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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the risk of CRC in night-shift workers might be different according to insulin receptor substrates status. METHODS: Among 77,470 eligible women having night work assessed in the Nurses' Health Study, we documented a total of 1,397 CRC cases, of which 304 or 308 had available data on IRS1 and IRS2, respectively. We used duplication method Cox proportional hazards regression analysis for competing risks to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for each CRC subtype. We measured tumor IRS1 or IRS2 expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Compared with women who never worked night-shifts, those working ≥ 15 years night-shifts had a marginal trend of increased overall risk of CRC (Ptrend = 0.06, multivariable HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.45). Longer duration of night-shift work was associated with a higher risk of IRS2-positive tumors (multivariable HR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.89, Ptrend = 0.001, ≥ 15 years night-shifts vs. never) but not with IRS2-negative tumors (multivariable HR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.51, Ptrend = 0.72, Pheterogeneity for IRS2 = 0.008). Similarly, the corresponding multivariable HRs were 1.81 for IRS1-positive tumors (95% CI 0.94 to 3.48, Ptrend = 0.06) and 1.13 for IRS1-negative tumors (95% CI 0.71 to 1.80, Ptrend = 0.56, Pheterogeneity for IRS1 = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our molecular pathological epidemiology data suggest a potential role of IRS in mediating carcinogenesis induced by night-shift work. IMPACT: Although these findings need validation, rotating night-shift might increase CRC risk in women with abnormal insulin receptor pathway.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699705

RESUMO

Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids, and emerging evidence suggests that BCAAs may mediate pathways related to cancer progression, possibly due to their involvement in insulin metabolism. We investigated the association between dietary intake of BCAAs with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in three prospective cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study I [(NHS), number of participants (n) at baseline =77,017], NHS II (n=92,984), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study [(HPFS) n=47,255]. Validated food frequency questionnaires were administered every four years and follow-up questionnaires on lifestyle biennially. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Pooled HRs were obtained using random effect models. After up to 28 years of follow-up, 1660 cases were observed in NHS, 306 in NHS II and 1343 in HPFS. In multivariable adjusted models, we observed a weak inverse association between BCAA intake and CRC [highest vs. lowest quintile, pooled HR including all three cohorts (95% CI): 0.89 (0.80-1.00), Ptrend=0.06, HR per standard deviation (SD) increment 0.95 (0.92-0.99)]. However, after including dairy calcium to the models, BCAA intake was no longer associated with risk of CRC [HR 0.96 (0.85-1.08), Ptrend=0.50, HR per SD increment 0.97 (0.93-1.01)]. We did not find evidence that higher dietary BCAA intake is associated with higher risk of CRC. As this is the first prospective study to examine the association between BCAA intake and CRC, our findings warrant investigation in other cohorts.

3.
Nat Immunol ; 20(11): 1494-1505, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611701

RESUMO

Immunotherapy has transformed cancer treatment. However, current immunotherapy modalities face various limitations. In the present study, we developed multiplexed activation of endogenous genes as an immunotherapy (MAEGI), a new form of immunotherapy that elicits antitumor immunity through multiplexed activation of endogenous genes in tumors. We leveraged CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) to directly augment the in situ expression of endogenous genes, and thereby the presentation of tumor antigens, leading to dramatic antitumor immune responses. Deploying this as a cell-based vaccination strategy showed efficacy in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Intratumoral adeno-associated virus delivery of CRISPRa libraries elicited strong antitumor immunity across multiple cancer types. Precision targeting of mutated gene sets eradicated a large fraction of established tumors at both local and distant sites. This treatment modality led to alterations in the tumor microenvironment, marked by enhanced T cell infiltration and antitumor immune signatures. Multiplexed endogenous gene activation is a versatile and highly scalable strategy to elicit potent immune responses against cancer, distinct from all existing cancer therapies.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1911750, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539075

