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1.
J Virol ; : JVI0147321, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757839

RESUMO

Rabies is an old zoonotic disease caused by rabies virus (RABV), but the pathogenic mechanism of RABV is still not completely understood. Lipid droplets have been reported to play a role in pathogenesis of several viruses. However, its role on RABV infection remains unclear. Here, we initially found that RABV infection upregulated lipid droplet (LD) production in multiple cells and mouse brains. After the treatment of atorvastatin, a specific inhibitor of LD, RABV replication in N2a cells decreased. Then we found that RABV infection could upregulate N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1), which in turn enhance the expression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1/2 (DGAT1/2). DGAT1/2 could elevate cellular triglycerides synthesis and ultimately promote intracellular LD formation. Furthermore, we found that RABV-M and RABV-G, which were mainly involved in the viral budding process, could colocalize with LDs, indicating that RABV might utilize LDs as a carrier to facilitate viral budding and eventually increase virus production. Taken together, our study reveals that lipid droplets are beneficial for RABV replication and their biogenesis is regulated via NDRG1-DGAT1/2 pathway, which provides novel potential targets for developing anti-RABV drugs. IMPORTANCE Lipid droplets have been proven to play an important role in viral infections, but its role in RABV infection has not yet been elaborated. Here, we find that RABV infection upregulates the generation of LDs by enhancing the expression of N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1). Then NDRG1 elevated cellular triglycerides synthesis by increasing the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1/2 (DGAT1/2), which promotes the biogenesis of LDs. RABV-M and RABV-G, which are the major proteins involved in viral budding, could utilize LDs as a carrier and transport to cell membrane, resulting in enhanced virus budding. Our findings will extend the knowledge of lipid metabolism in RABV infection and help to explore potential therapeutic targets for RABV.

3.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(39): 831-834, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595002
4.
J Gen Virol ; 102(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661517

RESUMO

Rabies is a zoonotic disease caused by the rabies virus (RABV). RABV can lead to fatal encephalitis and is still a serious threat in most parts of the world. Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) is the main transcriptional regulator of type I IFN, and it is crucial for the induction of IFNα/ß and the type I IFN-dependent immune response. In this study, we focused on the role of IRF7 in the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of RABV using an IRF7-/- mouse model. The results showed that the absence of IRF7 made mice more susceptible to RABV, because IRF7 restricted the replication of RABV in the early stage of infection. IRF7 deficiency affected the recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells to the draining lymph nodes (dLNs), reduced the production of type I IFN and expression of IFN-stimulated genes. Furthermore, we found that the ability to produce specific RABV-neutralizing antibody was impaired in IRF7-/- mice. Consistently, IRF7 deficiency affected the recruitment of germinal-centre B cells to dLNs, and the generation of plasma cells and RABV-specific antibody secreting cells. Moreover, the absence of IRF7 downregulated the induction of IFN-γ and reduced type 1 T helper cell (Th1)-dependent antibody production. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that IRF7 promotes humoral immune responses and compromises the pathogenicity of RABV in a mouse model.


Assuntos
Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/fisiologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Células Produtoras de Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunidade Humoral , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/deficiência , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/genética , Interferons/análise , Linfonodos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Carga Viral
5.
J Virol ; 95(24): e0082921, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613801

