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BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 569, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856712


BACKGROUND: Seed germination is essential to crop growth and development, and ultimately affects its harvest. It is difficult to breed soybeans low in phytic acid with a higher seed field emergence. Although additional management and selection could overcome the phytate reduction, the mechanisms of seed germination remain unknown. RESULTS: A comparative proteomic analysis was conducted between two low phytic acid (LPA) soybean mutants (TW-1-M and TW-1), both of which had a deletion of 2 bp in the GmMIPS1 gene. However, the TW-1 seeds showed a significantly lower field emergence compared to the TW-1-M. There were 282 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) identified between two mutants at the three stages. Among these DAPs, 80 were down-accumulated and 202 were up-accumulated. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the identified proteins were related to functional categories of oxidation reduction, response to stimulus and stress, dormancy and germination processes and catalytic activity. KEGG analysis showed that these DAPs were mainly involved in energy metabolism and anti-stress pathways. Based upon the conjoint analysis of DAPs with the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) previously published among three germination stages in two LPA mutants, 30 shared DAPs/DEGs were identified with different patterns, including plant seed protein, beta-amylase, protein disulfide-isomerase, disease resistance protein, pyrophosphate-fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, cysteine proteinase inhibitor, non-specific lipid-transfer protein, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase. CONCLUSIONS: Seed germination is a very complex process in LPA soybean mutants. The TW-1-M and TW-1 showed many DAPs involved in seed germination. The differential accumulation of these proteins could result in the difference of seed field emergence between the two mutants. The high germination rate in the TW-1-M might be strongly attributed to reactive oxygen species-related and plant hormone-related genes. All these findings would help us further explore the germination mechanisms in LPA crops.

BMC Plant Biol ; 17(1): 16, 2017 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100173


BACKGROUND: Seed germination is important to soybean (Glycine max) growth and development, ultimately affecting soybean yield. A lower seed field emergence has been the main hindrance for breeding soybeans low in phytate. Although this reduction could be overcome by additional breeding and selection, the mechanisms of seed germination in different low phytate mutants remain unknown. In this study, we performed a comparative transcript analysis of two low phytate soybean mutants (TW-1 and TW-1-M), which have the same mutation, a 2 bp deletion in GmMIPS1, but show a significant difference in seed field emergence, TW-1-M was higher than that of TW-1 . RESULTS: Numerous genes analyzed by RNA-Seq showed markedly different expression levels between TW-1-M and TW-1 mutants. Approximately 30,000-35,000 read-mapped genes and ~21000-25000 expressed genes were identified for each library. There were ~3900-9200 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each contrast library, the number of up-regulated genes was similar with down-regulated genes in the mutant TW-1and TW-1-M. Gene ontology functional categories of DEGs indicated that the ethylene-mediated signaling pathway, the abscisic acid-mediated signaling pathway, response to hormone, ethylene biosynthetic process, ethylene metabolic process, regulation of hormone levels, and oxidation-reduction process, regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic process and regulation of abscisic acid-activated signaling pathway had high correlations with seed germination. In total, 2457 DEGs involved in the above functional categories were identified. Twenty-two genes with 20 biological functions were the most highly up/down- regulated (absolute value Log2FC >5) in the high field emergence mutant TW-1-M and were related to metabolic or signaling pathways. Fifty-seven genes with 36 biological functions had the greatest expression abundance (FRPM >100) in germination-related pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Seed germination in the soybean low phytate mutants is a very complex process, which involves a series of physiological, morphological and transcriptional changes. Compared with TW-1, TW-1-M had a very different gene expression profile, which included genes related to plant hormones, antioxidation, anti-stress and energy metabolism processes. Our research provides a molecular basis for understanding germination mechanisms, and is also an important resource for the genetic analysis of germination in low phytate crops. Plant hormone- and antioxidation-related genes might strongly contribute to the high germination rate in the TW-1-M mutant.

Genoma de Planta , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Food Chem ; 196: 776-82, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26593554


Sugar and protein are important quality traits in soybean seeds for making soy-based food products. However, the investigations on both compositions and their relationship have rarely been reported. In this study, a total of 35 soybean germplasms collected from Zhejiang province of China, were evaluated for both water-soluble sugar and protein. The total water-soluble sugar (TWSS) content of the germplasms studied ranged from 84.70 to 140.91 mg/g and the water-soluble protein (WSP) content varied from 26.5% to 36.0%. The WSP content showed positive correlations with the TWSS and sucrose contents but negative correlations with the fructose and glucose contents. The clustering showed the 35 germplasms could be divided into four groups with specific contents of sugar and protein. The combination of water-soluble sugar and protein profiles provides useful information for future breeding and genetic research. This investigation will facilitate future work for seed quality improvement.

