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1.
Oncologist ; 27(4): 292-298, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combination irinotecan and cetuximab is approved for irinotecan-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). It is unknown if adding bevacizumab improves outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial, patients with irinotecan-refractory RAS-wildtype mCRC and no prior anti-EGFR therapy were randomized to cetuximab 500 mg/m2, bevacizumab 5 mg/kg, and irinotecan 180 mg/m2 (or previously tolerated dose) (CBI) versus cetuximab, irinotecan, and placebo (CI) every 2 weeks until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: The study closed early after the accrual of 36 out of a planned 120 patients due to changes in funding. Nineteen patients were randomized to CBI and 17 to CI. Baseline characteristics were similar between arms. Median PFS was 9.7 versus 5.5 months for CBI and CI, respectively (1-sided log-rank P = .38; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-1.66). Median OS was 19.7 versus 10.2 months for CBI and CI (1-sided log-rank P = .02; adjusted HR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.15-1.09). ORR was 36.8% for CBI versus 11.8% for CI (P = .13). Grade 3 or higher AEs occurred in 47% of patients receiving CBI versus 35% for CI (P = .46). CONCLUSION: In this prematurely discontinued trial, there was no significant difference in the primary endpoint of PFS between CBI and CI. There was a statistically significant improvement in OS in favor of CBI compared with CI. Further investigation of CBI for the treatment of irinotecan-refractory mCRC is warranted.Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02292758.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Colorretais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Cetuximab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fluoruracila , Humanos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico
3.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 13(4): 469-479, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the interaction of comorbidities and age on survival outcomes in colorectal cancer (mCRC), nor how comorbidities impact treatment tolerance. METHODS: We utilized a cohort of 1345 mCRC patients enrolled in CALGB/SWOG 80405, a multicenter phase III trial of fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus bevacizumab, cetuximab or both. Endpoints were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and grade ≥ 3 toxicities assessed using NCI CTCAE v.3.0. Participants completed a questionnaire, including a modified Charlson Comorbidity Index. Adjusted Cox and logistic regression models tested associations of comorbidities and age on the endpoints. RESULTS: In CALGB/SWOG 80405, 1095 (81%) subjects were < 70 years and >70 250 (19%). Presence of ≥1 comorbidity was not significantly associated with either OS (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.96-1.25) or PFS (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.91-1.16). Compared to subjects <70 with no comorbidities, OS was non-significantly inferior for ≥70 with no comorbidities (HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.98-1.49) and significantly inferior for ≥70 with at least one comorbidity (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.22-1.86). There were no significant associations or interactions between age or comorbidity with PFS. Comorbidities were not associated with treatment-related toxicities. Age ≥ 70 was associated with greater risk of grade ≥ 3 toxicities (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.50-3.09, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among participants in a clinical trial of combination chemotherapy for mCRC, presence of older age with comorbidities was associated with worse OS but not PFS. The association of age with toxicity suggests additional factors of care should be measured in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Retais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Comorbidade , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e220145, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35191970

RESUMO

Importance: The American Cancer Society and American Institute for Cancer Research recommend that cancer survivors limit intake of red and processed meats. This recommendation is based on consistent associations between red and processed meat intake and cancer risk, particularly risk of colorectal cancer, but fewer data are available on red and processed meat intake after cancer diagnosis. Objectives: To examine whether intake of unprocessed red meat or processed meat is associated with risk of cancer recurrence or mortality in patients with colon cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study used data from participants with stage III colon cancer enrolled in the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB 89803/Alliance) trial between 1999 and 2001. The clinical database for this analysis was frozen on November 9, 2009; the current data analyses were finalized in December 2021. Exposures: Quartiles of unprocessed red meat and processed meat intake assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire during and 6 months after chemotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for risk of cancer recurrence or death and all-cause mortality. Results: This study was conducted among 1011 patients with stage III colon cancer. The