RESUMO

Rabies, caused by rabies virus (RABV), is fatal to both humans and animals around the world. Effective clinical therapy for rabies has not been achieved, and vaccination is the most effective means of preventing and controlling rabies. Although different vaccines, such as live attenuated and inactivated vaccines, can induce different immune responses, different expressions of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) also cause diverse immune responses. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a pivotal PRR that induces cytokine production and bridges innate and adaptive immunity. Importantly, TLR4 recognizes various virus-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and virus-induced damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), usually leading to the activation of immune cells. However, the role of TLR4 in the humoral immune response induced by RABV has not yet been revealed. Based on TLR4-deficient (TLR4-/-) and wild-type (WT) mouse models, we report that TLR4-dependent recruitment of the conventional type 2 dendritic cells (CD8α- CD11b+ cDC2) into secondary lymph organs (SLOs) is critical for antigen presentation. cDC2-initiated differentiation of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells promotes the proliferation of germinal center (GC) B cells, the formation of GCs, and the production of plasma cells (PCs), all of which contribute to the production of RABV-specific IgG and virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs). Collectively, our work demonstrates that TLR4 is necessary for the recruitment of cDC2 and for the induction of RABV-induced humoral immunity, which is regulated by the cDC2-Tfh-GC B axis. IMPORTANCE Vaccination is the most efficient method to prevent rabies. TLR4, a well-known immune sensor, plays a critical role in initiating innate immune response. Here, we found that TLR4-deficient (TLR4-/-) mice suppressed the induction of humoral immune response after immunization with rabies virus (RABV), including reduced production of VNAs and RABV-specific IgG compared to that occurred in wild-type (WT) mice. As a consequence, TLR4-/- mice exhibited higher mortality than that of WT mice after challenge with virulent RABV. Importantly, further investigation found that TLR4 signaling promoted the recruitment of cDC2 (CD8α+ CD11b-), a subset of cDCs known to induce CD4+ T-cell immunity through their MHC-II presentation machinery. Our results imply that TLR4 is indispensable for an efficient humoral response to rabies vaccine, which provides new insight into the development of novel rabies vaccines.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 702273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489891

RESUMO

Rabies, a fatal disease in humans and other mammals, is caused by the rabies virus (RABV), and it poses a public health threat in many parts of the world. Once symptoms of rabies appear, the mortality is near 100%. There is currently no effective treatment for rabies. In our study, two human-derived RABV-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA), CR57 and CR4098, were cloned into adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, and recombinant AAVs expressing RVNA were evaluated for postexposure prophylaxis after intrathecal injection into RABV-infected rats. At 4days post-infection with a lethal dose of RABV, 60% of the rats that received an intrathecal injection of AAV-CR57 survived, while 100% of the rats inoculated with AAV-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) succumbed to rabies. Overall, these results demonstrate that AAV-encoding RVNA can be utilized as a potential human rabies postexposure prophylaxis.

7.
J Virol ; 95(23): e0141421, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495701

RESUMO

Rabies, caused by rabies virus (RABV), remains a serious threat to public health in most countries worldwide. At present, the administration of rabies vaccines has been the most effective strategy to control rabies. Herein, we evaluate the effect of colloidal manganese salt (Mn jelly [MnJ]) as an adjuvant of rabies vaccine in mice, cats, and dogs. The results showed that MnJ promoted type I interferon (IFN-I) and cytokine production in vitro and the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo. Besides, MnJ serving as an adjuvant for rabies vaccines could significantly facilitate the generation of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, germinal center (GC) B cells, plasma cells (PCs), and RABV-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), consequently improve the immunogenicity of rabies vaccines, and provide better protection against virulent RABV challenge. Similarly, MnJ enhanced the humoral immune response in cats and dogs as well. Collectively, our results suggest that MnJ can facilitate the maturation of DCs during rabies vaccination, which can be a promising adjuvant candidate for rabies vaccines. IMPORTANCE Extending the humoral immune response by using adjuvants is an important strategy for vaccine development. In this study, a novel adjuvant, MnJ, supplemented in rabies vaccines was evaluated in mice, cats, and dogs. Our results in the mouse model revealed that MnJ increased the numbers of mature DCs, Tfh cells, GC B cells, PCs, and RABV-specific ASCs, resulting in enhanced immunogenicity and protection rate of rabies vaccines. We further found that MnJ had the same stimulative effect in cats and dogs. Our study provides the first evidence that MnJ serving as a novel adjuvant of rabies vaccines can boost the immune response in both a mouse and pet model.