RESUMO

Importance: Tumor measurements can be used to estimate time to nadir and depth of nadir as potential surrogates for overall survival (OS). Objective: To assess time to nadir and depth of nadir as surrogates for OS in metastatic colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: Pooled analysis of 20 randomized clinical trials within the Aide et Recherche en Cancerologie Digestive database, which contains academic and industry-sponsored trials, was conducted. Three sets of comparisons were performed: chemotherapy alone, antiangiogenic agents, and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor agents in first-line treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Main Outcomes and Measures: Surrogacy of time to nadir and depth of nadir was assessed at the trial level based on joint modeling of relative tumor-size change vs baseline and OS. Treatment effects on time to nadir and on depth of nadir were defined in terms of between-arm differences in time to nadir and in depth of nadir, and both were assessed in linear regressions for their correlation with treatment effects (hazard ratios) on OS within each set. The strengths of association were quantified using sample-size-weighted coefficients of determination (R2), with values closer to 1.00 indicating stronger association. At the patient level, the correlation was assessed between modeled relative tumor-size change and OS. Results: For 14 chemotherapy comparisons in 4289 patients, the R2 value was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.30-0.96) for the association between treatment effects on time to nadir and OS and 0.08 (95% CI, 0-0.37) for depth of nadir and OS. For 11 antiangiogenic agent comparisons (4854 patients), corresponding values of R2 were 0.25 (95% CI, 0-0.72) and 0.06 (95% CI, 0-0.35). For 8 anti-epidermal growth factor receptor comparisons (2684 patients), corresponding values of R2 were 0.24 (95% CI, 0-0.83) and 0.21 (95% CI, 0-0.78). Conclusions and Relevance: In contrast with early reports favoring depth of response as a surrogate, these results suggest that neither time to nadir nor depth of nadir is an acceptable surrogate for OS in the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548349

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies have suggested that higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk and improved survival. However, the influence of vitamin D status on disease progression and patient survival remains largely unknown for patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We prospectively collected blood samples in 1,041 patients with previously untreated advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer participating in a randomized phase III clinical trial of first-line chemotherapy plus biologic therapy. We examined the association of baseline plasma 25(OH)D levels with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for prognostic factors and confounders. RESULTS: At study entry, 63% of patients were vitamin D deficient (<20 ng/mL) and 31% were vitamin D insufficient (20-<30 ng/mL). Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with an improvement in OS and PFS (P trend = 0.0009 and 0.03, respectively). Compared with patients in the bottom quintile of 25(OH)D (≤10.8 ng/mL), those in the top quintile (≥24.1 ng/mL) had a multivariable-adjusted HR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.53-0.83) for OS and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.66-1.00) for PFS. The improved survival associated with higher 25(OH)D levels was consistent across patient subgroups of prognostic patient and tumor characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer, higher plasma 25(OH)D levels were associated with improved OS and PFS. Clinical trials assessing the benefit of vitamin D supplementation in patients with colorectal cancer are warranted.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(11): 1868-1875, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length has been associated with risk of subsequent pancreatic cancer. Few prospective studies have evaluated the association of prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length with pancreatic cancer survival. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association of prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length with overall survival (OS) time among 423 participants diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma between 1984 and 2008 within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, Nurses' Health Study, Physicians' Health Study, and Women's Health Initiative. We measured prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length in banked blood samples using quantitative PCR. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HRs for OS with adjustment for potential confounders. We also evaluated 10 SNPs at the telomerase reverse transcriptase locus. RESULTS: Shorter prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length was associated with reduced OS among patients with pancreatic cancer (P trend = 0.04). The multivariable-adjusted HR for OS comparing the lowest with highest quintiles of leukocyte telomere length was 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.93), corresponding to a 3-month difference in median OS time. In an analysis excluding cases with blood collected within 2 years of cancer diagnosis, the association was moderately stronger (HR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.21; comparing the lowest with highest quintiles; P trend = 0.01). No prognostic association or effect modification for the prognostic association of prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length was noted in relation to the studied SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length was associated with pancreatic cancer survival. IMPACT: Prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length can be a prognostic biomarker in pancreatic cancer.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(29): 2620-2631, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408415

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Regular physical activity is associated with reduced risk of recurrence and mortality in patients with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Its influence on patients with advanced/metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has been largely unexplored. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study nested in Cancer and Leukemia Group B (Alliance)/SWOG 80405 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00265850), a National Cancer Institute-sponsored phase III trial of systemic therapy for mCRC. Within 1 month after therapy initiation, patients were invited to complete a validated questionnaire that reported average physical activity over the previous 2 months. On the basis of responses, we calculated metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week to quantify physical activity. The primary end point of the clinical trial and this companion study was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS) and first grade 3 or greater treatment-related adverse events. To minimize confounding by poor and declining health, we excluded patients who experienced progression or died within 60 days of activity assessment and used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to adjust for known prognostic factors, comorbidities, and weight loss. RESULTS: The final cohort included 1,218 patients. Compared with patients engaged in less than 3 MET hours per week of physical activity, patients engaged in 18 or more MET hours per week experienced an adjusted hazard ratio for OS of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.71 to 1.02; PTrend = .06) and for PFS of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.99; PTrend = .01). Compared with patients engaging in less than 9 MET hours per week, patients engaging in 9 or more MET hours per week experienced an adjusted hazard ratio for grade 3 or greater treatment-related adverse events of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.86; PTrend < .001). CONCLUSION: Among patients with mCRC in Cancer and Leukemia Group B (Alliance)/SWOG 80405, association of physical activity with OS was not statistically significant. Greater physical activity was associated with longer PFS and lower adjusted risk for first grade 3 or greater treatment-related adverse events.

8.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(8): 1109-1123, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical and clinical evidence suggests that simultaneous blockade of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and PD-1 or PD-L1 enhances antigen-specific T-cell migration, antitumour activity, and has favourable toxicity. In this study, we aimed to assess the safety and preliminary antitumour activity of ramucirumab (an IgG1 VEGFR-2 antagonist) combined with pembrolizumab (an IgG4 PD-1 antagonist) in patients with previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, or urothelial carcinoma. METHODS: We did a multicohort, non-randomised, open-label, phase 1a/b trial at 16 academic medical centres, hospitals, and clinics in the USA, France, Germany, Spain, and the UK. We enrolled adult patients aged 18 years or older with histologically confirmed gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (cohorts A and B), non-small-cell lung cancer (cohort C), or urothelial carcinoma (cohort D), whose disease had progressed on one or two lines of previous therapy (for those with gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma) or one to three lines of previous therapy (for those with non-small-cell lung cancer and urothelial carcinoma) that included platinum (for all tumour types) or fluoropyrimidine or both (for gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma). Eligibility criteria included presence of measurable disease and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1. Patients with previously untreated gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma and non-small-cell lung cancer were also enrolled (in two additional separate cohorts); the results for these cohorts will be reported separately. The first 21-day treatment cycle was a dose-limiting toxicity observation period (phase 1a; safety run-in), followed by a phase 1b cohort expansion stage. Pembrolizumab 200 mg was administered intravenously on day 1, and intravenous ramucirumab was administered at 8 mg/kg on days 1 and 8 for cohort A or at 10 mg/kg on day 1 for cohorts B, C, and D, every 3 weeks, until disease progression or other discontinuation criteria were met. The primary endpoint was the safety and tolerability of ramucirumab in combination with pembrolizumab assessed by the incidence of adverse events in both phase 1a and 1b and as dose-limiting toxicities during phase 1a. The safety and activity analysis set included all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02443324, and is no longer enrolling patients. FINDINGS: Between July 30, 2015 and June 24, 2016, we enrolled and treated 92 patients (41 with gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, 27 with non-small-cell lung cancer, and 24 with urothelial carcinoma). Median follow-up was 32·8 months (IQR 28·1-33·6). During the first cycle of treatment (phase 1a safety run-in; n=11), one patient with gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma who received the 8 mg/kg dose of ramucirumab had grade 3 abdominal pain, colitis, hepatitis, interstitial lung disease, and jaundice, and grade 4 cholestasis, and died on treatment on day 40; the death was deemed related to progressive disease. No additional dose-limiting toxicities occurred and the decision was made to maintain the full planned doses of ramucirumab and pembrolizumab in phase 1b (n=81). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 75 (82%) of 92 patients, the most common of which was fatigue (in 33 patients [36%]), predominantly of grade 1 or 2 severity. 22 patients (24%) had one or more treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or worse, most commonly hypertension (six patients; 7%) and colitis (five patients; 5%). Serious adverse events occurred in 53 (58%) of 92 patients, and were deemed related to treatment in 22 (24%) patients. The most common treatment-related serious adverse events were abdominal pain in patients with gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (in three [7%] of 41 patients); asthenia and myocardial infarction in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (two [7%] of 27 patients), and colitis in patients with urothelial carcinoma (two [8%] of 24 patients). Six (7%) of 92 patients discontinued treatment because of treatment-related adverse events, and one death (from pulmonary sepsis in a patient with gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma) was deemed related to treatment. The number of patients achieving an objective response was three (7%; 95% CI 1·5-19·9) of 41 in the gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma cohort, eight (30%; 13·8-50·2) of 27 in the non-small-cell lung cancer cohort, and three (13%, 2·7-32·4) in the urothelial carcinoma cohort. INTERPRETATION: Ramucirumab in combination with pembrolizumab showed a manageable safety profile with favourable antitumour activity in patients with previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, and urothelial carcinoma. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that supports dual inhibition of the VEGF-VEGFR2 and PD-1-PD-L1 pathways. This combination could be further explored with or without chemotherapy, especially for patients with tumours for which single-agent checkpoint inhibitors have shown no additional benefit over chemotherapy. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company, and Merck and Co.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(17): 5202-5211, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142504

