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Acta Med Acad ; 48(2): 232-249, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718225


The purpose of this paper is to bring to light the biographical details, the professional work and the publishing activities of Boguslawa Keckova (Bohuslava Kecková in Czech and Keck in German), who functioned as an Austro-Hungarian health officer in Mostar from 1893 to 1911 during the period of the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Keckova, who came from Prague, was the second of nine female physicians to be employed by the Austro-Hungarian authorities between 1892 and 1918. Keckova contributed significantly to the improvement of public health and hygiene in BH, especially by organising the medical treatment of Muslim women. She published a series of popular medical articles, both in Czech and in Bosnian. Her medical articles in the Mostar newspaper, 'Osvit', were among the first in BH to promote public health education and aimed at improving the health of the population. In the Czech Republic, 'Bohuslava Kecková' is renowned for being the first Czech female physician to graduate, who, due to Austria's conservativism and anti-feminism, had been forced to study and practise abroad. After Keckova's efforts to have her Swiss MD degree (1880) recognised in Austria failed in 1882, she acquired an Austrian midwife's diploma and established a maternity home in Prague. In 1892, she accepted the invitation to serve as an Austro-Hungarian female health officer in Mostar, where she initialised and popularised the utilisation of public health among (Muslim) women. CONCLUSION: Boguslawa Keckova's work as a physician, medical writer and health educator, which she continued tirelessly until her death in 1911, was based on gender-specific socialmedical concepts, which were at the core of the contemporary Czech feminist movement.

Acta Med Acad ; 48(1): 121-126, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264440


This biographical note details Anna Bayerová's (1853-1924) activities as the first female Austro-Hungarian health officer in 1878 to1918 occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Anna Bayerová is known as a heroine of Czech feminism and the 'first Czech female physician', though she only practised in the Czech lands from 1913 to 1916. In 1891, Bayerová was enrolled as the first Austro-Hungarian female health officer and assigned to treat Muslim women in the district of Tuzla, Bosnia. She pursued this mission for the first three months of 1892, had herself transferred to Sarajevo in the summer, and soon thereafter quitted the service. Her biographers point to a series of political and personal motivations to abandon her mission in Bosnia, which, from the viewpoint of Czech feminists, included fulfilling her professional duties in an exemplary way. She spent most of her professional life as a physician in Switzerland and did not request Austrian recognition of her medical degree until 1913. Bayerová died in Prague in 1924. Conclusion. Bayerová, partly for political reasons and partly due to her panic-fuelled fear of catching tuberculosis, quitted her role as the first Austro-Hungarian female health officer in BH soon after her arrival in 1892.

Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/história , Grupos Étnicos/história , Médicas/história , Áustria-Hungria , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Tchecoslováquia , Feminino , Feminismo/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Islamismo , Suíça
Acta Med Acad ; 48(3): 317-327, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124632


A biographical note on Teodora Krajewska (1854-1935) reveals the details of her life and professional activities as an Austro-Hungarian and Yugoslav health officer (Amtsärztin) in Tuzla (1893-1899) and in Sarajevo (1899-1923). Teodora Krajewska, née Kosmowska was the third of nine official female doctors employed by the Austro-Hungarian administration in occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH: 1878-1918) and charged with the special task of popularising public health and hygiene, particularly among Muslim women. A Polish intellectual and fervent patriot from Warsaw, Krajewska had left Congress Poland as a young widow in 1883 to study medicine in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1890, she became the first woman in Europe to be employed as an assistant professor at the medical faculty of the University of Geneva but was forced to resign in 1892. In the same year, she was both awarded her doctorate and appointed to the position of an Austro-Hungarian female health officer in Tuzla. After being nationalised in Austria, she reported for duty in Tuzla in March 1893. In 1899, she accepted her transfer to a newly created position in Sarajevo where she was active as an official physician until 1922/23. She contributed to contemporary medical science through her research on leprosy and osteomalacia in Bosnia. She returned to Warsaw in 1928 and devoted herself to the translation of Serbo-Croatian literature and writing her memoirs on her life and activities in BH.

J Psychiatr Res ; 41(7): 579-84, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16904689


Several lines of evidence suggest that anxiety disorders have a strong genetic component, but so far only few susceptibility genes have been identified. There is preclinical and clinical evidence for a dysregulation of the central gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic tone in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. Diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) has been suggested to play a pivotal role in anxiety disorders through direct and indirect, i.e. via synthesis of neuroactive steroids, modulation of GABA(A) receptor function. These findings suggest that the DBI gene can be postulated as a candidate for a genetic association study in this disorder. Thus, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the DBI gene were investigated for putative disease associations in a German sample of anxiety disorder patients suffering from panic attacks and matched controls. We were able to detect a significant association between a non-synonymous coding variant of DBI with anxiety disorders with panic attacks. The rare allele of this polymorphism was more frequent in controls than in patients (OR=0.43; 95% CI: 0.19-0.95). In conclusion, these results suggest a central role of DBI genetic variants in the susceptibility for the development of anxiety disorders that are characterized by the occurrence of panic attacks.

Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Inibidor da Ligação a Diazepam , Transtorno de Pânico/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Agorafobia/diagnóstico , Agorafobia/genética , Agorafobia/psicologia , Alelos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia
Biol Psychiatry ; 57(4): 336-42, 2005 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15705348


BACKGROUND: One of the most demanding tasks in psychiatry is to protect patients from suicidal attempts. Preventive strategies could be improved by increasing our knowledge on the pathophysiologic disturbances underlying this behavior. More than 70-80% of suicides occur in the context of depressive disorders, in which dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most prominent neurobiological findings. So far data on the involvement of the HPA axis in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in depressed patients are controversial. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we administered the combined dexamethasone-suppression/CRH stimulation (Dex/CRH) test to 310 patients with a depressive syndrome characterized at admission for acute and past suicidal behavior within the first 10 days after hospitalization. RESULTS: Suicidal behavior in depressed patients, including past and recent suicide attempts as well as suicidal ideation, was associated with a lower adrenocorticotropin and cortisol response in the combined Dex/CRH test, with lowest hormone levels observed in patients with a recent suicide attempt. DISCUSSION: The findings suggest that suicidal behavior may alter HPA axis regulation in depressed patients. Large-scale prospective studies assessing neuroendocrine changes may help to develop predictors for an early identification of patients at risk for committing suicide.

Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Suicídio , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina , Depressão/diagnóstico , Dexametasona , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Suicídio/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
Nat Genet ; 36(12): 1319-25, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15565110


The stress hormone-regulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in the causality as well as the treatment of depression. To investigate a possible association between genes regulating the HPA axis and response to antidepressants and susceptibility for depression, we genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms in eight of these genes in depressed individuals and matched controls. We found significant associations of response to antidepressants and the recurrence of depressive episodes with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in FKBP5, a glucocorticoid receptor-regulating cochaperone of hsp-90, in two independent samples. These single-nucleotide polymorphisms were also associated with increased intracellular FKBP5 protein expression, which triggers adaptive changes in glucocorticoid receptor and, thereby, HPA-axis regulation. Individuals carrying the associated genotypes had less HPA-axis hyperactivity during the depressive episode. We propose that the FKBP5 variant-dependent alterations in HPA-axis regulation could be related to the faster response to antidepressant drug treatment and the increased recurrence of depressive episodes observed in this subgroup of depressed individuals. These findings support a central role of genes regulating the HPA axis in the causality of depression and the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs.

Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Western Blotting , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/genética , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Fluorescência , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Alemanha , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Neurofisinas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Análise de Regressão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Vasopressinas/genética