8.
mSystems ; 6(4): e0078321, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402643

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis can invade different cells with distinct persistence fates because cells are equipped with different host restriction factors. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we infected THP1 and Raw264.7 macrophages cell lines, A549 epithelial cell line, and hBMEC and bEnd.3 endothelial cell lines with M. tuberculosis and demonstrated that M. tuberculosis significantly inhibited lysosome acidification in THP1, hBMEC, A549, and Raw264.7 cells, while, in bEnd.3 cells, M. tuberculosis was mainly delivered into acidified phagolysosomes and auto-lysosomes. The systematic gene profile analysis of different cells and intracellular M. tuberculosis showed that the phagosome autophagy-pathway-related genes itgb3 and atg3 were highly expressed in bEnd.3 cells. Knockdown of these genes significantly increased the number of viable intracellular M. tuberculosis bacilli by altering phagosomal trafficking in bEnd.3 cells. Treatment with itgb3 agonist significantly decreased M. tuberculosis survival in vivo. These findings could facilitate the identification of anti-M. tuberculosis host genes and guide M. tuberculosis-resistant livestock breeding. IMPORTANCE As an intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis could avoid host cell immune clearance using multiple strategies for its long-term survival. Understanding these processes could facilitate the development of new approaches to restrict intracellular M. tuberculosis survival. Here, we characterized the detailed molecular events occurring during intracellular trafficking of M. tuberculosis in macrophage, epithelial, and endothelial cell lines and found that ITGB3 facilitates M. tuberculosis clearance in endothelial cells through altering phagosomal trafficking. Meanwhile, the treatment with ITGB3 agonist could reduce bacterial load in vivo. Our results identified new anti-M. tuberculosis restriction factors and illuminated a new anti-M. tuberculosis defense mechanism.

9.
J Virol ; 95(20): e0079021, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346765

RESUMO

Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that causes encephalitis in mammals, and vaccination is the most effective method to control and eliminate rabies. Virus-like vesicles (VLVs), which are characterized as infectious, self-propagating membrane-enveloped particles composed of only Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicase and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G), have been proven safe and efficient as vaccine candidates. However, previous studies showed that VLVs containing rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) grew at relatively low titers in cells, impeding their potential use as a rabies vaccine. In this study, we constructed novel VLVs by transfection of a mutant SFV RNA replicon encoding RABV-G. We found that these VLVs could self-propagate efficiently in cell culture and could evolve to high titers (approximately 108 focus-forming units [FFU]/ml) by extensive passaging 25 times in BHK-21 cells. Furthermore, we found that the evolved amino acid changes in SFV nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) at positions 470 and 482 was critical for this high-titer phenotype. Remarkably, VLVs could induce robust type I interferon (IFN) expression in BV2 cells and were highly sensitive to IFN-α. We found that direct inoculation of VLVs into the mouse brain caused reduced body weight loss, mortality, and neuroinflammation compared with the RABV vaccine strain. Finally, it could induce increased generation of germinal center (GC) B cells, plasma cells (PCs), and virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs), as well as provide protection against virulent RABV challenge in immunized mice. This study demonstrated that VLVs containing RABV-G could proliferate in cells and were highly evolvable, revealing the feasibility of developing an economic, safe, and efficacious rabies vaccine. IMPORTANCE VLVs have been shown to represent a more versatile and superior vaccine platform. In previous studies, VLVs containing the Semliki Forest virus replicase (SFV nsP1 to nsP4) and rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) grew to relatively low titers in cells. In our study, we not only succeeded in generating VLVs that proliferate in cells and stably express RABV-G, but the VLVs that evolved grew to higher titers, reaching 108 FFU/ml. We also found that nucleic acid changes at positions 470 and 482 in nsP1 were vital for this high-titer phenotype. Moreover, the VLVs that evolved in our studies were highly attenuated in mice, induced potent immunity, and protected mice from lethal RABV infection. Collectively, our study showed that high titers of VLVs containing RABV-G were achieved, demonstrating that these VLVs could be an economical, safe, and efficacious rabies vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Raiva/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/genética , Imunização/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Raiva/metabolismo , Vacinas Antirrábicas/metabolismo , Vacinas Antirrábicas/farmacologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Vírus da Floresta de Semliki/imunologia , Vesiculovirus/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
10.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 658637, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276592