median (IQR) age at enrollment was 60 (51-69) years, 442 patients (44%) were women, and 899 patients (89%) were White. Over a median (IQR) follow-up period of 6.6 (1.9-7.5) years, we observed 305 deaths and 81 recurrences without death during follow-up (386 events combined). Intake of unprocessed red meat or processed meat after colon cancer diagnosis was not associated with risk of recurrence or mortality. The multivariable HRs comparing the highest vs lowest quartiles for cancer recurrence or death were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.58-1.23) for unprocessed red meat and 1.05 (95% CI, 0.75-1.47) for processed meat. For all-cause mortality, the corresponding HRs were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47-1.07) for unprocessed red meat and 1.04 (95% CI, 0.72-1.51) for processed meat. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, postdiagnosis intake of unprocessed red meat or processed meat was not associated with risk of recurrence or death among patients with stage III colon cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne Vermelha/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 15(4): 265-272, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980677

RESUMO

Prospective data examining the association of aspirin use, according to dose and duration, with long-term risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in non-Asian cohorts are lacking. We evaluated the association between aspirin use and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in two large prospective U.S. cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate multivariable adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among the 159,116 participants, we documented 316 gastric adenocarcinoma cases (176 women, 140 men) over 34 years encompassing 4.5 million person-years. Among women, regular aspirin use (at least two times or more per week) was significantly associated with lower risk of gastric adenocarcinoma (multivariable HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.37-0.73) compared with nonregular use. However, regular aspirin use was not associated with gastric adenocarcinoma risk among men (multivariable HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.77-1.52; Pheterogeneity for sex = 0.003). Among women, the lower risk of gastric adenocarcinoma was more apparent with increasing duration of aspirin use (Ptrend < 0.001) and more than five tablets per week (multivariable HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31-0.84). Regular, long-term aspirin use was associated with lower risk of gastric adenocarcinoma among women, but not men. The benefit appeared after at least 10 years of use and was maximized at higher doses among women. The heterogeneity by sex in the association of aspirin use with risk of gastric adenocarcinoma requires further investigation. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Novel prevention is urgently needed to reduce incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. We found that regular aspirin use was associated with lower risk of gastric adenocarcinoma among women, but not men. The benefit appeared after at least 10 years of use and was maximized at higher doses among women. See related Spotlight, p. 213.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Gástricas , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle
6.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(7): 740-751, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995084

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current tools in predicting survival outcomes for patients with colon cancer predominantly rely on clinical and pathologic characteristics, but increasing evidence suggests that diet and lifestyle habits are associated with patient outcomes and should be considered to enhance model accuracy. METHODS: Using an adjuvant chemotherapy trial for stage III colon cancer (CALGB 89803), we developed prediction models of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival by additionally incorporating self-reported nine diet and lifestyle factors. Both models were assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression and externally validated using another trial for stage III colon cancer (CALGB/SWOG 80702), and visual nomograms of prediction models were constructed accordingly. We also proposed three hypothetical scenarios for patients with (1) good-risk, (2) average-risk, and (3) poor-risk clinical and pathologic features, and estimated their predictive survival by considering clinical and pathologic features with or without adding self-reported diet and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Among 1,024 patients (median age 60.0 years, 43.8% female), we observed 394 DFS events and 311 deaths after median follow-up of 7.3 years. Adding self-reported diet and lifestyle factors to clinical and pathologic characteristics meaningfully improved performance of prediction models (c-index from 0.64 [95% CI, 0.62 to 0.67] to 0.69 [95% CI, 0.67 to 0.72] for DFS, and from 0.67 [95% CI, 0.64 to 0.70] to 0.71 [95% CI, 0.69 to 0.75] for overall survival). External validation also indicated good performance of discrimination and calibration. Adding most self-reported favorable diet and lifestyle exposures to multivariate modeling improved 5-year DFS of all patients and by 6.3% for good-risk, 21.4% for average-risk, and 42.6% for poor-risk clinical and pathologic features. CONCLUSION: Diet and lifestyle factors further inform current recurrence and survival prediction models for patients with stage III colon cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Dieta , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Estatísticos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Nomogramas , Idoso , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 97(1): 124-133, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996545