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Inhibition of the VEGFR-2 blocks angiogenesis and attenuates tumor growth, but cancers may evade this effect through activation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor MET. Here we report results of the phase Ib/II study of ramucirumab, a monoclonal anti-VEGFR-2 antibody, plus the anti-MET mAb emibetuzumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 3+3 dose escalation of emibetuzumab plus ramucirumab (phase Ib) was followed by tumor-specific expansion cohorts. Primary objectives were to determine the recommended phase II dose and to evaluate antitumor activity. Secondary objectives included safety, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity. Tumoral MET expression was explored by immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: A total of 97 patients with solid tumor [6 phase Ib, 16 gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, 45 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 15 renal cell carcinoma, and 15 non-small lung cancer] received emibetuzumab at 750 or 2,000 mg flat dosing plus ramucirumab at 8 mg/kg every 2 weeks. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Common adverse events were primarily mild or moderate and included fatigue (36.1%), peripheral edema (28.9%), and nausea (14.4%). Emibetuzumab exposures were similar as in previous studies with no apparent drug-drug interactions. Five partial responses (5.2%) were observed across all tumor types. The greatest antitumor activity was noted in HCC with a 6.7% overall response rate, 60% disease control rate, and 5.42 months (95% confidence interval, 1.64-8.12) progression-free survival (PFS). HCC with high MET expression showed improved PFS with approximately 3-fold increase in PFS (8.1 vs. 2.8 months) relative to low MET expression. CONCLUSIONS: Ramucirumab plus emibetuzumab was safe and exhibited cytostatic antitumor activity. MET expression may help to select patients benefitting most from this combination treatment in select tumor types.

11.
J Nutr ; 149(7): 1215-1221, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intake of nuts has been inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, partly through inducing a healthy lipid profile. How nut intake may affect lipid metabolites remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the plasma lipid metabolites associated with habitual nut consumption in US men and women. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1099 participants in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), NHS II, and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Metabolic profiling was conducted on plasma by LC-mass spectrometry. Nut intake was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires. We included 144 known lipid metabolites that had CVs ≤25%. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the associations of nut consumption with individual plasma lipid metabolites. RESULTS: We identified 17 lipid metabolites that were significantly associated with nut intake, based on a 1 serving (28 g)/d increment in multivariate models [false discovery rate (FDR) P value <0.05]. Among these species, 8 were positively associated with nut intake [C24:0 sphingomyelin (SM), C36:3 phosphatidylcholine (PC) plasmalogen-A, C36:2 PC plasmalogen, C24:0 ceramide, C36:1 PC plasmalogen, C22:0 SM, C34:1 PC plasmalogen, and C36:2 phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen], with changes in relative metabolite level (expressed in number of SDs on the log scale) ranging from 0.36 to 0.46 for 1 serving/d of nuts. The other 9 metabolites were inversely associated with nut intake with changes in relative metabolite level ranging from -0.34 to -0.44. In stratified analysis, 3 metabolites were positively associated with both peanuts and peanut butter (C24:0 SM, C24:0 ceramide, and C22:0 SM), whereas 6 metabolites were inversely associated with other nuts (FDR P value <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A panel of lipid metabolites was associated with intake of nuts, which may provide insight into biological mechanisms underlying associations between nuts and cardiometabolic health. Metabolites that were positively associated with intake of nuts may be helpful in identifying potential biomarkers of nut intake.