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a debilitating infectious disease responsible for more than one million deaths per year. The emergence of drug-resistant TB poses an urgent need for the development of new anti-TB drugs. In this study, we screened a library of over 4,000 small molecules and found that orbifloxacin and the peptide AK15 possess significant bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in vitro. Orbifloxacin also showed an effective ability on the clearance of intracellular Mtb and protect mice from a strong inflammatory response but not AK15. Moreover, we identified 17 nucleotide mutations responsible for orbifloxacin resistance by whole-genome sequencing. A critical point mutation (D94G) of the DNA gyrase (gyrA) gene was found to be the key role of resistance to orbifloxacin. The computational docking revealed that GyrA D94G point mutation can disrupt the orbifloxacin-protein gyrase interactions mediated by magnesium ion bridge. Overall, this study indicated the potential ability of orbifloxacin as an anti-tuberculosis drug, which can be used either alone or in combination with first-line antibiotics to achieve more effective therapy on TB.

11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 913-928, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905300

RESUMO

Rabies remains a public health threat in most parts of the world. Dogs, especially stray dogs, are the main sources of rabies transmission in developing countries, while wild animals are primarily responsible for the spread of rabies in developed countries and play an emerging role in rabies transmission in developing countries. Oral vaccination is the most practical method for rabies control in these animals, and the greatest challenge for oral vaccination is the hostile environment and large quantity of proteases in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, a promising adjuvant with potential protease inhibitory activity, unlipidated outer membrane protein 19 (U-OMP19), was inserted into the genome of the recombinant rabies virus (rRABV) strain LBNSE, designated LBNSE-U-OMP19, and the immunogenicity of LBNSE-U-OMP19 was investigated. LBNSE-U-OMP19 could potentially protect viral glycoprotein from digestion by gastrointestinal fluids in vitro. The expression of U-OMP19 attenuated viral pathogenicity by restricting viral replication in the central nervous system (CNS) and repressing the production of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. After oral vaccination, LBNSE-U-OMP19 recruited dendritic cells (DCs), follicular helper T (TFH) cells and germinal center (GC) B cells, promoted the formation of GCs, and increased the population of plasma cells in immunized mice, resulting in higher levels of RABV-neutralizing antibodies and better protection in mice immunized with LBNSE-U-OMP19 than in those immunized with the parent virus LBNSE. Together, our data suggest that LBNSE-U-OMP19 is a promising candidate for oral rabies vaccines.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Centro Germinativo/metabolismo , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Raiva/fisiologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunização , Camundongos , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 481-492, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691601

RESUMO

The unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a serious threat to global public health. Development of effective therapies against SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activity of a remdesivir parent nucleotide analog, GS441524, which targets the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme, and a feline coronavirus prodrug, GC376, which targets its main protease, using a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 infected mouse model. Our results showed that GS441524 effectively blocked the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2 in the mouse upper and lower respiratory tracts via combined intranasal (i.n.) and intramuscular (i.m.) treatment. However, the ability of high-dose GC376 (i.m. or i.n. and i.m.) was weaker than GS441524. Notably, low-dose combined application of GS441524 with GC376 could effectively protect mice against SARS-CoV-2 infection via i.n. or i.n. and i.m. treatment. Moreover, we found that the pharmacokinetic properties of GS441524 is better than GC376, and combined application of GC376 and GS441524 had a synergistic effect. Our findings support the further evaluation of the combined application of GC376 and GS441524 in future clinical studies.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Células Vero
13.
Virol Sin ; 36(2): 220-230, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411169