RESUMO

Given previous biologic evidence of immunomodulatory effects of coffee, we hypothesized that the association between coffee intake of colorectal cancer patients and survival differs by immune responses. Using a molecular pathologic epidemiology database of 4465 incident colorectal cancer cases, including 1262 cases with molecular data, in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we examined the association between coffee intake of colorectal cancer patients and survival in strata of levels of histopathologic lymphocytic reaction and T-cell infiltrates in tumor tissue. We did not observe a significant association of coffee intake with colorectal cancer-specific mortality (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for 1-cup increase of coffee intake per day, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.03). Although statistical significance was not reached at the stringent level (α=.005), the association of coffee intake with colorectal cancer-specific mortality differed by Crohn disease-like lymphoid reaction (Pinteraction=.007). Coffee intake was associated with lower colorectal cancer-specific mortality in patients with high Crohn disease-like reaction (multivariable HR for 1-cup increase of coffee intake per day, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.81; Ptrend=.002) but not in patients with intermediate Crohn disease-like reaction (the corresponding HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.44) or negative/low Crohn disease-like reaction (the corresponding HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.07). The associations of coffee intake with colorectal cancer-specific mortality did not significantly differ by levels of other lymphocytic reaction or any T-cell subset (Pinteraction>.18). There is suggestive evidence for differential prognostic effects of coffee intake by Crohn disease-like lymphoid reaction in colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Café , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(3): 427-435, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of young-onset colorectal cancer (yoCRC) is increasing. It is unknown if there are survival differences between young and older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). METHODS: We studied the association of age with survival in 2326 mCRC patients enrolled in the Cancer and Leukemia Group B and SWOG 80405 trial, a multicenter, randomized trial of first-line chemotherapy plus biologics. The primary and secondary outcomes of this study were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), respectively, which were assessed by Kaplan-Meier method and compared among younger vs older patients with the log-rank test. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated based on Cox proportional hazards modeling, adjusting for known prognostic variables. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Of 2326 eligible subjects, 514 (22.1%) were younger than age 50 years at study entry (yoCRC cohort). The median age of yoCRC patients was 44.3 vs 62.5 years in patients aged 50 years and older. There was no statistically significant difference in OS between yoCRC vs older-onset patients (median = 27.07 vs 26.12 months; adjusted HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.10; P = .78). The median PFS was also similar in yoCRC vs older patients (10.87 vs 10.55 months) with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.02 (95% CI = 0.92 to 1.13; P = .67). Patients younger than age 35 years had the shortest OS with median OS of 21.95 vs 26.12 months in older-onset patients with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.08 (95% CI = 0.81 to 1.44; Ptrend = .93). CONCLUSION: In this large study of mCRC patients, there were no statistically significant differences in survival between patients with yoCRC and CRC patients aged 50 years and older.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Leucemia , Neoplasias Retais , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Humanos , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 71(4): 933-942, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite heightened interest in early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed before age 50, little is known on immune cell profiles of early-onset CRC. It also remains to be studied whether CRCs diagnosed at or shortly after age 50 are similar to early-onset CRC. We therefore hypothesized that immune cell infiltrates in CRC tissue might show differential heterogeneity patterns between three age groups (< 50 "early onset," 50-54 "intermediate onset," ≥ 55 "later onset"). METHODS: We examined 1,518 incident CRC cases with available tissue data, including 35 early-onset and 73 intermediate-onset cases. To identify immune cells in tumor intraepithelial and stromal areas, we developed three multiplexed immunofluorescence assays combined with digital image analyses and machine learning algorithms, with the following markers: (1) CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO (PTPRC), and FOXP3 for T cells; (2) CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, and MRC1 (CD206) for macrophages; and (3) ARG1, CD14, CD15, CD33, and HLA-DR for myeloid cells. RESULTS: Although no comparisons between age groups showed statistically significant differences at the stringent two-sided α level of 0.005, compared to later-onset CRC, early-onset CRC tended to show lower levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (P = 0.013), intratumoral periglandular reaction (P = 0.025), and peritumoral lymphocytic reaction (P = 0.044). Compared to later-onset CRC, intermediate-onset CRC tended to show lower densities of overall macrophages (P = 0.050), M1-like macrophages (P = 0.062), CD14+HLA-DR+ cells (P = 0.015), and CD3+CD4+FOXP3+ cells (P = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: This hypothesis-generating study suggests possible differences in histopathologic lymphocytic reaction patterns, macrophages, and regulatory T cells in the tumor microenvironment by age at diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Microambiente Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Antígenos HLA-DR , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Macrófagos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Gastric Cancer ; 25(1): 197-206, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the phase 3 KEYNOTE-061 study (cutoff: 10/26/2017), pembrolizumab did not significantly prolong OS vs paclitaxel as second-line (2L) therapy in PD-L1 combined positive score (CPS) ≥ 1 gastric/GEJ cancer. We present results in CPS ≥ 1, ≥ 5, and ≥ 10 populations after two additional years of follow-up (cutoff: 10/07/2019). METHODS: Patients were randomly allocated 1:1 to pembrolizumab 200 mg Q3W for ≤ 35 cycles or standard-dose paclitaxel. Primary endpoints: OS and PFS (CPS ≥ 1 population). HRs were calculated using stratified Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: 366/395 patients (92.7%) with CPS ≥ 1 died. Pembrolizumab demonstrated a trend toward improved OS vs paclitaxel in the CPS ≥ 1 population (HR, 0.81); 24-month OS rates: 19.9% vs 8.5%. Pembrolizumab incrementally increased the OS benefit with PD-L1 enrichment (CPS ≥ 5: HR, 0.72, 24-month rate, 24.2% vs 8.8%; CPS ≥ 10: 0.69, 24-month rate, 32.1% vs 10.9%). There was no difference in median PFS among treatment groups (CPS ≥ 1: HR, 1.25; CPS ≥ 5: 0.98; CPS ≥ 10: 0.79). ORR (pembrolizumab vs paclitaxel) was 16.3% vs 13.6% (CPS ≥ 1), 20.0% vs 14.3% (CPS ≥ 5), and 24.5% vs 9.1% (CPS ≥ 10); median DOR was 19.1 months vs 5.2, 32.7 vs 4.8, and NR vs 6.9, respectively. Fewer treatment-related AEs (TRAEs) occurred with pembrolizumab than paclitaxel (53% vs 84%). CONCLUSION: In this long-term analysis, 2L pembrolizumab did not significantly improve OS but was associated with higher 24-month OS rates than paclitaxel. Pembrolizumab also increased OS benefit with PD-L1 enrichment among patients with PD-L1-positive gastric/GEJ cancer and led to fewer TRAEs than paclitaxel. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02370498.


Assuntos
Paclitaxel , Neoplasias Gástricas , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1 , Junção Esofagogástrica , Humanos , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico
11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(1): 68-77, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological evidence indicates that smoking can influence macrophage functions and polarization, thereby promoting tumor evolution. We hypothesized that the association of smoking with colorectal cancer incidence might differ by macrophage infiltrates. METHODS: Using the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we examined the association of smoking with incidence of colorectal cancer subclassified by macrophage counts. Multiplexed immunofluorescence (for CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, and MRC1 [CD206]) combined with digital image analysis and machine learning was used to identify overall, M1-polarized, and M2-polarized macrophages in tumor. We used inverse-probability-weighted multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to control for potential confounders and selection bias because of tissue data availability. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: During follow-up of 131 144 participants (3 648 370 person-years), we documented 3092 incident colorectal cancer cases, including 871 cases with available macrophage data. The association of pack-years smoked with colorectal cancer incidence differed by stromal macrophage densities (Pheterogeneity = .003). Compared with never smoking, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for tumors with low macrophage densities were 1.32 (0.97 to 1.79) for 1-19 pack-years, 1.31 (0.92 to 1.85) for 20-39 pack-years, and 1.74 (1.26 to 2.41) for 40 or more pack-years (Ptrend = .004). In contrast, pack-years smoked was not statistically significantly associated with the incidence of tumors having intermediate or high macrophage densities (Ptrend > .009, with an α level of .005). No statistically significant differential association was found for colorectal cancer subclassified by M1-like or M2-like macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: The association of smoking with colorectal cancer incidence is stronger for tumors with lower stromal macrophage counts. Our findings suggest an interplay of smoking and macrophages in colorectal carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