Carboidratos/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Soja/química , Cruzamento , China , Sementes/química , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/classificação
Theor Appl Genet ; 125(7): 1413-23, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22733447


Phytic acid (myo-inositol 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hexakisphosphate) is an important constituent of soybean meal. Since phytic acid and its mineral salts (phytates) are almost indigestible for monogastrics, their abundance in grain food/feed causes nutritional and environmental problems; interest in breeding low phytic acid has therefore increased considerably. Based on gene mapping and the characteristics of inositol polyphosphates profile in the seeds of a soybean mutant line Gm-lpa-ZC-2, the soybean ortholog of inositol 1,3,4,5,6 pentakisphosphate (InsP(5)) 2-kinase (IPK1), which transforms InsP(5) into phytic acid, was first hypothesized as the candidate gene responsible for the low phytic acid alteration in Gm-lpa-ZC-2. One IPK1 ortholog (Glyma14g07880, GmIPK1) was then identified in the mapped region on chromosome 14. Sequencing revealed a G → A point mutation in the genomic DNA sequence and the exclusion of the entire fifth exon in the cDNA sequence of GmIPK1 in Gm-lpa-ZC-2 compared with its wild-type progenitor Zhechun No. 3. The excluded exon encodes 37 amino acids that spread across two conserved IPK1 motifs. Furthermore, complete co-segregation of low phytic acid phenotype with the G → A mutation was observed in the F(2) population of ZC-lpa x Zhexiandou No. 4 (a wild-type cultivar). Put together, the G → A point mutation affected the pre-mRNA splicing and resulted in the exclusion of the fifth exon of GmIPK1 which is expected to disrupt the GmIPK1 functionality, leading to low phytic acid level in Gm-lpa-ZC-2. Gm-lpa-ZC-2, would be a good germplasm source in low phytic acid soybean breeding.

Éxons/genética , Mutação/genética , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Soja/enzimologia , Soja/genética , Sequência de Bases , Cruzamentos Genéticos , DNA Complementar/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Homozigoto , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/embriologia , Transcrição Genética
J Agric Food Chem ; 57(9): 3632-8, 2009 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19323582


Reduction of phytic acid in soybean seeds has the potential to improve the nutritional value of soybean meal and lessen phosphorus pollution in large scale animal farming. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of two new low phytic acid (LPA) mutations on seed quality and nutritional traits. Multilocation/season comparative analyses showed that the two mutations did not affect the concentration of crude protein, any of the individual amino acids, crude oil, and individual saturated fatty acids. Among other traits, Gm-lpa-TW75-1 had consistently higher sucrose contents (+47.4-86.1%) and lower raffinose contents (-74.2 to -84.3%) than those of wild type (WT) parent Taiwan 75; Gm-lpa-ZC-2 had higher total isoflavone contents (3038.8-4305.4 microg/g) than its parent Zhechun # 3 (1583.6-2644.9 microg/g) in all environments. Further tests of homozygous F(3) progenies of the cross Gm-lpa-ZC-2 x Wuxing # 4 (WT variety) showed that LPA lines had a mean content of total isoflavone significantly higher than WT lines. This study demonstrated that two LPA mutant genes have no negative effects on seed quality and nutritional traits; they instead have the potential to improve a few other properties. Therefore, these two mutant genes are valuable genetic resources for breeding high quality soybean varieties.

Mutação , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Sementes/genética , Soja/genética , Cruzamento , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Isoflavonas/análise , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Rafinose/análise , Estações do Ano , Sementes/química , Soja/química , Sacarose/análise
Theor Appl Genet ; 115(7): 945-57, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17701395


Phytic acid (PA, myo-inositol 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hexakisphosphate) is important to the nutritional quality of soybean meal. Organic phosphorus (P) in PA is indigestible in humans and non-ruminant animals, which affects nutrition and causes P pollution of ground water from animal wastes. Two novel soybean [(Glycine max L. (Merr.)] low phytic acid (lpa) mutations were isolated and characterized. Gm-lpa-TW-1 had a phytic acid P (PA-P) reduction of 66.6% and a sixfold increase in inorganic P (Pi), and Gm-lpa-ZC-2 had a PA-P reduction of 46.3% and a 1.4-fold increase in Pi, compared with their respective non-mutant progenitor lines. The reduction of PA-P and increase of Pi in Gm-lpa-TW-1 were molar equivalent; the decrease of PA-P in Gm-lpa-ZC-2, however, was accompanied by the increase of both Pi and lower inositol phosphates. In both mutant lines, the total P content remained similar to their wild type parents. The two lpa mutations were both inherited in a single recessive gene model but were non-allelic. Sequence data and progeny analysis indicate that Gm-lpa-TW-1 lpa mutation resulted from a 2 bp deletion in the soybean D: -myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (MIPS1 EC gene 1 (MIPS1). The lpa mutation in Gm-lpa-ZC-2 was mapped on LG B2, closely linked with microsatellite loci Satt416 and Satt168, at genetic distances of approximately 4.63 and approximately 9.25 cM, respectively. Thus this mutation probably represents a novel soybean lpa locus. The seed emergence rate of Gm-lpa-ZC-2 was similar to its progenitor line and was not affected by seed source and its lpa mutation. However, Gm-lpa-TW-1 had a significantly reduced field emergence when seeds were produced in a subtropic environment. Field tests of the mutants and their progenies further demonstrated that the lpa mutation in Gm-lpa-ZC-2 does not negatively affect plant yield traits. These results will advance understanding of the genetic, biochemical and molecular control of PA synthesis in soybean. The novel lpa mutation in Gm-lpa-ZC-2, together with linked simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, will be of value for breeding productive lpa soybeans, with meal high in digestible Pi eventually to improve animal nutrition and lessen environmental pollution.

Mutação , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Ácido Fítico/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo