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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2023500, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125497

RESUMO

Importance: Diet has been associated with survival in patients with stage I to III colorectal cancer, but data on patients with metastatic colorectal cancer are limited. Objective: To examine the association between diet quality and overall survival among individuals with metastatic colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective cohort study of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who were enrolled in the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (Alliance) and Southwest Oncology Group 80405 trial between October 27, 2005, and February 29, 2012, and followed up through January 2018. Exposures: Participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire within 4 weeks after initiation of first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. Diets were categorized according to the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Alternate Mediterranean Diet (AMED) score, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and Western and prudent dietary patterns derived using principal component analysis. Participants were categorized into sex-specific quintiles. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for overall survival. Results: In this cohort study of 1284 individuals with metastatic colorectal cancer, the median age was 59 (interquartile range [IQR]: 51-68) years, median body mass index was 27.2 (IQR, 24.1-31.4), 521 (41%) were female, and 1102 (86%) were White. There were 1100 deaths during a median follow-up of 73 months (IQR, 64-87 months). We observed an inverse association between the AMED score and risk of death (HR quintile 5 vs quintile 1, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.67-1.04; P = .04 for trend), but the point estimates were not statistically significant. None of the other diet scores or patterns were associated with overall survival. Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective analysis of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, diet quality assessed at initiation of first-line treatment for metastatic disease was not associated with overall survival.

2.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023967

RESUMO

Macrophages are among the most common cells in the colorectal cancer microenvironment, but their prognostic significance is incompletely understood. Using multiplexed immunofluorescence for CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, MRC1 (CD206), and KRT (cytokeratins) combined with digital image analysis and machine learning, we assessed the polarization spectrum of tumor-associated macrophages in 931 colorectal carcinomas. We then applied Cox proportional hazards regression to assess prognostic survival associations of intraepithelial and stromal densities of M1-like and M2-like macrophages while controlling for potential confounders, including stage and microsatellite instability status. We found that high tumor stromal density of M2-like macrophages was associated with worse cancer-specific survival, whereas tumor stromal density of M1-like macrophages was not significantly associated with better cancer-specific survival. High M1:M2 density ratio in tumor stroma was associated with better cancer-specific survival. Overall macrophage densities in tumor intraepithelial or stromal regions were not prognostic. These findings suggested that macrophage polarization state, rather than their overall density, was associated with cancer-specific survival, with M1- and M2-like macrophage phenotypes exhibiting distinct prognostic roles. These results highlight the utility of a multimarker strategy to assess the macrophage polarization at single-cell resolution within the tumor microenvironment.