12.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 10(2): 215-227, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937729

RESUMO

Although tumor-infiltrating T cells hold a beneficial prognostic role in colorectal cancer, other lymphocytic populations are less characterized. We developed a multiplexed immunofluorescence assay coupled with digital image analysis and machine learning to identify natural killer (NK) cells (NCAM1+CD3-), natural killer T-like (NKT-like) cells (NCAM1+CD3+), and T cells (NCAM1-CD3+) within the PTPRC+ (CD45+) cell population and to measure their granzyme B (GZMB; cytotoxicity marker) and FCGR3A (CD16a; NK-cell maturity marker) expression. We evaluated immune cell densities and spatial configuration in 907 incident colorectal carcinoma cases within two prospective cohort studies. We found that T cells were approximately 100 times more abundant than NK and NKT-like cells. Overall, NK cells showed high GZMB expression and were located closer to tumor cells than T and NKT-like cells. In T and NKT-like cells, GZMB expression was enriched in cells in closer proximity to tumor cells. Higher densities of both T and NKT-like cells associated with longer cancer-specific survival, independent of potential confounders (P trend < 0.0007). Higher stromal GZMB+ and FCGR3A+ NK-cell densities associated with longer cancer-specific survival (P trend < 0.003). For T and NKT-like cells, greater proximity to tumor cells associated with longer cancer-specific survival (P trend < 0.0001). These findings indicate that cytotoxic NCAM1+CD3-GZMB+ NK cells and NCAM1+CD3+ NKT-like cells are relatively rare lymphocytic populations within the colorectal cancer microenvironment and show distinct spatial configuration and associations with patient outcome. The results highlight the utility of a quantitative multimarker assay for in situ, single-cell immune biomarker evaluation and underscore the importance of spatial context for tumor microenvironment characterization.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Células T Matadoras Naturais , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Microambiente Tumoral
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139593, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919133

RESUMO

Importance: Disadvantaged neighborhood-level and individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) have each been associated with suboptimal cancer care and inferior outcomes. However, independent or synergistic associations between neighborhood and individual socioeconomic disadvantage have not been fully examined, and prior studies using simplistic neighborhood SES measures may not comprehensively assess multiple aspects of neighborhood SES. Objective: To investigate the associations of neighborhood SES (using a validated comprehensive composite measure) and individual SES with survival among patients with nonmetastatic common cancers. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, population-based cohort study was derived from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2011, with follow-up ending on December 31, 2017. Participants included older patients (≥65 years) with breast, prostate, lung, or colorectal cancer. Exposures: Neighborhood SES was measured using the area deprivation index (ADI; quintiles), a validated comprehensive composite measure of neighborhood SES. Individual SES was assessed by Medicare-Medicaid dual eligibility (yes vs no), a reliable indicator for patient-level low income. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was overall mortality, and the secondary outcome was cancer-specific mortality. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the associations of ADI and dual eligibility with overall and cancer-specific mortality were estimated via Cox proportional hazards regression. Statistical analyses were conducted from January 23 to April 15, 2021. Results: A total of 96 978 patients were analyzed, including 25 968 with breast, 35 150 with prostate, 16 684 with lung, and 19 176 with colorectal cancer. Median age at diagnosis was 76 years (IQR, 71-81 years) for breast cancer, 73 years (IQR, 70-77 years) for prostate cancer, 76 years (IQR, 71-81 years) for lung cancer, and 78 years (IQR, 72-84 years) for colorectal cancer. Among lung and colorectal cancer patients, 8412 (50.4%) and 10 486 (54.7%), respectively, were female. The proportion of non-Hispanic White individuals among breast cancer patients was 83.7% (n = 21 725); prostate cancer, 76.8% (n = 27 001); lung cancer, 83.5% (n = 13 926); and colorectal cancer, 81.1% (n = 15 557). Neighborhood-level and individual-level SES were independently associated with overall mortality, and no interactions were detected. Compared with the most affluent neighborhoods (ADI quintile 1), living in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods (ADI quintile 5) was associated with higher risk of overall mortality (breast: HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.26-1.43; prostate: HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.42-1.62; lung: HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.14-1.28; and colorectal: HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.17-1.32). Individual socioeconomic disadvantage (dual eligibility) was associated with higher risk of overall mortality (breast: HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.15-1.29; prostate: HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.21-1.38; lung: HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.09-1.20; and colorectal: HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.17-1.29). A similar pattern was observed for cancer-specific mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, neighborhood-level deprivation was associated with worse survival among patients with nonmetastatic breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer, even after accounting for individual SES. These findings suggest that, in order to improve cancer outcomes and reduce health disparities, policies for ongoing investments in low-resource neighborhoods and low-income households are needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Características de Residência , Classe Social , Análise de Sobrevida , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Estudos Prospectivos , Programa de SEER , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
14.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(9)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized cancer treatment, but the benefits in refractory patients with esophageal cancer have been modest. Predictors of response as well as new targets for novel therapeutic combinations are needed. In this phase 2 clinical trial, we tested single-agent pembrolizumab in patients with advanced esophageal cancer, who received at least one prior line of therapy. METHODS: Pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks was tested in 49 patients with refractory esophageal cancer: 39 with adenocarcinoma and 10 with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Major endpoints were radiological response by Immune-related Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors and survival. Tumor samples were evaluated for programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, tumor mutational burden (TMB), and immune contexture by both NanoString mRNA expression analysis and flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and a panel of circulating chemokines were also analyzed. RESULTS: The overall response rate (ORR) was 8% (4 of 49 patients; 95% CI 2.3% to 19.6%). Median overall survival (OS) was 5.8 months (95% CI 4.0 to 9.5). ORR and OS were not associated with histology. For PD-L1-positive patients, ORR was 13.3% (95% CI 1.7% to 40.5%) and median OS was 7.9 months (95% CI 4.7 to 15.5). A trend toward improved OS was observed in seven patients with a TMB ≥10 mut/Mb (p=0.086). Tumors with a PD-L1 Combined Positive Score ≥1 showed enrichment of LAG3 (p=0.005) and IDO1 (p=0.04) gene expression. Baseline levels of circulating CXCL10, interleukin 2 (IL2) receptor α (IL2RA) and IL6 were associated with survival: CXCL10 favorably, (HR 0.37, p=0.002 (progression-free survival); HR 0.55, p=0.018 (OS)); IL2RA and IL6 unfavorably (HR 1.57, p=0.020 for IL6 (OS); HR 2.36, p=0.025 for IL2RA (OS)). CONCLUSIONS: Pembrolizumab monotherapy was modestly effective in refractory esophageal cancer. Circulating CXCL10 at baseline appeared to be a robust predictor of response. Other T cell exhaustion markers are upregulated in PD-L1-positive patients, suggesting that immunotherapy combinations such as anti-LAG3/programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or anti-IDO1/PD-1 may be of promise in refractory esophageal cancer.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Clin Nutr ; 40(11): 5419-5429, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Unrestrained eating behavior has been thought to be a proxy for diet frequency, timing, and caloric intake. We investigated the association of unrestrained eating with mortality risk in the Nurses' Health Study prospectively. METHODS: During follow-up (1994-2016), 21,953 deaths were documented among 63,999 eligible participants in analyses of eating anything at any time, 22,120 deaths were documented among 65,839 participants in analyses of no concern with figure change. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Eating anything at any time was associated with an increased mortality from cancer (overall HR, 95%CI: 1.07, 1.00-1.13; driven by gastrointestinal tract cancer: 1.30, 1.10-1.54) and respiratory disease (1.16, 1.05-1.29), and decreased cardiovascular disease-specific mortality (0.92, 0.86-0.99), compared to those without this behavior; however, no association was observed between this behavior and all-cause mortality (1.02, 0.99-1.05). Women who reported having no concern with figure change experienced higher risk of mortality from all-cause (1.08, 1.05-1.11), cancer (1.08, 1.02-1.14), and respiratory disease (1.18, 1.08-1.30), compared to those not reporting this behavior. Their combined effect was associated with a higher all-cause (1.09, 1.04-1.14), cancer-specific (overall: 1.18, 1.09-1.28; gastrointestinal tract cancer: 1.36, 1.08-1.71; lung cancer: 1.09; 1.04-1.14), and respiratory disease-specific (1.30, 1.13-1.50) mortality, and was inversely associated with cardiovascular disease-specific mortality (0.88, 0.80-0.98), compared to those exhibiting the opposite. CONCLUSIONS: Unrestrained eating was associated with increased risk of all-cause, cancer-specific (particularly for gastrointestinal tract cancer and lung cancer), and respiratory disease-specific mortality, and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease-specific mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta/mortalidade , Comportamento Alimentar , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
17.