12.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(7): 757-765, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104167

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The relationships of genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] levels and survival remain largely unknown for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). METHODS: Among 535 patients participating in a randomized trial of chemotherapy for mCRC, we prospectively measured baseline plasma 25(OH)D and examined 124 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within seven genes in the vitamin D pathway, including five SNPs associated with circulating 25(OH)D levels in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We evaluated whether these SNPs were associated with plasma 25(OH)D levels and patient outcome (overall survival, time to progression, and tumor response), using linear, logistic, and Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: We observed a significant association between 25(OH)D levels and an additive genetic risk score determined by the five GWAS-identified SNPs (p = 0.0009). We did not observe any direct association between 25(OH)D-associated SNPs, individually or as a genetic risk score, and patient outcome. However, we found a significant interaction between 25(OH)D levels and rs12785878 genotype in DHCR7 on overall survival (pinteraction = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Germline genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway informs baseline 25(OH)D levels among patients with mCRC. The association between 25(OH)D levels and overall survival may vary by DHCR7 genotype. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00003594 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00003594 ).


Assuntos
Calcifediol/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Vitaminas/sangue , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
JAMA ; 321(14): 1370-1379, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964527

RESUMO

Importance: In observational studies, higher plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels have been associated with improved survival in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Objective: To determine if high-dose vitamin D3 added to standard chemotherapy improves outcomes in patients with metastatic CRC. Design, Setting, and Participants: Double-blind phase 2 randomized clinical trial of 139 patients with advanced or metastatic CRC conducted at 11 US academic and community cancer centers from March 2012 through November 2016 (database lock: September 2018). Interventions: mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab chemotherapy every 2 weeks and either high-dose vitamin D3 (n = 69) or standard-dose vitamin D3 (n = 70) daily until disease progression, intolerable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) assessed by the log-rank test and a supportive Cox proportional hazards model. Testing was 1-sided. Secondary end points included tumor objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and change in plasma 25(OH)D level. Results: Among 139 patients (mean age, 56 years; 60 [43%] women) who completed or discontinued chemotherapy and vitamin D3 (median follow-up, 22.9 months), the median PFS for high-dose vitamin D3 was 13.0 months (95% CI, 10.1 to 14.7; 49 PFS events) vs 11.0 months (95% CI, 9.5 to 14.0; 62 PFS events) for standard-dose vitamin D3 (log-rank P = .07); multivariable hazard ratio for PFS or death was 0.64 (1-sided 95% CI, 0 to 0.90; P = .02). There were no significant differences between high-dose and standard-dose vitamin D3 for tumor ORR (58% vs 63%, respectively; difference, -5% [95% CI, -20% to 100%], P = .27) or OS (median, 24.3 months vs 24.3 months; log-rank P = .43). The median 25(OH)D level at baseline for high-dose vitamin D3 was 16.1 ng/mL vs 18.7 ng/mL for standard-dose vitamin D3 (difference, -2.6 ng/mL [95% CI, -6.6 to 1.4], P = .30); at first restaging, 32.0 ng/mL vs 18.7 ng/mL (difference, 12.8 ng/mL [95% CI, 9.0 to 16.6], P < .001); at second restaging, 35.2 ng/mL vs 18.5 ng/mL (difference, 16.7 ng/mL [95% CI, 10.9 to 22.5], P < .001); and at treatment discontinuation, 34.8 ng/mL vs 