3.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940631

RESUMO

Importance: Several compounds found in coffee possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and insulin-sensitizing effects, which may contribute to anticancer activity. Epidemiological studies have identified associations between increased coffee consumption and decreased recurrence and mortality of colorectal cancer. The association between coffee consumption and survival in patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the association of coffee consumption with disease progression and death in patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective observational cohort study included 1171 patients with previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer who were enrolled in Cancer and Leukemia Group B (Alliance)/SWOG 80405, a completed phase 3 clinical trial comparing the addition of cetuximab and/or bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy. Patients reported dietary intake using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire at the time of enrollment. Data were collected from October 27, 2005, to January 18, 2018, and analyzed from May 1 to August 31, 2018. Exposures: Consumption of total, decaffeinated, and caffeinated coffee measured in cups per day. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Among the 1171 patients included in the analysis (694 men [59%]; median age, 59 [interquartile range, 51-67] years). The median follow-up time among living patients was 5.4 years (10th percentile, 1.3 years; IQR, 3.2-6.3 years). A total of 1092 patients (93%) had died or had disease progression. Increased consumption of coffee was associated with decreased risk of cancer progression (hazard ratio [HR] for 1-cup/d increment, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-1.00; P = .04 for trend) and death (HR for 1-cup/d increment, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98; P = .004 for trend). Participants who consumed 2 to 3 cups of coffee per day had a multivariable HR for OS of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.67-1.00) and for PFS of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.68-0.99), compared with those who did not drink coffee. Participants who consumed at least 4 cups of coffee per day had a multivariable HR for OS of 0.64 (95% CI, 0.46-0.87) and for PFS of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.59-1.05). Significant associations were noted for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. Conclusions and Relevance: Coffee consumption may be associated with reduced risk of disease progression and death in patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer. Further research is warranted to elucidate underlying biological mechanisms.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2323-2331, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with improved survival among patients with colorectal cancer, but the relationships between circulating vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), and bioavailable or free 25(OH)D, and colorectal cancer survival remain unknown. METHODS: We examined the associations between prediagnostic plasma levels of vitamin D-related markers and survival among 603 White participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer from two prospective U.S. cohorts. Plasma VDBP and total 25(OH)D were directly measured, while bioavailable and free 25(OH)D was calculated using a validated formula on the basis of total 25(OH)D, VDBP, and albumin levels. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate HRs for overall and colorectal cancer-specific mortality, with adjustment for other prognostic markers and potential confounders. RESULTS: Higher VDBP levels were associated with improved overall (P trend = 0.001) and colorectal cancer-specific survival (P trend = 0.02). Compared with patients in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of VDBP had a multivariate HR of 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.41-0.80] for overall mortality and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.37-0.91) for colorectal cancer-specific mortality. The results remained similar after further adjustment for total 25(OH)D levels. In contrast, neither bioavailable nor free 25(OH)D levels were associated with overall or colorectal cancer-specific mortality (all P trend > 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic circulating concentrations of VDBP were positively associated with survival among patients with colorectal cancer. IMPACT: The clinical utility of VDBP as a prognostic marker warrants further exploration, as well as research into underlying mechanisms of action.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome. METHODS: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data. RESULTS: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. IMPACT: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 817, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) score is a validated food-based dietary score that assesses the ability of whole-food diets to predict plasma c-peptide concentrations. Although the EDIH has been extensively applied and found to be predictive of risk of developing major chronic diseases, its influence on cancer survival has not been evaluated. We applied the EDIH score in a large cohort of colorectal cancer patients to assess the insulinemic potential of their dietary patterns after diagnosis and determine its influence on survival outcomes. METHODS: We calculated EDIH scores to assess the insulinemic potential of post-diagnosis dietary patterns and examined survival outcomes in a sample of 1718 stage I-III colorectal cancer patients in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for colorectal cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality. We also examined the influence of change in diet from pre- to post-diagnosis period, on mortality. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, there were 1008 deaths, which included 272 colorectal cancer-specific deaths (27%). In the multivariable-adjusted analyses, colorectal cancer patients in the highest compared to lowest EDIH quintile, had a 66% greater risk of dying from colorectal cancer: HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.03, 2.69; and a 24% greater risk of all-cause death: HR, 1.24; 95%CI, 0.97, 1.58. Compared to patients who consumed low insulinemic diets from pre- to post-diagnosis period, patients who persistently consumed hyperinsulinemic diets were at higher risk of colorectal cancer death (HR,1.51; 95%CI, 0.98, 2.32) and all-cause death (HR, 1.31; 95%CI, 1.04, 2.64). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a hyperinsulinemic dietary pattern after diagnosis of colorectal cancer is associated with poorer survival. Interventions with dietary patterns to reduce insulinemic activity and impact survivorship are warranted.

7.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(10): e202948, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789511

RESUMO

Importance: Pancreatic cancer is the third-leading cause of cancer death in the United States; however, few high-risk groups have been identified to facilitate early diagnosis strategies. Objective: To evaluate the association of diabetes duration and recent weight change with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer in the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study obtained data from female participants in the Nurses' Health Study and male participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, with repeated exposure assessments over 30 years. Incident cases of pancreatic cancer were identified from self-report or during follow-up of participant deaths. Deaths were ascertained through reports from the next of kin, the US Postal Service, or the National Death Index. Data collection was conducted from October 1, 2018, to December 31, 2018. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2019, to June 30, 2019. Exposures: Duration of physician-diagnosed diabetes and recent weight change. Main Outcome and Measures: Hazard ratios (HRs) for subsequent development of pancreatic cancer. Results: Of the 112 818 women (with a mean [SD] age of 59.4 [11.7] years) and 46 207 men (with a mean [SD] age of 64.7 [10.8] years) included in the analysis, 1116 incident cases of pancreatic cancers were identified. Compared with participants with no diabetes, those with recent-onset diabetes had an age-adjusted HR for pancreatic cancer of 2.97 (95% CI, 2.31-3.82) and those with long-standing diabetes had an age-adjusted HR of 2.16 (95% CI, 1.78-2.60). Compared with those with no weight loss, participants who reported a 1- to 4-lb weight loss had an age-adjusted HR for pancreatic cancer of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.03-1.52), those with a 5- to 8-lb weight loss had an age-adjusted HR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.06-1.66), and those with more than an 8-lb weight loss had an age-adjusted HR of 1.92 (95% CI, 1.58-2.32). Participants with recent-onset diabetes accompanied by weight loss of 1 to 8 lb (91 incident cases per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 55-151]; HR, 3.61 [95% CI, 2.14-6.10]) or more than 8 lb (164 incident cases per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 114-238]; HR, 6.75 [95% CI, 4.55-10.00]) had a substantially increased risk for pancreatic cancer compared with those with neither exposure (16 incident cases per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI, 14-17). Incidence rates were even higher among participants with recent-onset diabetes and weight loss with a body mass index of less than 25 before weight loss (400 incident cases per 100 000 person-years) or whose weight loss was not intentional judging from increased physical activity or healthier dietary choices (334 incident cases per 100 000 person-years). Conclusions and Relevance: This study demonstrates that recent-onset diabetes accompanied by weight loss is associated with a substantially increased risk for developing pancreatic cancer. Older age, previous healthy weight, and no intentional weight loss further elevate this risk.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859615