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious disease caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV) with clinical symptoms of high fever, hemorrhages and high mortality rate, posing a threat to the global swine industry and food security. Quarantine and control of ASFV is crucial for preventing swine industry from ASFV infection. In this study, a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA)-CRISPR-based nucleic acid detection method was developed for diagnosing ASF. As a highly sensitive method, RPA-CRISPR can detect even a single copy of ASFV plasmid and genomic DNA by determining fluorescence signal induced by collateral cleavage of CRISPR-lwCas13a (previously known as C2c2) through quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and has the same or even higher sensitivity than the traditional qPCR method. A lateral flow strip was developed and used in combination with RPA-CRISPR for ASFV detection with the same level of sensitivity of TaqMan qPCR. Likewise, RPA-CRISPR is capable of distinguishing ASFV genomic DNA from viral DNA/RNA of other porcine viruses without any cross-reactivity. This diagnostic method is also available for diagnosing ASFV clinical DNA samples with coincidence rate of 100% for both ASFV positive and negative samples. RPA-CRISPR has great potential for clinical quarantine of ASFV in swine industry and food security.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana/diagnóstico , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Animais , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Recombinases/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suínos
14.
J Virol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414160

RESUMO

Coronaviruses that infect humans belong to the Alpha-coronavirus (including HCoV-229E) and Beta-coronavirus (including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) genera. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 is currently a major threat to public health worldwide. The spike (S) homotrimers bind to their receptors via the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which is a major target to block viral entry. In this study, we selected Alpha-coronavirus (HCoV-229E) and Beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) as models. Their RBDs exist two different conformational states (lying or standing) in the prefusion S-trimer structure. Then, the differences in the immune responses to RBDs from these coronaviruses were analyzed structurally and immunologically. Our results showed that more RBD-specific antibodies (antibody titers: 1.28×105; 2.75×105) were induced by the S-trimer with the RBD in the "standing" state (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) than the S-trimer with the RBD in the "lying" state (HCoV-229E, antibody titers: <500), and more S-trimer-specific antibodies were induced by the RBD in the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (antibody titers: 6.72×105; 5×105) than HCoV-229E (antibody titers:1.125×103). Besides, we found that the ability of the HCoV-229E RBD to induce neutralizing antibodies was lower than S-trimer, and the intact and stable S1 subunit was essential for producing efficient neutralizing antibodies against HCoV-229E. Importantly, our results reveal different vaccine strategies for coronaviruses, and S-trimer is better than RBD as a target for vaccine development in Alpha-coronavirus Our findings will provide important implications for future development of coronavirus vaccines.Importance Outbreak of coronaviruses, especially SARS-CoV-2, poses a serious threat to global public health. Development of vaccines to prevent the coronaviruses that can infect humans has always been a top priority. Coronavirus spike (S) protein is considered as a major target for vaccine development. Currently, structural studies have shown that Alpha-coronavirus (HCoV-229E) and Beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) RBDs are in "lying" and "standing" states in the prefusion S-trimer structure. Here, we evaluated the ability of S-trimer and RBD to induce neutralizing antibodies among these coronaviruses. Our results showed that the S-trimer and RBD are both candidates for subunit vaccines in Beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) with a RBD "standing" state. However, for Alpha-coronavirus (HCoV-229E) with a RBD "lying" state, the S-trimer may be more suitable for subunit vaccines than the RBD. Our results will provide novel ideas for the development of vaccines targeting S protein in the future.

15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 141, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420048

RESUMO

Coronaviruses spike (S) glycoproteins mediate viral entry into host cells by binding to host receptors. However, how the S1 subunit undergoes conformational changes for receptor recognition has not been elucidated in Alphacoronavirus. Here, we report the cryo-EM structures of the HCoV-229E S trimer in prefusion state with two conformations. The activated conformation may pose the potential exposure of the S1-RBDs by decreasing of the interaction area between the S1-RBDs and the surrounding S1-NTDs and S1-RBDs compared to the closed conformation. Furthermore, structural comparison of our structures with the previously reported HCoV-229E S structure showed that the S trimers trended to open the S2 subunit from the closed conformation to open conformation, which could promote the transition from pre- to postfusion. Our results provide insights into the mechanisms involved in S glycoprotein-mediated Alphacoronavirus entry and have implications for vaccine and therapeutic antibody design.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD13/metabolismo , Coronavirus Humano 229E/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Multimerização Proteica/fisiologia , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/ultraestrutura
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(3): 1216-1228, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767733