18.7 ng/mL (difference, 16.2 ng/mL [95% CI, 9.9 to 22.4], P < .001). The most common grade 3 and higher adverse events for chemotherapy plus high-dose vs standard-dose vitamin D3 were neutropenia (n = 24 [35%] vs n = 21 [31%], respectively) and hypertension (n = 9 [13%] vs n = 11 [16%]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with metastatic CRC, addition of high-dose vitamin D3, vs standard-dose vitamin D3, to standard chemotherapy resulted in a difference in median PFS that was not statistically significant, but with a significantly improved supportive hazard ratio. These findings warrant further evaluation in a larger multicenter randomized clinical trial. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01516216.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Colecalciferol/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/secundário , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos
15.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(6): 637-649, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A preventive potential of high calcium intake against colorectal cancer has been indicated for distal colon cancer, which is inversely associated with high-level CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), high-level microsatellite instability (MSI), and BRAF and PIK3CA mutations. In addition, BRAF mutation is strongly inversely correlated with KRAS mutation. We hypothesized that the association between calcium intake and colon cancer risk might vary by these molecular features. METHODS: We prospectively followed 88,506 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 47,733 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study for up to 30 years. Duplication-method Cox proportional cause-specific hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the associations between calcium intake and the risk of colon cancer subtypes. By Bonferroni correction, the α-level was adjusted to 0.01. RESULTS: Based on 853 colon cancer cases, the inverse association between dietary calcium intake and colon cancer risk differed by CIMP status (pheterogeneity = 0.01). Per each 300 mg/day increase in intake, multivariable HRs were 0.84 (95% CI 0.76-0.94) for CIMP-negative/low and 1.12 (95% CI 0.93-1.34) for CIMP-high. Similar differential associations were suggested for MSI subtypes (pheterogeneity = 0.02), with the corresponding HR being 0.86 (95% CI 0.77-0.95) for non-MSI-high and 1.10 (95% CI 0.92-1.32) for MSI-high. No differential associations were observed by BRAF, KRAS, or PIK3CA mutations. CONCLUSION: The inverse association between dietary calcium intake and colon cancer risk may be specific to CIMP-negative/low and possibly non-MSI-high subtypes.


Assuntos
Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco
16.
Br J Cancer ; 120(8): 848-854, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with a family history of cancer may be at increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) individuals carry increased risk for pancreatic cancer and other cancer types. METHODS: We examined the association between family history of cancer, AJ heritage, and incident pancreatic cancer in 49 410 male participants of the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During 1.1 million person-years (1986-2016), 452 participants developed pancreatic cancer. Increased risk of pancreatic cancer was observed in individuals with a family history of pancreatic (HR, 2.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-6.07) or breast cancer (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.01-1.94). There was a trend towards higher risk of pancreatic cancer in relation to a family history of colorectal cancer (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.95-1.55) or AJ heritage (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.94-1.77). The risk was highly elevated among AJ men with a family history of breast or colorectal cancer (HR, 2.61 [95% CI, 1.41-4.82] and 1.92 [95% CI, 1.05-3.49], respectively). CONCLUSION: Family history of pancreatic cancer was associated with increased risk of this malignancy. Family history of breast or colorectal cancer was associated with the increased risk among AJ men.