RESUMO

Observational studies report that physical activity and metformin are associated with improved clinical outcome in patients with cancer. Inflammation is one biological mechanism hypothesized to mediate these associations. In this phase II, multicenter, 2 × 2 factorial trial, 139 patients with breast and colorectal cancer who completed standard therapy were randomized to one of four treatment groups for 12 weeks: exercise alone, metformin alone, exercise and metformin, or control. Inflammation outcomes included high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor two (sTNFαR2), and IL6. The primary modeling strategy evaluated the trial product estimand that was quantified using a generalized linear mixed model. Compared with control, exercise alone reduced hs-CRP [-30.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI), -50.3, -1.0] and IL6 (-30.9%; 95% CI, -47.3, -9.5) but did not change sTNFαR2 (1.0%; 95% CI, -10.4, 13.9). Compared with control, metformin alone did not change hs-CRP (-13.9%; 95% CI, -40.0, 23.4), sTNFαR2 (-10.4%; 95% CI, -21.3, 2.0), or IL6 (-22.9%; 95% CI, -42.3, 2.0). Compared with control, exercise and metformin reduced sTNFαR2 (-13.1%; 95% CI, -22.9, -1.0) and IL6 (-38.7%; 95% CI, -52.3, -18.9) but did not change hs-CRP (-20.5%; 95% CI, -44.0, 12.7). The combination of exercise and metformin was not synergistic for hs-CRP, sTNFαR2, or IL6. In survivors of breast and colorectal cancer with low baseline physical activity and without type 2 diabetes, exercise and metformin reduced measures of inflammation that are associated with cancer recurrence and mortality.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858111

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been proposed to be tumorigenic; however, prior studies of the association between DM and survival are conflicting. The goal of this ancillary analysis of RTOG 9704, a randomized controlled trial of adjuvant chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer, was to determine the prognostic effects of DM and insulin use on survival. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligible patients from RTOG 9704 with available data on DM and insulin use were included. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and variable levels were compared using log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models were created to assess the associations among DM, insulin use, and body mass index phenotypes on outcomes. RESULTS: Of 538 patients enrolled from 1998 to 2002, 238 patients were eligible with analyzable DM and insulin use data. Overall 34% of patients had DM and 66% did not. Of patients with DM, 64% had insulin-dependent DM, and 36% had non-insulin-dependent DM. On univariable analysis, neither DM nor insulin dependence were associated with OS or DFS (P > .05 for all). On multivariable analysis, neither DM, insulin use, nor body mass index were independently associated with OS or DFS. Nonwhite race (hazard ratio [HR], 2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-3.50; P = .0014), nodal involvement (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.24-2.45; P = .0015), and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) ≥90 U/mL (HR, 3.61; 95% CI, 2.32-5.63; P < .001) were associated with decreased OS. Nonwhite race (HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.05-2.63; P = .029) and CA19-9 ≥90 U/mL (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.85-4.40; P < .001) were associated with decreased DFS. CONCLUSIONS: DM and insulin use were not associated with OS or DFS in patients with pancreatic cancer in this study. Race, nodal involvement, and increased CA19-9 were significant predictors of outcomes. These data might apply to the more modern use of neoadjuvant therapies for potentially resectable pancreatic cancer.