RESUMO

Eliminating rabies is challenging in many developing countries, especially in rural areas. In contrast to the annual decline of human cases in China in last decade, the incidence of rabies in livestock has been increasingly reported. This paper reports the rabies outbreaks in beef cattle (Angus) in Shaanxi Province, China, which caused 31 and 5 deaths at an attack rate of 19.4% (95% CI: 13.6%-26.4%) and 0.25% (95% CI: 0.1%-0.6%) in a satellite cow farm (farm A) and a core intensive farm (farm B), respectively. The rabies infection was confirmed by several laboratory tests, and rabies virus (RABV) strains SXBJ15 and SXYL15 were isolated and characterized from farm A and B, respectively. The two strains were found to have a high genomic sequence similarity to the dog-associated China clade I strains previously identified in the neighbouring area. SXBJ15 was shown to have a higher mouse pathogenicity (1.07) than SXYL15 (0.45). RABV was also detected in the saliva and salivary glands from the affected cattle. The potential causes were investigated on the farm, and the biosecurity scores were 20 and 64 (a full score of 82) for farms A and B, respectively. The rabies infection is likely to result from rabid free-roaming dogs (FRDs). On farm A with more cow deaths, the rabies transmission between animals can be attributed to the improper disposal of aborted foetuses and placental materials as a food source for rabid FRDs, high stocking density and drinking water sharing. Additionally, vaccinating cattle with a canine vaccine was shown to help stop the spread of rabies in herds. These results indicate that the occurrence of RABV on cattle farms can be prevented by improving biosecurity measures to control the entry of rural FRDs on the farm and immunizing farm cattle against rabies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Fazendas , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Gado , Camundongos , Placenta , Gravidez , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/virologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade
17.
J Gen Virol ; 102(3)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284098

RESUMO

Rabies is a lethal disease caused by Rabies lyssavirus, commonly known as rabies virus (RABV), and results in nearly 100 % death once clinical symptoms occur in human and animals. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be associated with viral infection. But the role of lncRNAs involved in RABV infection is still elusive. In this study, we performed global transcriptome analysis of both of lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in wild-type (WT) and lab-attenuated RABV-infected mouse brains by using next-generation sequencing. The differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs were analysed by using the edgeR package. We identified 1422 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 4475 differentially expressed mRNAs by comparing WT and lab-attenuated RABV-infected brains. Then we predicted the enriched biological pathways by the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database based on the differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs. Our analysis revealed the relationships between lncRNAs and RABV-infection-associated immune response and ion transport-related pathways, which provide a fresh insight into the potential role of lncRNA in immune evasion and neuron injury induced by WT RABV.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Raiva/genética , Raiva/virologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico/genética , Encéfalo/virologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunológico/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais , Transmissão Sináptica/genética , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima , Carga Viral
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 66-80, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327866