Oncologist ; 26(12): e2161-e2169, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trifluridine/tipiracil (FTD/TPI) and regorafenib prolong survival for patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC); limited comparative effectiveness data exist. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients with mCRC who initiated FTD/TPI or regorafenib (index therapy) between 2012 and 2017 at a U.S. tertiary oncology center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, was conducted. Using best tumor response assessments, real-world overall response rates (rwORR) and disease control rates (rwDCR) were described and analyzed using logistic regression. Survival rate was examined for each month after index therapy using Kaplan-Meier. Overall survival (OS) was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Subgroup analyses among patients with index therapy as second- or third-line were performed. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-six and 95 patients were treated with FTD/TPI or regorafenib as index therapy, respectively. Patients treated with FTD/TPI versus regorafenib had a better response (rwORR 52.5% vs. 34.2%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.6; all p value <.05; rwDCR 64.2% vs. 46.1%; adjusted OR = 2.5; all p value <.05). Similar findings were observed for FTD/TPI versus regorafenib as second- or third-line therapy (rwORR 54.8% vs. 25.9%; adjusted OR = 4.1; all p value <.05; rwDCR 69.0% vs. 37.0%; adjusted OR = 4.9; all p value <.05). A greater proportion of patients treated with FTD/TPI versus regorafenib survived at 3 months (86.2% vs. 73.4%; p value = .016) and 4 months (79.6% vs. 65.8%; p value = .017). Adjusted OS hazard ratio for FTD/TPI versus regorafenib was 0.80, p value = .157. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with FTD/TPI had better tumor response and disease control than patients treated with regorafenib. Subgroup analysis in second- or third-line suggests that early use of FTD/TPI may have clinical benefits. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: In this retrospective cohort study, patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer treated with trifluridine/tipiracil (FTD/TPI) were significantly less likely than those treated with regorafenib to have dose modifications and more likely to have higher real-world objective response rate (rwORR) and real-world disease control rate (rwDCR) while treated. Patients treated with FTD/TPI versus regorafenib had significantly higher odds of having rwORR or rwDCR in adjusted analyses. Monthly survival rates were higher overall in patients treated with FTD/TPI versus regorafenib in the first 6 months of follow-up, particularly at months 3 and 4. This study offers insight into patients' treatment experience in real-world clinical settings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Trifluridina , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Compostos de Fenilureia , Piridinas , Pirrolidinas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Timina , Trifluridina/uso terapêutico
18.