10.
EBioMedicine ; 57: 102860, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumour budding and poorly differentiated clusters (PDC) represent forms of tumour invasion. We hypothesised that T-cell densities (reflecting adaptive anti-tumour immunity) might be inversely associated with tumour budding and PDC in colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: Utilising 915 colon and rectal carcinomas in two U.S.-wide prospective cohort studies, and multiplex immunofluorescence combined with machine learning algorithms, we assessed CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO (PTPRC), and FOXP3 co-expression patterns in lymphocytes. Tumour budding and PDC at invasive fronts were quantified by digital pathology and image analysis using the International tumour Budding Consensus Conference criteria. Using covariate data of 4,420 incident colorectal cancer cases, inverse probability weighting (IPW) was integrated with multivariable logistic regression analysis that assessed the association of T-cell subset densities with tumour budding and PDC while adjusting for selection bias due to tissue availability and potential confounders, including microsatellite instability status. FINDINGS: Tumour budding counts were inversely associated with density of CD3+CD8+ [lowest vs. highest: multivariable odds ratio (OR), 0.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.35-0.70; Ptrend < 0.001] and CD3+CD8+CD45RO+ cells (lowest vs. highest: multivariable OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.31-0.63; Ptrend < 0.001) in tumour epithelial region. Tumour budding levels were associated with higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality (multivariable hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.57-2.89; Ptrend < 0.001) in Cox regression analysis. There were no significant associations of PDC with T-cell subsets. INTERPRETATION: Tumour epithelial naïve and memory cytotoxic T cell densities are inversely associated with tumour budding at invasive fronts, suggesting that cytotoxic anti-tumour immunity suppresses tumour microinvasion.

11.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 4004-4013, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641412

RESUMO

Registry-based epidemiologic studies suggest associations between chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As genetic susceptibility contributes to a large proportion of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, we hypothesize that the genomic regions surrounding established genome-wide associated variants for these chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with PDAC. We examined the association between PDAC and genomic regions (±500 kb) surrounding established common susceptibility variants for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We analyzed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies data for 8,384 cases and 11,955 controls of European descent from two large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method to examine the overall association of combined genomic regions for each inflammatory disease group. Combined genomic susceptibility regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis were associated with PDAC at P values < 0.05 (0.0040, 0.0057, 0.011, and 3.4 × 10-6, respectively). After excluding the 20 PDAC susceptibility regions (±500 kb) previously identified by GWAS, the genomic regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and inflammatory bowel disease remained associated with PDAC (P = 0.0029, 0.0057, and 0.0098, respectively). Genomic regions for celiac disease (P = 0.22) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (P = 0.078) were not associated with PDAC. Our results support the hypothesis that genomic regions surrounding variants associated with inflammatory intestinal diseases, particularly, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC. SIGNIFICANCE: The joint effects of common variants in genomic regions containing susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC and may provide insights to understanding pancreatic cancer etiology.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3644, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686686

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a biologically heterogeneous disease. To characterize its mutational profile, we conduct targeted sequencing of 205 genes for 2,105 CRC cases with survival data. Our data shows several findings in addition to enhancing the existing knowledge of CRC. We identify PRKCI, SPZ1, MUTYH, MAP2K4, FETUB, and TGFBR2 as additional genes significantly mutated in CRC. We find that among hypermutated tumors, an increased mutation burden is associated with improved CRC-specific survival (HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-0.82). Mutations in TP53 are associated with poorer CRC-specific survival, which is most pronounced in cases carrying TP53 mutations with predicted 0% transcriptional activity (HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.21-1.94). Furthermore, we observe differences in mutational frequency of several genes and pathways by tumor location, stage, and sex. Overall, this large study provides deep insights into somatic mutations in CRC, and their potential relationships with survival and tumor features.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Mutação , Prognóstico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
13.
Br J Cancer ; 123(5): 844-851, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite several plausible biological mechanisms linking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) with colorectal tumorigenesis, their association with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been adequately assessed in prospective epidemiological studies. METHODS: We evaluated the association of acid-suppressive medication use with CRC risk among 175,871 (PPI) and 208,831 (H2RA) participants from three large prospective cohort studies. Medication use was assessed at baseline and updated biennially. The association was evaluated using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: There was no significant association between baseline PPI use (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.71-1.12) or PPI use after a lag of 8-10 years (HR = 1.12, 95% CI, 0.78-1.59) with CRC risk. We observed no significant association between H2RA use after a lag of 8-10 years and CRC risk (HR = 1.02, 95% CI, 0.81-1.28), while risk was lower for participants with baseline H2RA use (HR = 0.76, 95% CI, 0.60-0.95). Duration of PPI use or H2RA use was not associated with CRC risk (P-trend = 0.21 and 0.95, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among participants from three large prospective cohorts, use of PPI or H2RA was not associated with higher risk of colorectal cancer.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(8): 1692-1695, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperinsulinemia is considered to be important in the development of colon cancer, but few studies have investigated the associations of hyperinsulinemia with colon cancer survival via dietary scores. METHODS: Empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) was derived to assess the insulinemic potential of daily diets reflecting the long-term insulin exposure, with higher (more positive) scores indicating higher insulinemic diets. We prospectively estimated the HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to investigate the association of EDIH with disease-free, recurrence-free, and overall survival among patients with stage III colon cancer (1999-2009) enrolled in a randomized adjuvant chemotherapy trial (CALGB 89803). RESULTS: Of 1,024 patients (median follow-up: 7.3 years), 311 died, 350 had recurrences, and 394 had events for disease-free survival. Compared with patients in the lowest quintile of EDIH, the corresponding HRs of patients in the highest quintile for disease-free survival events, cancer recurrence, and overall mortality were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.56-1.15), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.51-1.11), and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.52-1.14). CONCLUSIONS: Higher EDIH was not associated with the risk of colon cancer recurrence or mortality in this population of patients with stage III colon cancer. IMPACT: EDIH, as a measure of dietary insulinemic potential, may be associated with colon cancer risk but not survival in patients with late-stage colon cancer.

