only one patient had complete remission, one had partial remission, three had no remission; and three had converted to acute myeloid leukemia. CONCLUSION: NT/T-MDS is rare and has unique morphology. Generally, NT/T-MDS patients have poor prognosis. However, NT/T cannot be simply classified as high-risk group, but with consideration whether they have affected particular chromosomal structures as well as other clinical data.


Assuntos
Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Tetraploidia , Humanos , Cariótipo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The highest burden of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) occurs in low and middle income countries. Low cost oral medications, if effective, could enable affordable, accessible COPD treatment. METHODS: In this randomised, 3 arm, double-blind, double dummy, placebo controlled study conducted in 37 centres in China, symptomatic patients with moderate/very severe COPD were randomised 1:1:1 to low dose (LD) theophylline 100 mg bd+prednisone 5 mg once daily; LD theophylline 100 mg bd+placebo once daily; or placebo bd+placebo once daily for 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was annualised exacerbation rate. FINDINGS: 1670 subjects were randomised, and 1242 completed the study (1142 with acceptable Week 48 data). Subjects (75.7% male) were mean age 64.4 years, with mean (sd) baseline post-bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s (FEV1) 1.1 (0.4)L, 42.2% predicted and mean (sd) St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score 45.8 (20.1). There were negligible differences between annualised exacerbation rates across the three treatments, being 0.89 (95%CI=0.78-1.02) on Prednisone-LD Theophylline; 0.86 (0.75-0.99) on LD Theophylline plus placebo, and 1.00 (0.87-1.14) on double placebo. The Rate Ratio between the first and the pooled comparative arms was 0.96 (0.83-1.12), and for LD Theophylline+placebo versus placebo was 0.866, 95% CI 0.728; 1.029, p=0.101 and for LD Theophylline+Low dose oral Prednisone versus placebo was 0.895, 95% CI 0.755; 1.061, p=0.201. Secondary outcomes of hospitalisations, FEV1, SGRQ and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score showed no statistically significant difference between treatment arms. Serious adverse events (SAEs) other than exacerbations were <2% and did not differ between the treatment arms. CONCLUSIONS: LD theophylline alone or in combination with prednisone did not reduce exacerbation rates or clinically important secondary endpoints compared to placebo.

13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 109: 71-81, 2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316369

RESUMO

Galectins, a family of evolutionary conserved ß-galactoside-binding proteins, have been characterized in a wide range of species. Many reports have indicated vital roles of galectins in innate immunity, especially in the mucosal tissues against infection. However, the systematic identification of galectin gene family is still lacking in teleost. Here, we characterized the galectin gene family and investigated their expression profiles post bacterial challenge in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). In this study, a total of 13 galectin genes were characterized in turbot, phylogenetic analyses revealed their strong relationships to half smooth tongue sole and puffer fish, and syntenic analyses confirmed the orthology suggested by the phylogenetic analysis. In addition, the copy number of galectin genes is similar across a broad spectrum of species from fish to amphibians, birds, and mammals, ranging from 8 to 16 genes. Furthermore, the galectin genes were widely expressed in all the examined turbot tissues, and most of the galectin genes were strongly expressed in mucosal tissues (skin, gill and intestine). Moreover, majority of the galectin genes were significantly regulated after Vibrio anguillarum infection in the intestine, gill and skin, suggesting that galectins were involved in the mucosal immune response to V. anguillarum infection in turbot. In addition, subcellular localization analysis showed lgals3a was distributed in the cytoplasm and nucleus. However, the knowledge of galectins are still limited in teleost species, further studies should be carried out to better characterize its detailed roles in teleost mucosal immunity.

14.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 288, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing plays important roles in diversifying the transcriptome and preventing MDA5 sensing of endogenous dsRNA as nonself. To date, few studies have investigated the population genomic signatures of A-to-I editing due to the lack of editing sites overlapping with SNPs. RESULTS: In this study, we applied a pipeline to robustly identify SNP editing sites from population transcriptomic data and combined functional genomics, GWAS, and population genomics approaches to study the function and evolution of A-to-I editing. We find that the G allele, which is equivalent to edited I, is overrepresented in editing SNPs. Functionally, A/G editing SNPs are highly enriched in GWAS signals of autoimmune and immune-related diseases. Evolutionarily, derived allele frequency distributions of A/G editing SNPs for both A and G alleles as the ancestral alleles are skewed toward intermediate frequency alleles relative to neutral SNPs, a hallmark of balancing selection, suggesting that both A and G alleles are functionally important. The signal of balancing selection is confirmed by a number of additional population genomic analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered a hidden layer of A-to-I RNA editing SNP loci as a common target of balancing selection, and we propose that the maintenance of such editing SNP variations may be at least partially due to constraints on the resolution of the balance between immune activity and self-tolerance.

15.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(11): 113704, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261460

RESUMO

A newly developed instrument comprising a near ambient pressure (NAP) photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) and a tunable deep ultraviolet (DUV) laser source is described. This NAP-PEEM instrument enables dynamic imaging of solid surfaces in gases at pressures up to 1 mbar. A diode laser (976 nm) can illuminate a sample from the backside for in situ heating in gases up to 1200 K in minutes. The DUV laser with a tunable wavelength between 175 nm and 210 nm is perpendicularly incident onto the sample surface for PEEM imaging of a wide spectrum of solids with different surface work functions. Using this setup, we have first demonstrated spatiotemporal oscillation patterns of CO oxidation reaction on Pt(110) from high vacuum to NAPs and gas-induced restructuring of metal nanostructures in millibar gases. The new facility promises important applications in heterogeneous catalysis, electrochemical devices, and other surface processes under nearly working conditions.