Gastric Cancer ; 24(6): 1330-1340, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the primary analysis population (i.e., PD-L1 combined positive score [CPS] ≥ 1) of the phase 3 KEYNOTE-061 study (NCT02370498), pembrolizumab did not significantly prolong overall survival or progression-free survival. Pembrolizumab had a favorable safety profile in the all-patient population. We present results of prespecified health-related quality of life (HRQoL) analyses. METHODS: HRQoL was measured using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30), EORTC QLQ gastric cancer questionnaire (QLQ-STO22), and EuroQol 5-dimension, 3-level questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L). Data were analyzed from patients who received ≥ 1 dose of study treatment and who completed ≥ 1 HRQoL assessment. Key analyses included baseline to week 12 least-squares mean (LSM) change in global health status (GHS)/QoL, functional/symptom subscales, and time to deterioration (TTD; ≥ 10-point decrease from baseline) for specific subscales. RESULTS: The HRQoL population included 371 patients (pembrolizumab, n = 188; paclitaxel, n = 183). Compliance and completion rates for all 3 questionnaires were similar in both groups at baseline and week 12. There was no difference in LSM change between groups (- 3.54; 95% CI - 8.92 to 1.84) in GHS/QoL at week 12. LSM change from baseline to week 12 for most QLQ-C30, QLQ-STO22, and EQ-5D-3L subscales indicated some worsening of QoL in both groups. TTD for GHS/QoL, nausea/vomiting, and appetite loss subscales in QLQ-C30 and the pain subscales in QLQ-STO22 were similar between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this population with advanced gastric and GEJ cancer receiving second-line treatment, HRQoL was similar in patients receiving pembrolizumab and those receiving paclitaxel. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY AND NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02370498.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Junção Esofagogástrica , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Bélgica , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(5): 1612-1624, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unrestrained eating behavior, as a potential proxy for diet frequency, timing, and caloric intake, has been questioned as a plausible risk factor for digestive system cancers, but epidemiological evidence remains sparse. OBJECTIVES: We investigated prospectively the associations between unrestrained eating behavior and digestive system cancer risk. METHODS: Participants in the Nurses' Health Study who were free of cancer and reported dietary information in 1994 were followed for ≤18 y. Cox models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for unrestrained eating (eating anything at any time, no concern with figure change, or both) and risk of digestive system cancers. RESULTS: During follow-up, 2064 digestive system cancer cases were documented among 70,450 eligible participants in analyses of eating anything at any time, In total, 2081 digestive system cancer cases were documented among 72,468 eligible participants in analyses of no concern with figure change. In fully adjusted analyses, women with the behavior of eating anything at any time had a higher risk of overall digestive system cancer (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.35), overall gastrointestinal tract cancer ((HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.50), buccal cavity and pharynx cancer (HR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.21), esophageal cancer (HR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.62), small intestine cancer (HR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.02,3. 59), and colorectal cancer (HR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.38), and a non-statistically significant increased risk of stomach cancer (HR: 1.54; 95% CI: 0.96,2.48), compared with women without this behavior. No statistically significant association was observed for pancreatic cancer and liver and gallbladder cancer. The combined effect of eating anything at any time and having no concern with figure change was associated with a significantly increased risk of overall digestive system cancer (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.46), overall gastrointestinal tract cancer (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.71), and colorectal cancer (HR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.63), compared with women exhibiting the opposite. CONCLUSIONS: Unrestrained eating behavior was independently associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal tract cancers. The potential importance of unrestrained eating behavior modification in preventing gastrointestinal tract cancers should be noted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/etiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(4): 1408-1417, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested positive associations for iron and red meat intake with risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Inherited pathogenic variants in genes involved in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway are known to cause iron overload and hemochromatosis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether common genetic variation in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway is associated with PDAC. METHODS: We conducted a pathway analysis of the hepcidin-regulating genes using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) summary statistics generated from 4 genome-wide association studies in 2 large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method. Our population consisted of 9253 PDAC cases and 12,525 controls of European descent. Our analysis included 11 hepcidin-regulating genes [bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1), ferritin light chain (FTL), hepcidin (HAMP), homeostatic iron regulator (HFE), hemojuvelin (HJV), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), ferroportin 1 (SLC40A1), transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2)] and their surrounding genomic regions (±20 kb) for a total of 412 SNPs. RESULTS: The hepcidin-regulating gene pathway was significantly associated with PDAC (P = 0.002), with the HJV, TFR2, TFR1, BMP6, and HAMP genes contributing the most to the association. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that genetic susceptibility related to the hepcidin-regulating gene pathway is associated with PDAC risk and suggest a potential role of iron metabolism in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to evaluate effect modification by intake of iron-rich foods on this association.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepcidinas/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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