15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(8): 1586-1595, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling is important in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) biology, but little is known regarding IGF1R expression and patient characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: In 365 patients with resected PDAC, we evaluated IGF1R protein expression using IHC on whole-slide sections and IGF1R genomic status using next-generation sequencing. Associations of IGF1R expression, measured by H-scores incorporating staining intensity and proportion of positive tumor cells, with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated in 317 and 321 patients, respectively, using Cox regression adjusting for known prognostic factors. RESULTS: Higher IGF1R expression in tumor cells was associated with worse DFS comparing highest versus lowest expression tertiles [median DFS, 10.8 vs. 16.1 months; adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-2.44; P trend = 0.002] and worse OS (median OS, 17.4 vs. 25.8 months; HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.00-1.92; P trend = 0.046). The association between high IGF1R expression and reduced DFS was identified primarily among patients with a preoperative body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 (HR, 4.27; 95% CI, 2.03-8.96, comparing extreme tertiles; P interaction = 0.032). KRAS-mutant tumors had greater IGF1R expression, and IGF1R expression in tumor epithelium was inversely correlated with that in stromal cells. Mutations in IGF1R were infrequent, and no overt loss-of-function alterations were identified. Higher IGF1R expression was modestly associated with higher gene copy number (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.26, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher IGF1R protein expression was associated with worse patient outcomes in resected PDAC. IMPACT: IGF1R expression in PDAC represents a potential biomarker to guide patient selection for more aggressive, multidrug regimens in the adjuvant setting.

16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(16): 4326-4338, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439699

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although high T-cell density is a well-established favorable prognostic factor in colorectal cancer, the prognostic significance of tumor-associated plasma cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils is less well-defined. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We computationally processed digital images of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections to identify lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils in tumor intraepithelial and stromal areas of 934 colorectal cancers in two prospective cohort studies. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute mortality HR according to cell density quartiles. The spatial patterns of immune cell infiltration were studied using the GTumor:Immune cell function, which estimates the likelihood of any tumor cell in a sample having at least one neighboring immune cell of the specified type within a certain radius. Validation studies were performed on an independent cohort of 570 colorectal cancers. RESULTS: Immune cell densities measured by the automated classifier demonstrated high correlation with densities both from manual counts and those obtained from an independently trained automated classifier (Spearman's ρ 0.71-0.96). High densities of stromal lymphocytes and eosinophils were associated with better cancer-specific survival [P trend < 0.001; multivariable HR (4th vs 1st quartile of eosinophils), 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.71]. High GTumor:Lymphocyte area under the curve (AUC0,20µm; P trend = 0.002) and high GTumor:Eosinophil AUC0,20µm (P trend < 0.001) also showed associations with better cancer-specific survival. High stromal eosinophil density was also associated with better cancer-specific survival in the validation cohort (P trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the potential for machine learning assessment of H&E-stained sections to provide robust, quantitative tumor-immune biomarkers for precision medicine.