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are potential pandemic pathogens that can infect a variety of hosts and cause respiratory, enteric, hepatic and neurological diseases. Nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3), an essential component of the replication/transcription complex, is one of the most important antiviral targets. Here, we report the first crystal structure of multiple functional domains from porcine delta-coronavirus (PDCoV) nsp3, including the macro domain (Macro), ubiquitin-like domain 2 (Ubl2) and papain-like protease (PLpro) catalytic domain. In the asymmetric unit, two of the subunits form the head-to-tail homodimer with an interaction interface between Macro and PLpro. However, PDCoV Macro-Ubl2-PLpro mainly exists as a monomer in solution. Then, we conducted fluorescent resonance energy transfer-based protease assays and found that PDCoV PLpro can cleave a peptide by mimicking the cognate nsp2/nsp3 cleavage site in peptide substrates and exhibits deubiquitinating and de-interferon stimulated gene(deISGylating) activities by hydrolysing ubiquitin-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (Ub-AMC) and ISG15-AMC substrates. Moreover, the deletion of Macro or Macro-Ubl2 decreased the enzyme activity of PLpro, indicating that Macro and Ubl2 play important roles in maintaining the stability of the PLpro domain. Two active sites of PLpro, Cys260 and His398, were determined; unexpectedly, the conserved site Asp412 was not the third active site. Furthermore, the motif "NGYDT" (amino acids 409-413) was important for stabilizing the enzyme activity of PLpro, and the N409A mutant significantly decreased the enzyme activity of PLpro. These results provide novel insights into the replication mechanism of CoV and new clues for future drug design.


Assuntos
Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/química , Domínio Catalítico , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/fisiologia , Cristalização , Células HeLa , Humanos , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Ubiquitinação
19.
Clin Transl Med ; 10(4): e161, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiome plays a crucial role in modulating human and animal immune responses. Rabies is a fatal zoonosis causing encephalitis in mammals and vaccination is the most effective method to control and eliminate rabies. The relationship between the gut microbiome and humoral immunity post rabies vaccination has not been investigated yet. METHODS: Mice orally administrated with a cocktail of broad-spectrum antibiotics were inoculated with rabies vaccines, and humoral immune response was analyzed at indicated time points. The 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed on fecal samples from groups in vancomycin-treated and untreated mice. Mice were immunized with rabies vaccines and virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) levels were measured, resulting in VNA high (H) and low (L) groups. Then 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on fecal samples from H and L group mice. RESULTS: After antibiotic (Abx) treatment, mice had decreased levels of rabies virus (RABV)-specific IgM, IgG, and virus-neutralizing antibody compared with untreated mice. Abx-treated mice had fewer T follicular helper cells, germinal center B cells, and antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in lymph nodes than did untreated mice. Gut microbiome facilitated secondary immune responses by increasing the generation of ASCs. Treatment with vancomycin alone had a similarly impaired effect on the humoral immune responses compared with Abx-treated mice. From the natural population group of mice received rabies vaccines, VNA titers vary significantly and the abundance of Clostridiales and Lachnospiraceae was positively associated with the antibody titers in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the evidence that the gut microbiome impacts humoral immunity post rabies vaccination, and further investigation of the mechanism will help the development of novel adjuvants and vaccines.

20.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 228, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The central nervous system (CNS) is vulnerable to viral infection, yet few host factors in the CNS are known to defend against invasion by neurotropic viruses. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been revealed to play critical roles in a wide variety of biological processes and are highly abundant in the mammalian brain, but their roles in defending against invasion of pathogens into the CNS remain unclear. RESULTS: We report here that multiple neurotropic viruses, including rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, Semliki Forest virus, and herpes simplex virus 1, elicit the neuronal expression of a host-encoded lncRNA EDAL. EDAL inhibits the replication of these neurotropic viruses in neuronal cells and rabies virus infection in mouse brains. EDAL binds to the conserved histone methyltransferase enhancer of zest homolog 2 (EZH2) and specifically causes EZH2 degradation via lysosomes, reducing the cellular H3K27me3 level. The antiviral function of EDAL resides in a 56-nt antiviral substructure through which its 18-nt helix-loop intimately contacts multiple EZH2 sites surrounding T309, a known O-GlcNAcylation site. EDAL positively regulates the transcription of Pcp4l1 encoding a 10-kDa peptide, which inhibits the replication of multiple neurotropic viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that a neuronal lncRNA can exert an effective antiviral function via blocking a specific O-GlcNAcylation that determines EZH2 lysosomal degradation, rather than the traditional interferon-dependent pathway.


Assuntos
Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Viroses/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Indóis , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Piridonas , Raiva/metabolismo , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Células Vero , Replicação Viral
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