17.
Cancer ; 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiangiogenic therapy is a proven therapeutic modality for refractory gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. This trial assessed whether the addition of a high affinity angiogenesis inhibitor, ziv-aflibercept, could improve the efficacy of first-line mFOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and bolus plus infusional 5- fluorouracil) in metastatic esophagogastric adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Patients with treatment-naive metastatic esophagogastric adenocarcinoma were randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) in a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to receive first-line mFOLFOX6 with or without ziv-aflibercept (4 mg/kg) every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Sixty-four patients were randomized to receive mFOLFOX6 and ziv-aflibercept (43 patients) or mFOLFOX6 and a placebo (21 patients). There was no difference in the PFS, overall survival, or response rate. Patients treated with mFOLFOX6/ziv-aflibercept tended to be more likely to discontinue study treatment for reasons other than progressive disease (P = .06). The relative dose intensity of oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil was lower in the mFOLFOX6/ziv-aflibercept arm during the first 12 and 24 weeks of the trial. There were 2 treatment-related deaths due to cerebral hemorrhage and bowel perforation in the mFOLFOX6/ziv-aflibercept cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Ziv-aflibercept did not increase the anti-tumor activity of first-line mFOLFOX6 in metastatic esophagogastric cancer, potentially because of decreased dose intensity of FOLFOX. Further evaluation of ziv-aflibercept in unselected, chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic esophagogastric adenocarcinoma is not warranted.

19.
Eur J Cancer ; 111: 82-93, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2, cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2)-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway promotes tumour progression. Considering evidence suggesting increased PGE2 synthesis by BRAF mutation in tumour cells, we hypothesised that the association of tumour PTGS2 (COX-2) expression with colorectal cancer mortality might be stronger in BRAF-mutated tumours than in BRAF-wild-type tumours. METHODS: Using 1708 patients, including 1200 stage I-IV colorectal carcinoma cases in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and 508 stage III colon cancer cases in a National Cancer Institute-sponsored randomised controlled trial of adjuvant therapy (CALGB/Alliance 89803), we evaluated tumour PTGS2 (COX-2) expression status using immunohistochemistry. We examined the prognostic association of PTGS2 (COX-2) expression in strata of BRAF mutation status by multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to adjust for potential confounders, including disease stage, tumour differentiation, microsatellite instability status and KRAS and PIK3CA mutations. RESULTS: In NHS and HPFS, the association of PTGS2 (COX-2) expression with colorectal cancer-specific survival differed by BRAF mutation status (Pinteraction = 0.0005); compared with PTGS2 (COX-2)-negative/low carcinomas, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for PTGS2 (COX-2)-high carcinomas were 2.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.39-4.28) in BRAF-mutated cases and 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.04) in BRAF-wild-type cases. Differential prognostic associations of PTGS2 (COX-2) expression in strata of BRAF mutation status were similarly observed in CALGB/Alliance 89803 trial (Pinteraction = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The association of tumour PTGS2 (COX-2) expression with colorectal cancer mortality is stronger in BRAF-mutated tumours than in BRAF-wild-type tumours, supporting interactive roles of PTGS2 (COX-2) expression and BRAF mutation statuses in prognostication of patients with colorectal cancer; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT00003835.

20.
Gastric Cancer ; 22(4): 828-837, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The multicohort, phase II, nonrandomized KEYNOTE-059 study evaluated pembrolizumab ± chemotherapy in advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction cancer. Results from cohorts 2 and 3, evaluating first-line therapy, are presented. METHODS: Patients ≥ 18 years old had previously untreated recurrent or metastatic gastric/gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Cohort 3 (monotherapy) had programmed death receptor 1 combined positive score ≥ 1. Cohort 2 (combination therapy) received pembrolizumab 200 mg on day 1, cisplatin 80 mg/m2 on day 1 (up to 6 cycles), and 5-fluorouracil 800 mg/m2 on days 1-5 of each 3-week cycle (or capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 twice daily in Japan). Primary end points were safety (combination therapy) and objective response rate per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 by central review, and safety (monotherapy). RESULTS: In the combination therapy and monotherapy cohorts, 25 and 31 patients were enrolled; median follow-up was 13.8 months (range 1.8-24.1) and 17.5 months (range 1.7-20.7), respectively. In the combination therapy cohort, grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 19 patients (76.0%); none were fatal. In the monotherapy cohort, grade 3-5 treatment-related adverse events occurred in seven patients (22.6%); one death was attributed to a treatment-related adverse event (pneumonitis). The objective response rate was 60.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 38.7-78.9] (combination therapy) and 25.8% (95% CI 11.9-44.6) (monotherapy). CONCLUSIONS: Pembrolizumab demonstrated antitumor activity and was well tolerated as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. CLINICAL TRIAL: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02335411.

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