17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 999-1008, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and 80% of patients present with advanced, incurable disease. Risk markers for pancreatic cancer have been characterized, but combined models are not used clinically to identify individuals at high risk for the disease. METHODS: Within a nested case-control study of 500 pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed after blood collection and 1,091 matched controls enrolled in four U.S. prospective cohorts, we characterized absolute risk models that included clinical factors (e.g., body mass index, history of diabetes), germline genetic polymorphisms, and circulating biomarkers. RESULTS: Model discrimination showed an area under ROC curve of 0.62 via cross-validation. Our final integrated model identified 3.7% of men and 2.6% of women who had at least 3 times greater than average risk in the ensuing 10 years. Individuals within the top risk percentile had a 4% risk of developing pancreatic cancer by age 80 years and 2% 10-year risk at age 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Risk models that include established clinical, genetic, and circulating factors improved disease discrimination over models using clinical factors alone. IMPACT: Absolute risk models for pancreatic cancer may help identify individuals in the general population appropriate for disease interception.

18.
Cell ; 181(4): 832-847.e18, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304665

RESUMO

Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), yet how and when obesity contributes to PDAC progression is not well understood. Leveraging an autochthonous mouse model, we demonstrate a causal and reversible role for obesity in early PDAC progression, showing that obesity markedly enhances tumorigenesis, while genetic or dietary induction of weight loss intercepts cancer development. Molecular analyses of human and murine samples define microenvironmental consequences of obesity that foster tumorigenesis rather than new driver gene mutations, including significant pancreatic islet cell adaptation in obesity-associated tumors. Specifically, we identify aberrant beta cell expression of the peptide hormone cholecystokinin (Cck) in response to obesity and show that islet Cck promotes oncogenic Kras-driven pancreatic ductal tumorigenesis. Our studies argue that PDAC progression is driven by local obesity-associated changes in the tumor microenvironment and implicate endocrine-exocrine signaling beyond insulin in PDAC development.

19.
Br J Cancer ; 122(9): 1367-1377, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histological lymphocytic reaction is regarded as an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. Considering the lack of adequate statistical power, adjustment for selection bias and comprehensive tumour molecular data in most previous studies, we investigated the strengths of the prognostic associations of lymphocytic reaction in colorectal carcinoma by utilising an integrative database of two prospective cohort studies. METHODS: We examined Crohn's-like reaction, intratumoural periglandular reaction, peritumoural reaction and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in 1465 colorectal carcinoma cases. Using covariate data of 4420 colorectal cancer cases in total, inverse probability-weighted Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to control for selection bias (due to tissue availability) and potential confounders, including stage, MSI status, LINE-1 methylation, PTGS2 and CTNNB1 expression, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations, and tumour neoantigen load. RESULTS: Higher levels of each lymphocytic reaction component were associated with better colorectal cancer-specific survival (Ptrend < 0.002). Compared with cases with negative/low intratumoural periglandular reaction, multivariable-adjusted HRs were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.42-0.71) in cases with intermediate reaction and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.12-0.35) in cases with high reaction. These relationships were consistent in strata of MSI status or neoantigen loads (Pinteraction > 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: The four lymphocytic reaction components are prognostic biomarkers in colorectal carcinoma.

20.
Mol Cancer Res ; 18(6): 883-890, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165453

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic reprogramming has a critical role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The usefulness of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue material for metabolomics analysis as compared with fresh frozen tissue material remains unclear. LC/MS-MS-based metabolomics analysis was performed on 11 pairs of matched tumor and normal tissues in both FFPE and fresh frozen tissue materials from patients with colorectal carcinoma. Permutation t test was applied to identify metabolites with differential abundance between tumor and normal tissues. A total of 200 metabolites were detected in the FFPE samples and 536 in the fresh frozen samples. The preservation of metabolites in FFPE samples was diverse according to classes and chemical characteristics, ranging from 78% (energy) to 0% (peptides). Compared with the normal tissues, 34 (17%) and 174 (32%) metabolites were either accumulated or depleted in the tumor tissues derived from FFPE and fresh frozen samples, respectively. Among them, 15 metabolites were common in both FFPE and fresh frozen samples. Notably, branched chain amino acids were highly accumulated in tumor tissues. Using KEGG pathway analyses, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, arginine and proline, glycerophospholipid, and glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism pathways distinguishing tumor from normal tissues were found in both FFPE and fresh frozen samples. This study demonstrates that informative data of metabolic profiles can be retrieved from FFPE tissue materials. IMPLICATIONS: Our findings suggest potential value of metabolic profiling using FFPE tumor tissues and may help to shape future translational studies through developing treatment strategies targeting metabolites.

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