16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(10): 3589-3596, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314850

RESUMO

Soil salinization induced by the dual effects of natural environment and human activities is a serious ecological problem globally. Salinization caused osmotic imbalance, ion stress, oxidative damage, and other hazards to plants, leading to retard, reduce biomass and even total crop failure. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a group of beneficial microorganism with wide distribution. AMF can form symbiotic relationship with most plant roots, with ecological significance in various stressed ecosystems. Because of the highly effective antioxidative system in symbionts, AMF could improve plant anti-oxidative response under salt stress and enhance their tolerance to salt stress. Here, we reviewed the research progress of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in improing plant antioxidative mechanism, including oxidative damage, osmotic regulation, antio-xidant mechanism and bioactive molecules. Finally, research prospects were proposed to provide theoritical support for improving plant salt tolerance by mycorrhizal biotechnology.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Ecossistema , Estresse Oxidativo , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas , Estresse Salino , Simbiose
17.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324982

RESUMO

To investigate temporal patterns, socio-demographic gradients, and structural breaks in adolescent marijuana use in the United States from 1991 to 2018, we used hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort logistic models to separate temporal effects of marijuana use among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders from 28 waves of the Monitoring the Future survey. Structural breaks in period effects were further detected via a dynamic-programing-based method. Net of other effects, we found a clear age-related increase in the probability of marijuana use (10.46%, 23.17%, and 31.19% for 8th, 10th and 12th graders, respectively). Period effects showed a substantial increase over time (from 16.23% in 2006 to 26.38% in 2018), while cohort effects remained stable over the period of study. Risk of adolescent marijuana use varied by sex, racial group, family status, and parental education. Significant structural breaks during 1995-1996, 2006-2008, and 2011-2013 were identified in sub-populations. A steady increase in marijuana use among adolescents over the latter years of this time period was identified. Adolescents who were male, non-Black, lived in non-intact families, and who had less educated parents were especially at risk of marijuana usage. Trends of adolescent marijuana use changed significantly during times of economic crisis.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(50): 55564-55573, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327054

RESUMO

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an atomic targeted radiotherapy that shows fantastic suppression impact on locally intrusive threatening tumors. One key factor for effective BNCT is to aggregate an adequate concentration (>20 ppm) of 10B in the cytoplasm of the tumor. Carborane-loaded polymer nanoparticles are promising because of their outstanding biocompatibility and plasma steadiness. In this study, a new class of carborane-loaded nanoscale covalent organic polymers (BCOPs) was prepared by a Schiff base condensation reaction, and their solubility was greatly improved in common solvents via alkyl chain engineering and size tailoring. The obtained BCOP-5T was further functionalized by biocompatible 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino(polyethylene-glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG, molecular weight 2000) to form stable aqueous-phase nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic diameter of around 100 nm. After chelating with radioactive copper-64, DSPE-BCOP-5T was tracked by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and showed significant accumulation in the tumor. DSPE-BCOP-5T + neutron radiation showed remarkable tumor suppression in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice (murine breast cancer). No obvious physical tissue damage and abnormal behavior were observed, demonstrating that the boron delivery was successful and tumor-selective. To conclude, this study presents a theranostic COP-based platform with a well-defined composition, good biocompatibility, and satisfactory tumor accumulation, which is promising for PET imaging, drug delivery, and BNCT.

19.
Front Oncol ; 10: 573295, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251137

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignant tumor of the digestive tract and lacks specific diagnostic markers. In this study, we utilized 10 public datasets from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (NCBI-GEO) database to identify a set of significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between tumor and control samples and WGCNA (Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis) to construct gene co-expression networks incorporating the DEGs from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and then identify genes shared between the GEO datasets and key modules. Then, these genes were screened via MCC to identify 20 hub genes. We utilized regression analyses to develop a prognostic model and utilized the random forest method to validate. All hub genes had good diagnostic value for CRC, but only CLCA1 was related to prognosis. Thus, we explored the potential biological value of CLCA1. The results of gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and immune infiltration analysis showed that CLCA1 was closely related to tumor metabolism and immune invasion of CRC. These analysis results revealed that CLCA1 may be a candidate diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for CRC.

20.
ACS Omega ; 5(46): 29913-29921, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251427

RESUMO

In this paper, a simple "one-step" route is introduced to prepare a kind of novel honeycomb-like hierarchical porous carbon (h-HPC) by carbonizing and activating garlic seeds. Due to its special microstructure, h-HPC shows excellent electrochemical properties and high supercapacitor performances. The experimental results reveal the following: (1) There exists an optimal condition for synthesizing h-HPC, i.e., 700 °C carbonization temperature and 1:1 mass ratio of KOH and garlic seeds. (2) h-HPC has a three-dimensional interconnected porous structure and exhibits a specific surface area as high as 1417 m2/g with a narrow pore size distribution. (3) When h-HPC is employed as an electrode material in supercapacitors, its specific capacitance reaches a value up to 268 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g and excellent rate capability. (4) The h-HPC-based symmetric supercapacitor shows a high energy density of 31.7 Wh/kg at a power density of 500 W/kg and retains 99.2% of the initial capacitance after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles at 200 mV/s. When compared with similar works, these data are competitive, which demonstrates that the garlic-derived h-HPC is a kind of promising electrode material for the next-generation high-energy-density supercapacitors.

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